Bioresearch Communications <p>Published by&nbsp;<strong>Graduate Biochemists Association (GBA) Bangladesh. </strong>Full-text articles available.</p> <p><a href="" rel="license"><img style="border-width: 0;" src="" alt="Creative Commons Licence"></a><br>Articles in Bioresearch Communications (BRC) are licensed under a <a href="" rel="license">Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License</a>.&nbsp;This license permits <strong>Share</strong> — copy and redistribute the material in any medium or format, <strong>Adapt</strong> — remix, transform, and build upon the material. You may not use the material for commercial purposes<a id="commercial_purposes_popup" class="helpLink" tabindex="0" title="" href="" data-original-title=""></a>.&nbsp;</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> en-US (Hossain Uddin Shekhar, PhD) (Md. Fahmid Uddin Khondoker) Thu, 29 Dec 2022 18:19:11 +0000 OJS 60 LISTERIA MONOCYTOGENES IN READY-TO-EAT CHICKEN PRODUCTS, THEIR ANTIBIOTIC RESISTANCE AND VIRULENCE GENES <p>Ready-to-eat (RTE) meat products are food items that are extremely popular worldwide. Albeit documented with the alarming prevalence of pathogenic multidrug-resistant <em>Listeria </em>species in these food items worldwide, studies from the perspective of Bangladesh are absent. This study was devised with the aim to detect pathogenic <em>Listeria monocytogenes </em>in some of the most popular RTE meat products in Dhaka, Bangladesh. Thirty-nine such samples were investigated using biochemical tests and the Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) analysis<em>. </em>Following confirmatory tests and detection of <em>Listeria </em>species, the isolates were subjected to the Kirby-Bauer disc diffusion test to investigate their antibiotic-susceptibility patterns against some of the most commonly used antibiotics to treat listeriosis – the infection caused by <em>Listeria. </em>Five <em>Listeria </em>species were detected using biochemical and PCR tests. This constituted an overall prevalence rate of 12.8% (n = 39). Four out of the five <em>Listeria </em>species were concluded to be <em>L. monocytogenes, </em>while the remaining one was an <em>L. innocua </em>isolate. PCR analyses revealed all four of the <em>L. monocytogenes </em>isolates to have the virulence genes <em>hlyA, plcB </em>and <em>actA, </em>although no polymorphism was observed for these genes. Despite the presence of these pathogenic genes, antibiotic susceptibility tests showed promising results as some of the most commonly prescribed drugs against listeriosis were highly effective against the isolates. Even though the isolates showed little to no antibiotic resistance against the antibiotics used in the study, the presence of three virulence genes in all four <em>L. monocytogenes </em>isolates is still a cause for concern. Even more so, the prevalence of these pathogenic strains in a food item that is increasing in popularity in a country like Bangladesh, where awareness and surveillance against listeriosis is limited, can have dire consequences should an outbreak occurs.</p> <p>Bioresearch Commu. 9(1): 1160-1169, 2023 (January)</p> Abiral Hasib Shourav, Khandokar Padmanon Salma, Sangita Ahmed, Md Anisur Rahman Khan Copyright (c) 2022 Abiral Hasib Shourav, Khandokar Padmanon Salma, Sangita Ahmed, Md Anisur Rahman Khan Thu, 29 Dec 2022 00:00:00 +0000 THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN APOB AND APOA1 WITH INSULINEMIC STATUS IN PREDIABETIC SUBJECTS <p>The present study was mainly aimed at exploring the causal association of the atherogenic (ApoB) and antiatherogenic apolipoproteins (ApoA1) and their ratio in the basic defects of pancreatic β cell dysfunction and insulin resistance in type 2 Diabetes Mellitus (T2DM). An intermediate stage towards diabetes, the prediabetic stage, was chosen to explore the association. Following a standardized selection process, 131 subjects were purposefully recruited for the study, including 18 with impaired fasting glucose (IFG), 56 with impaired glucose tolerance (IGT), and 57 with type 2 diabetes (T2DM). Fifty-nine healthy subjects served as controls. Glucose, lipid and insulin were estimated by glucose-oxidase, enzymatic colorimetric assay and enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) respectively. Serum ApoB and ApoA1 were estimated by immuno-nephelometric method. Appropriate statistical tools were used to calculate statistical differences using Statistical Package for Social studies (SPSS) for Windows V12. Absolute insulin (mIU) levels were significantly higher in the IGT and T2DM groups compared to controls (p 0.001 and p = 0.001, respectively). HOMA%B (meanSD) was significantly lower in T2DM groups (p=&lt;0.001) and higher in IGT compared to the controls although it is significantly lower in IFG compared to the controls but mean value is about 90%. HOMA%S was significantly lower in IGT and T2DM group (p=0.001 and 0.002 respectively). ApoA1 levels were significantly higher only in the T2DM group (p = 0.027), whereas ApoB levels were higher in both the IGT and T2DM groups (p = 0.026-0.001).. Neither ApoB nor ApoA1 showed any significant difference in the IFG group as compared to control. ApoB-ApoA1 ratio did not show significant difference among the groups. ApoB showed significant positive correlation with both fasting and postprandial glucose (p=0.006 and 0.040 respectively). In IGT group ApoB was positively correlated with absolute insulin (p=0.025) and HOMA%B (p=0.049) and negatively with HOMA%S (p=0.026). ApoB, but not ApoA1 or the ApoB and ApoA1 ratio, seem to have a causal association with insulin resistance, and elevation of ApoB is also modulated by obesity and atherogenic lipids.</p> <p>Bioresearch Commu. 9(1): 1170-1176, 2023 (January)</p> Reaz Mohammad Mazumdar, Mohammad Razuanul Hoque, Suman Mohajan, Imran Khan, Md Zahid Hassan, Md Omar Faruque, Liaquat Ali, Md Golam Kabir Copyright (c) 2022 Reaz Mohammad Mazumdar, Mohammad Razuanul Hoque, Suman Mohajan, Imran Khan, Md Zahid Hassan, Md Omar Faruque, Liaquat Ali, Md Golam Kabir Thu, 29 Dec 2022 00:00:00 +0000 STUDY OF COVID-19 CASE WITH MULTIPLE COMORBIDITIES: SEVERE TO SURVIVAL <p>Elderly COVID-19 patients with comorbidities suffer from severe complications and mostly didn’t survive. We report management of a 80-year-old patient with several comorbidities. Due to the fast deterioration of the condition, physicians treated her with Tocilizumab along with medications for other underlying diseases. She recovered completely after therapy with Actemra.</p> <p>Bioresearch Commu. 9(1): 1177-1179, 2023 (January)</p> Gazi Nurun Nahar Sultana, Arindita Das, Khalida Akhtaar, Chowdhury Faiz Hossain, Mohammad Anarul Islam Copyright (c) 2023 Gazi Nurun Nahar Sultana, Arindita Das, Khalida Akhtaar, Chowdhury Faiz Hossain, Mohammad Anarul Islam Thu, 29 Dec 2022 00:00:00 +0000 THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN COVID-19 SEVERITY AND THE USAGE OF ANGIOTENSIN-II RECEPTOR BLOCKERS IN HYPERTENSIVE PATIENTS <p><strong>Purpose of the study: </strong>As demonstrated by numerous epidemiological studies, the high incidence of hypertension among patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-2019) appears to be associated with an elevated risk of mortality. The angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) system is not expressed uniformly throughout the human population, and contemporary variations may account for part of the global disparities in infection prevalence. In addition, animal investigations have demonstrated that the ACE2 receptor is a potential infection route for the COVID-19-causing SARS-CoV-2 virus. As two-thirds of hypertension patients take ACE inhibitors/angiotensin receptor blockers, a number of concerns have been raised regarding the harmful or beneficial effects of contemporary antihypertensive medications in COVID-19. This study presents the most recent evidence for and against the impact of ACE blockade administration in the age of COVID-19 on the cohort of hypertension patients in Bangladesh (N = 300). <strong>Methods: </strong>We included in this study 300 patients who had a record of a COVID-19 test performed between July 2021 and September 2021 using RT-PCR. All the patients had a history of hypertension two years before the index date, based on the International Classification of Diseases codes (Tenth Revision, Clinical Modification, ICD-10-CM). All of them have been taking anti-hypertensive drugs for 1–2 years. We used logistic regression to estimate the odds ratio (OR) and the 95% confidence interval (CI) of COVID-19 severity in patients prescribed Angiotensin Receptor Blockers (ARB) versus those not prescribed ARB. We selected a cohort of 300 Bangladeshi patients who were covid posi tive and had been taking hypertensive medications for 1-5 years. <strong>Results: </strong>Among COVID-19-positive patients with hypertension, the use of ARB is associated with increased odds of hospitalization, including all patients admitted to ICU or CCU (OR = 1.008, (0.440, 2.309) and OR= 2.31, (0.024, 2.452) respectively). Participants receiving ARB have a lower odds ratio of using BiPAP, CPAP, and Ventilation (0.592, 0.010, and 0.031, respectively; p-value &lt; 0.5) compared to the non-ARB users. <strong>Research Implications: </strong>We noticed a statistically significant association between ARB administration and mechanical ventilation in our study. Since ARB use was also related to a decreased likelihood of needing additional oxygen support, such as nasal cannula, BiPAP, and CPAP, there is sufficient evidence from other clinical factors to indicate a consistent connection between ARB use and oxygen assistance among covid-positive patients. Further research is required to determine the molecular relationship between ARB use and oxygen level in Covid-positive individuals.</p> <p>Bioresearch Commu. 9(1): 1180-1195, 2023 (January)</p> Fahmida Khanam Raha, Farah Momtaz, Md Rubayet Siraj, Khondekar Mustaq Adnan, Saif Mukramoon Arosh, Depro Das, Md Zahid Amin, Mohammad Shahidul Islam, Md Nasir Uddin Ahmed, Mousumi Sanyal Copyright (c) 2023 Fahmida Khanam Raha, Farah Momtaz, Md Rubayet Siraj, Khondekar Mustaq Adnan, Saif Mukramoon Arosh, Depro Das, Md Zahid Amin, Mohammad Shahidul Islam, Md Nasir Uddin Ahmed, Mousumi Sanyal Thu, 29 Dec 2022 00:00:00 +0000 HEAVY METAL CONTENT IN BEEF COLLECTED FROM LOCAL MARKETS OF DHAKA AND ASSESSING THE HEALTH RISK <p>Around the world, beef is consumed as a healthy source of protein, fat, niacin, vitamins B6, B12, iron, zinc, and phosphorus. There is mounting evidence that beef is becoming increasingly contaminated with heavy metals, particularly lead (Pb) and chromium (Cr). The purpose of this study was to determine the amounts of the lead (Pb) and chromium (Cr) in beef. Five large markets in Dhaka city—Mirpur-1, New Market, Karwan Bazar, Kaptan Bazar, and town hall market of Mohammadpur—were chosen to gather samples of beef. In this study, the Pb and Cr content in beef was estimated by the Zeeman method using graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrophotometer (GFAAS). The microwave digester finished the digestion of beef. The Pb and Cr content in beef were estimated in mg/kg. Total lead (Pb) content in a beef sample of Mirpur -1, New Market, Karwan Bazar, Kaptan Bazar and Mohammadpur was found to be 0.563±0.084, 0.845±0.127, 0.159±0.024, 0.063±0.009 and 0.143±0.021 mg/kg respectively (Minimum detection limit is 0.06 mg/kg). On the other hand, total chromium (Cr) content in beef sample from Mirpur -1 was found below the detection limit of the method (Minimum detection limit is 0.05 mg/kg). The Cr content in beef from New market, Karwan Bazar, Kaptan bazaar and Mohammadpur was found to be 0.05±0.007, 0.052±0.008, 0.121±0.018 and 0.053±0.008 mg/kg respectively. According to Codex Alimentarium Commission (CAC), the acceptable limit of lead content in beef is 0.1 mg/kg and there is no standard for chromium set by international organization like WHO/FAO, CAC. Brazil has set 0.1 mg/kg as permissible chromium content in beef (Ihedioha et al., 2014). Except for Kaptan Bazar, the chromium content was found to be within Brazil's permissible limit. Surprisingly, only Kaptan Bazar had acceptable lead content that was within the CAC limit.</p> <p>Bioresearch Commu. 9(1): 1196-1202, 2023 (January)</p> Rubel Akanda, Shamshad B Quraishi, Sumaiya Mamun Copyright (c) 2023 Rubel Akanda, Shamshad B Quraishi, Sumaiya Mamun Thu, 29 Dec 2022 00:00:00 +0000 REPORT ON FUNGI ASSOCIATED WITH CORAL SKELETON FROM SAINT MARTIN'S ISLAND, BANGLADESH <p>A total of 9 fungal species belonging to four genera were found to be associated with coral skeleton collected from Saint Mar tin’s Island, Bangladesh. The isolated fungi were <em>Arthrinium </em>Kunze, <em>Aspergillus flavus </em>Link, <em>Fusarium nivale </em>(Fr.) Sorauer<em>, F. oxysporum </em>Schltdl.<em>, F. sambucinum </em>Fuckel, <em>F. semitectum </em>Berk. &amp; Ravenel, <em>F. stoveri </em>Booth, <em>F. trichothecioides </em>Wollenw and <em>Penicillium </em>Link<em>. </em>The genus <em>Fusarium </em>was predominant among the associated fungi. This is the first report of fungal association with solid calcium carbonate substrate like coral skeleton from Bangladesh. <em>Fusarium sambucinum </em>and <em>F. stoveri </em>are first time recorded from Bangladesh.</p> <p>Bioresearch Commu. 9(1): 1203-1207, 2023 (January)</p> Sarowar Hosen, Md Abdullah Al Noman, Shamim Shamsi Copyright (c) 2023 Sarowar Hosen, Md Abdullah Al Noman, Shamim Shamsi Thu, 29 Dec 2022 00:00:00 +0000 GENOMIC ANALYSIS TO ELUCIDATE THE ANTIBIOTIC RESISTANCE MECHANISM OF EXTREMELY DRUG-RESISTANT PSEUDOMONAS AERUGINOSA STRAINS ISOLATED FROM BANGLADESH <p>Multidrug-resistant <em>P. aeruginosa </em>has potential to cause nosocomial infections. In this study, whole-genome sequencing was performed of two extremely drug-resistant novel strains SRS1 and SRS4 isolated from Bangladesh. The size of draft genome of SRS1 is 6.8 Mbp, and 7.0 Mbp for SRS4. <em>In silico </em>analysis predicted that the genome of SRS1 has 82 and SRS4 has 75 antibiotic-resistant genes (ARGs). Antibiogram results revealed that both SRS1 and SRS4 were resistant to multiple members of the antibiotic groups of β−lactam, quinolones, and aminoglycosides families. In addition, the genomes of both SRS1 and SRS4 were predicted to have multiple mobile elements like prophages and plasmids. Comparative genome analysis with wildtype PAO1 and another drug-resistant <em>P. aeruginosa </em>strain JNQH-PA57 revealed that SRS1 and SRS4 contain more antibiotic resistance genes <em>like AAC (6´)-II, ANT (2´´)-Ia, ANT (3´´)-IIa, OXA-395, PME-1, qacEΔ1, tet(A), tet(D), VEB-9 </em>than PAO1 and JNQH-PA57. This study shows the importance of the genomic study to understand the distribution of ARGs in Bangladeshi <em>P. aeruginosa </em>strains to demonstrate the mechanisms responsible for multi drug resistance.</p> <p>Bioresearch Commu. 9(1): 1208-1214, 2023 (January)</p> Fatimah Az Zahra, Ishrat Jabeen, Mohammed Jafar Uddin, Nazmun Nahar, Sohidul Islam, Sabbir R Shuvo Copyright (c) 2023 Fatimah Az Zahra, Ishrat Jabeen, Mohammed Jafar Uddin, Nazmun Nahar, Sohidul Islam, Sabbir R Shuvo Thu, 29 Dec 2022 00:00:00 +0000 A CASE STUDY ON FISH AFFORDABILITY AS MAIN PROTEIN DIET OF LOW-INCOME PEOPLE IN DHAKA SOUTH, BANGLADESH <p>The low-income population in the study area consumes fish in a selective manner. They prefer frequently purchase fish at lower price. Study revealed that 16 fish species under 6 orders were highly consumed by the targeted group. Order Cypriniformes was the most dominant (46%) group according to their fish consumption pattern. Rui, <em>Labeo rohita </em>was the highly prioritized fish, rather than this, telapia, pungus, koi and prawn were also in their priority list due to availability and low prices in the market. Among all types of fishes, 85% were culture and 15% were capture fishes respectively. Fish consumption rate in low-income people varies significantly on the basis of their income and age group. Fish day of low-income people ranging from 4-17 days per month. Most of the respondents (89%) were aware of nutritional value of fish but considering the prices of fishes and low wages most of the time they were not able to meet their daily requirement of fish protein. Thus, this finding will provide the real scenario of fish protein intake of that targeted economic group and help policy makers, NGOs, national and international donors for better understand to cope up malnutrition for future generation.</p> <p>Bioresearch Commu. 9(1): 1215-1224, 2023 (January)</p> Papia Sultana, Md Arafat Rahman Khan, Nur Islam, Rumana Tasmin Copyright (c) 2023 Papia Sultana, Md Arafat Rahman Khan, Nur Islam, Rumana Tasmin Thu, 29 Dec 2022 00:00:00 +0000 DIVERSITY OF BIVALVES AND GASTROPODS IN SONADIA ISLAND, BANGLADESH <p>An attempt was made to explore the gastropods and bivalves diversity of Sonadia Island, an important habitat for molluscs. The study was carried out from January 2020 to December 2020. To determine the species abundance and richness, 8 transects were selected based on different habitat of bivalves and gastropods occupancy. A total of 89 species of bivalves (45) and gastropods (44) under 37 families and 15 orders have been confirmed. Veneridae (10 species) was the dominant family of bivalves where Muricidae and Turritellidae (5 species) of gastropods. About 1380 individuals of gastropods and bivalves were found in 8 transects. The highest number of species observed in transect 5 (35 species) which was about 45.45% of the total species. In case of abundance, transect 3 occupied the highest 730 individuals (54.97%). The highest species diversity was observed in transect 4 (H= 2.814 Ds= 0.9158) and the lowest was transect 2. <em>Pirenella cingulate</em>, <em>Turritella duplicate </em>and <em>Cerithium columna </em>were the most abundant species within the transect area. Among 8 transects, two large clusters and one small cluster were noticed that indicated species diversity varies at different habitats. During the study, two main threats were observed for the gastropods and bivalves diversity losses <em>viz., </em>collection of a huge number of live shells by the local people to make ornaments for the tourists of Cox’s Bazar, and destruc tion by local fishers during fishing through the coastal belt of the Island. Proper management is recommended for the conservation of bivalves and gastropod diversity.</p> <p>Bioresearch Commu. 9(1): 1225-1236, 2023 (January)</p> Durjoy Raha Antu, Tasfia Tanjim Islam, Md Rasel Ahmed, Sumaiya Ahmed, Sujan Kumar Datta, Md Sagir Ahmed Copyright (c) 2023 Durjoy Raha Antu, Tasfia Tanjim Islam, Md Rasel Ahmed, Sumaiya Ahmed, Sujan Kumar Datta, Md Sagir Ahmed Thu, 29 Dec 2022 00:00:00 +0000 IN-VIVO PHARMACOLOGICAL STUDIES OF HYPNEA MUSCIFORMIS FOUND IN THE COAST OF SAINT MARTIN ISLAND OF BANGLADESH <p><em>Hypnea musciformis</em>, a red seaweed prevalent in tropical and subtropical regions, has been linked to a multitude of therapeutic benefits. The aim of this study was to investigate the analgesic and anti-inflammatory properties of its extracts in 50% ethanol. Using the hot plate test, the acetic acid induced writhing test, and the formic acid induced test on Swiss albino mice, the analgesic potential of ethanol extracts was examined. Each test was administered at a dose of 500 mg/kg. Alternatively, an ethanol extract from carrageenan-induced paw edema was used in an anti-inflammatory experiment. Diclofenac is used as a reference standard in studies looking at the analgesic and anti-inflammatory effects of substances. In those animal models, our research demonstrates that <em>Hypnea musciformis </em>possesses potent anti-inflammatory and pain-relieving capabilities (percent inhibition found 28.22% on acetic acid method, 42.3% on Hot plate, and 48.7% on Formic acid)<em>.</em></p> <p>Bioresearch Commu. 9(1): 1237-1244, 2023 (January)</p> Maksuda Akter, Sheikh Shohag, Mohammad Nazir Hossain Copyright (c) 2023 Maksuda Akter, Sheikh Shohag, Mohammad Nazir Hossain Thu, 29 Dec 2022 00:00:00 +0000 URETHRAL STRICTURE MANAGED WITH HOMEOPATHIC MEDICINE: A STUDY OF FOUR CASES <p>Urethral stricture is the narrowing of the urethral mucosa, commonly resulting from trauma followed by inflammation and fibrous changes of the corpus spongiosum along the male urethra. Clinical manifestation contains gradual deterioration of hesitancy, intermittency, dribbling of urine, and in association with a sensation of incomplete voiding of the bladder, increased frequency, urgency, straining, and urethralgia during micturition. A low Qmax in Uroflowmetry will give a primary idea of stricture; however, a Retrograde Urethrography (RUG) confirms the stricture location, length, and other identifiable pathology affecting the urethra. In this particular disease, the scope of conventional medicinal treatment is limited, however, there transurethral (dilation, internal urethrotomy) and open surgical (stricture resection and anastomosis, urethroplasty, and perineal urethrostomy) procedures are available, and recurrence is common. Homeopathic medicine is mostly an individualized medicine with a minimum number and high dilution. The use of homeopathic medicine for urological diseases is an opportunistic option. However, a group of patients with similar set of symptoms might be treated with a specific homeopathic medicine. The author is reporting a study of four urethral stricture cases treated with homeopathic medicines, namely <em>Clematis erecta</em>, <em>Medorrhinum, </em>and <em>Aurum metallicum</em>; within 6-24 weeks of homeopathic medicine treatment, all four patients experienced improved uroflowmetry and RUG. The current study results shows homeopathic medicine helped the patients in a harmless, cost-effective way which might encourage awareness among the medical practitioners regarding the available homeopathic medicinal treatment of urethral stricture.</p> <p>Bioresearch Commu. 9(1): 1245-1251, 2023 (January)</p> Nazmul Hasan Copyright (c) 2023 Nazmul Hasan Thu, 29 Dec 2022 00:00:00 +0000 INVESTIGATION OF PHYTOCHEMICAL PROPERTIES OF THE METHANOLIC EXTRACT OF ROSENVINGEA SPP. FOUND IN THE NORTH-EASTERN REGION OF THE BAY OF BENGAL <p>This study aimed to screen the phytochemical profile, antioxidant activity, and antibacterial activity of a 70% methanolic extract of <em>Rosenvingea sp</em>., which was collected from Bay of Bengal, Bangladesh. A total of five phytochemicals were detected in the <em>Rosenvingea </em>methanolic extract, including steroids, glycosides, flavonoids, alkaloids, and tannins. The 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) scavenging experiment exhibited antioxidant activity though it is a weak antioxidant than standard ascorbic acid. The 70% methanol extract had an LC50 of 13.26 mg/mL in the Artemia lethality bioassay, whereas the positive control (K2Cr2O7) had an LC50 of 59.97 μg/mL, indicating the non-toxicity in both Mayer's and Clarkson’s indexes. The agar disc diffusion method was used to investigate the antibacterial activity of a methanol extract of <em>Rosenvingea sp</em>. against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria species (<em>Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus cereus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Salmonella, and Klebsiella pneumonia</em>) which showed strong antibacterial activity mostly against <em>Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Klebsiella pneumonia, and Salmonella </em>with zones of inhibition of 6.66±1.15mm, 5.66±0.57mm, 5.33±0.57 mm &amp; 3.33±0.57 mm respectively. This study found <em>Rosenvingea </em>sp. from the Bay of Bengal to be a promising source of phytochemical, antioxidant, and antibacterial properties. However, further research is needed to establish its economic potential in the food and pharmaceutical industries.</p> <p>Bioresearch Commu. 9(1): 1252-1262, 2023 (January)</p> Md Abdul Alim, Nazia Rifat Zaman, Mohammad Nazir Hossain Copyright (c) 2023 Md Abdul Alim, Nazia Rifat Zaman, Mohammad Nazir Hossain Thu, 29 Dec 2022 00:00:00 +0000