Bioresearch Communications 2023-06-20T13:23:36+00:00 Hossain Uddin Shekhar, PhD Open Journal Systems <p>Published by&nbsp;<strong>Graduate Biochemists Association (GBA) Bangladesh. </strong>Full-text articles available.</p> <p><a href="" rel="license"><img style="border-width: 0;" src="" alt="Creative Commons Licence"></a><br>Articles in Bioresearch Communications (BRC) are licensed under a <a href="" rel="license">Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License</a>.&nbsp;This license permits <strong>Share</strong> — copy and redistribute the material in any medium or format, <strong>Adapt</strong> — remix, transform, and build upon the material. You may not use the material for commercial purposes<a id="commercial_purposes_popup" class="helpLink" tabindex="0" title="" href="" data-original-title=""></a>.&nbsp;</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> Seasonal Variation and Diversity of Endophytic Fungi from Different Parts of Centella Asiatica (L.) Urban in Dhaka City, Bangladesh 2023-06-19T09:15:36+00:00 Fazilatun Nessa Sarowar Hosen Shamim Shamsi <p>A total of 16 species of endophytic fungi were isolated from <em>Centella asiatica </em>plant. The fungi were <em>Aspergillus flavus, A. fumigatus, A. niger, A. terreus, Cladosporium </em>sp., <em>Colletotrichum </em>sp<em>., Curvularia hominis, C. lunata, Curvularia </em>sp<em>., Fusarium falsiforme, F. phaseoli, Monodictys putridinis, Penicillium commune, Penicillium </em>sp.1, <em>Penicillium </em>sp.2, <em>Talaromyces trachyspermus. </em>Among them all the fungal species were found in summer season and 12 species in winter season. The highest value of Shannon and Simpson diversity index was found in the root in summer season and the lowest value of Shannon and Simpson diversity index was found in the stem in winter season. Maximum species richness of endophytic fungi was recorded in leaf in Margalef‘s and Menhinick index in winter season. Minimum species richness of endophytic fungi was recorded in stem in Margalef‘s and Menhinick index during summer season.</p> <p>Bioresearch Commu. 9(2): 1263-1269, 2023 (July)</p> 2023-06-20T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 Fazilatun Nessa, Sarowar Hosen, Shamim Shamsi Evaluation of Protein Creatinine Ratio as A Marker for Proteinuria among Children Recovered From Hypernatremia: A Longitudinal Observational Study 2023-06-19T09:15:37+00:00 Sayeeda Huq Shafiqul Alam Sarker Khursheed Jahan Nazma Shaheen <p><strong>Background</strong>: Proteinuria is one of the many markers of kidney damage. An increased protein creatinine ratio (Pr/Cr ratio) is known to have both diagnostic and prognostic value in detecting renal damage. The previous observational study revealed that children with hypernatremia are at risk of developing acute kidney injury (AKI), which positively correlates with recovery from hypernatremia. Detection of high Pr/Cr ratio in the spot urine samples is a predictor for proteinuria. However, there is lack of evidence for whether or not renal damage persists in children who recovered from hypernatremia. Therefore, we aimed to evaluate the long-term renal function of the children who had recovered from hypernatremia.</p> <p><strong>Methodology: </strong>The study was an observational longitudinal study conducted in Dhaka Hospital of icddr,b from March 2016 to March 2017. The objective of this study was to evaluate the renal function of children 12 months after recovering from hypernatremia. All these children in this cohort study were brought to Dhaka Hospital of icddr,b for a spot urine analysis to evaluate their kidney function.</p> <p><strong>Results: </strong>Among the 224 children who recovered from hypernatremia 143 (64%) children’s mothers gave consent to participate in follow-up study. Half of the study children demonstrated to have a raised urinary Pr/Cr ratio. However, majority of them did not have any evidence associated with urinary problems. Proteinuria was comparable in different types of hypernatremic children. After adjusting for potential co-variates like age, sex, any form of malnutrition, severity of hypernatremia and co-morbidity, 86% of children from better socioeconomic family are less likely to have high urinary Pr/Cr ratio in comparison with those from poorest households. Regression analysis also revealed that children who were less than 36 months of age are 2 times more likely to have raised urinary Pr/Cr ratio than those more than 36 months old (Odds Ratio 2.31(1.06, 5.02); p 0.035).</p> <p><strong>Conclusion: </strong>Children from low socioeconomic households and below 36 months of age are more likely to have proteinuria after recovering from hypernatremia. However further study is required to correlate the high Pr/Cr ratio with other parameters to rule out the long-term effect of hypernatremia on renal function.</p> <p>Bioresearch Commu. 9(2): 1270-1275, 2023 (July)</p> 2023-06-20T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 Sayeeda Huq, Shafiqul Alam Sarker, Khursheed Jahan, Nazma Shaheen Phenotypic-genotypic Features of MDR Pseudomonas Aeruginosa and Acinetobacter Baumannii From Dhaka, Bangladesh 2023-06-19T09:15:39+00:00 Nazrul Islam Dilruba Ahmed Nazmul Ahsan Chowdhury R Ahsan Mahmuda Yasmin <p><em>Pseudomonas aeruginosa </em>and <em>Acinetobacter baumannii </em>are one of the most common causes of MBL mediated morbidity and mortality throughout the world. Day-by-day these isolates are showing increasing resistance trends to different antimicrobial agents. But there are few data in Bangladesh, the study was designed to observe the pattern of antimicrobial resistance, prevalence of MBL, AmpC and finally phylogenetic distributions. A total of 200 isolates were analyzed in this study, comprising of 100 MDR-carbapenem resistant <em>P. aeruginosa </em>and 100 MDR-carbapenem resistant <em>A. baumonnii</em>. Isolates were tested for antimicrobial susceptibility, AmpC test, phenotypic and genotypic detection of MBL production. Antimicrobial susceptibility tests demonstrated that out of the 100 <em>P. aeruginosa </em>isolates, 99% were resistant to ceftriaxone and cefixime followed by ciprofloxacin/amikacin/netilmicin (94%), imipenem (93%) and meropenem (91%). On the other hand, 100% of the studied <em>A. baumannii </em>isolates were resistant to ceftriaxone, co-trimoxazole, cefixime and meropenem followed by imipenem (99%), ciprofloxacin (97%), amikacin (95%) and ceftazidime (94%). <em>P. aeruginosa </em>and <em>A. baumannii </em>showed 48% and 32% carbapenemase, 34% and 25% AmpC and 92% and 35% MBL positive, respectively. Phylogenetic analysis of <em>bla</em>VIM gene of 16 <em>P. aeruginosa </em>showed similarities with the sequences from the global origin. Phylogenetic analysis of the <em>bla</em>NDM-1 gene sequences from 5 <em>A. baumannii </em>isolates (5%) revealed that 4 sequences from strains formed distinct lineages with that of the stains from India, while only one was found to be closely related to the sequences from global sources. This study found a high percentage of MBL production in MDR-carbapenem resistant <em>P. aeruginosa </em>(92%) and <em>A. baumannii </em>(35%) isolates. These findings indicate significant concern given the predominant socio-economic factors that promote the rapid spread of antimicrobial resistance and infectious diseases in developing countries such as Bangladesh.</p> <p>Bioresearch Commu. 9(2): 1276-1284, 2023 (July)</p> 2023-06-20T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 Nazrul Islam, Dilruba Ahmed, Nazmul Ahsan, Chowdhury R Ahsan, Mahmuda Yasmin Clinical Observation of Hfnc Use Along With Non-rebreather Mask on Critical Covid-19 Diabetic Patients 2023-06-19T09:15:40+00:00 AFM Tareq Bhuiyan Sudipta Deb Nath Shuva Das Moumita Das Moinul Ahsan Md Iftekher E Alam Ziad Fahmida Khatun Padma Rana Dey AKM Shamsul Alam Farial Hoque Zehan Ayan Saha <p><strong>Purpose: </strong>This study aimed to observe and compare the efficacy of High-flow Nasal Cannula (HFNC) with/without a non-rebreather mask (NRM) on ICU-admitted COVID-19 diabetic patients.</p> <p><strong>Methodology: </strong>We collected epidemiological, biochemical, and clinical information from patients (diabetic = 136; non-diabetic = 104) admitted into four hospitals in Chattogram, Bangladesh. SPSS v25 was used to analyze the data with the Chi-Square, Fisher’s Exact, and Independent Samples T-test. We also built regression models to find out the impact of the variables.</p> <p><strong>Results: </strong>Most of the patients with fever (59.1%) and hypertension (68.3%) had diabetes. We also noticed diabetic patients stayed in ICU longer (9.06±5.70) than non-diabetic patients (7.41±5.11). Moreover, elevated creatinine level was found in most diabetic cases (70.4%). After only HFNC administration, the partial pressure of oxygen significantly improved in non-diabetic patients. However, both diabetic and non-diabetic patients were observed to have an almost equal partial pressure of oxygen after HFNC with NRM management. Patients with elevated blood sugar additionally needed NRM more than fivefold compared to those with normal blood sugar levels. Besides, age and hypertension were significantly associated with HFNC+NRM-treated diabetic patients.</p> <p><strong>Future Implications: </strong>The results of this study imply that oxygen supply with HFNC and NRM may be beneficial for elderly/hypertensive diabetic patients with COVID-19-associated AHRF; and that increased blood glucose level could be a determinant for the need for HFNC + NRM treatment.</p> <p>Bioresearch Commu. 9(2): 1285-1296, 2023 (July)</p> 2023-06-20T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 AFM Tareq Bhuiyan, Sudipta Deb Nath, Shuva Das, Moumita Das, Moinul Ahsan, Md Iftekher E Alam Ziad, Fahmida Khatun Padma, Rana Dey, AKM Shamsul Alam, Farial Hoque Zehan, Ayan Saha Parasite Diversity and Histopathological Changes Due to Infection on Three Croakers (Pennahia Anea, Panna Microdon and Johnius Argentatus) of Saint Martin’s Island, Bay of Bengal 2023-06-19T09:15:42+00:00 Subrina Sehrina Nasima Kabir Anirban Sarkera Mehrab Chowdhury Mohammad Abdul Baki Md Sagir Ahmed <p>This study investigated the parasites of three species of croakers (<em>Pennahia anea</em>, <em>Panna microdon</em>, and <em>Johnius argentatus</em>) and their effect on host’s tissues. Fish samples were collected directly from the local fishermen and the fish landing station of Saint Martin’s Island, Bay of Bengal on a regular monthly basis. A total of 448 individuals of parasites were collected of which nine species of parasites were identified including three crustaceans, four nematodes, one pentastomida, and one acanthocephala. The nematode <em>Procamallanus longus </em>had the highest prevalence (50%) and intensity (10.33) compared with the other parasites. The prevalence and intensity of parasites were slightly higher in female fish (55%, 35) than in male fish (50%, 20). The stomach and liver were the most favorable infection sites (53.33%). Furthermore, parasites with the largest length and weight showed the highest prevalence and intensity (66.66% and 38.4 as well as 80% and 72.5, respectively). In histopathological investigations, the most important alterations in various tissues of fish were hemorrhage, necrosis, fatty droplets, edema, vacuolar degenerations, missing villi, haemosiderotic nodules, ovarian follicle disruption, and parasitic cell distribution.</p> <p>Bioresearch Commu. 9(2): 1297-1304, 2023 (July)</p> 2023-06-20T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 Subrina Sehrina, Nasima Kabir, Anirban Sarkera, Mehrab Chowdhury, Mohammad Abdul Baki, Md Sagir Ahmed DNA Barcoding and Phylogenetic Analysis of Some Gastropod Molluscs (Class-gastropoda) from Three Ecological Habitats of Bangladesh 2023-06-19T09:15:44+00:00 Mysha Mahjabin Zerin Tasnim Sujan Kumar Datta Wahida Haque Md Sagir Ahmed <p>An attempt has been made for molecular characterization of gastropods from three different ecological habitats (marine, freshwater and terrestrial) in Bangladesh. A total of eight species of gastropod (<em>Lissachatina fulica</em>, <em>Pila globosa, Pila virens, Brotia costula, Nerita articulata, Nerita balteata, Macrochlamys indica </em>and <em>Telescopium telescopium</em>) were identified belongs to seven genera and six families. These species were confirmed through morphological studies and by adopting DNA barcoding using mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI) and 16S ribosomal RNA (16S rRNA) gene. The average GC content 39.53% and 33.40% were found for COI and 16S rRNA, respectively. Genetic divergence increased as predicted with higher taxonomic rank, ranging from 0% to 2.84% with an average 1.45% within species and 3.57% to 35.23% between species with a DNA barcoding gap of 0.73 for 16S. This study revealed that gastropod species can be discriminated using both COI and 16S rRNA gene. Phylogenetic relationships among identified species were established where individuals belonging to the same species were grouped under the same clade. Molecular characterization of remaining molluscan species of Bangladesh remains to be completed.</p> <p>Bioresearch Commu. 9(2): 1305-1309, 2023 (July)</p> 2023-06-20T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 Mysha Mahjabin, Zerin Tasnim, Sujan Kumar Datta, Wahida Haque, Md Sagir Ahmed Secondary Metabolites from Terminalia Catappa and Evaluation of its Bioactivities 2023-06-19T09:15:46+00:00 Sheikh Adnan Sakib Tania Rahman Zimam Mahmud Md Enamul Haque <p>Bangladesh is a land of medicinal plants. <em>Terminalia catappa </em>is an important medicinal plant of Bangladesh which is used for various pharmacological and biological activities like hepatoprotective, antioxidant, anti-fertility, antidiabetic, anticoagulant and antimicrobial. The coarsely powder dried stem bark sample of <em>T. catappa </em>was extracted by the solvent CHCl3. The concentrated extract was then fractionated by flash column chromatography using petroleum ether, ethyl acetate and methanol as solvents respectively. The column fraction was further fractionated with void liquid chromatography. Repeated preparative thin layer chromatography of selective fractions resulted in the isolation of two compounds which were identified as a triterpenoid, taraxerol (<strong>1</strong>) and a steroid, Stigmastane-3, 6-diol (<strong>2</strong>). The structure of these compounds were elucidated by 1H NMR spectroscopy and by comparison with reported values. This is the first report of the isolation of these compounds from this plant. The different extracts also showed significant antibacterial activity against gram positive and gram negative bacteria. The methanol extract did not show significant activity. The antifungal activity of different extract of <em>T. catappa </em>demonstrated promising zone of inhibition except <em>Saccharomyces cerevecae</em>. In the brine shrimp lethality bioassay, the extract of <em>T. catappa </em>exhibited a significant cytotoxic activity. The LC50 value of CHCl3 soluble extract was found to be 1.55 μg/ml. <em>T. catappa </em>was also reported to have free radical scavenging activity with IC50 value of 255.0 μg/ml. Since this plant demonstrated a number of promising pharmacological biological activities, so it can be a good source of natural medicine.</p> <p>Bioresearch Commu. 9(2): 1310-1319, 2023 (July)</p> 2023-06-20T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 Sheikh Adnan Sakib, Tania Rahman, Zimam Mahmud, Md Enamul Haque Isolation and Characterization of Chemical Compounds from the Stem Bark Fractions of Citrus Grandis and Evaluation of Their Antimicrobial, Cytotoxic, and Antioxidant Activities 2023-06-19T09:56:57+00:00 Sheikh Adnan Sakib Zimam Mahmud Md Rejaul Karim Tania Rahman Md Enamul Haque <p><em>Citrus grandis </em>belongs to the Rutaceae family and is a naturally occurring citrus plant. The fractionated crude extracts of <em>C. grandis </em>have been studied for the investigation of its phytochemicals and allowed for the evaluation of biological activities, especially antimicrobial, cytotoxic, and antioxidant activities. At first, we assessed the antibacterial and antifungal properties using the disc diffusion method and conducted cytotoxicity screening using the brine shrimp lethality bioassay. Among the raw extracts, we isolated two compounds named CG-F3-B1 and CG-F3-B2 through column chromatographic separation of the chloroform extract. By comparing their proton NMR spectra with published spectra, we identified the chemical structures of these compounds as Zeylenol and Limonin, respectively. Regarding antibacterial testing, we observed that the methanol soluble fractions and petroleum ether fractions exhibited mild to moderate activity against bacteria. Additionally, the ethyl acetate soluble fraction showed moderate antibacterial activity. In addition, the crude extract displayed moderate antifungal activity against specific fungi. Furthermore, the cytotoxic assay revealed a relevant cytotoxic effect of a crude extract with an LC50 value of 37 μg/ml. The antioxidant activity was determined using the DPPH assay, and the methanol soluble extract exhibited modest antioxidant activity with an IC50 value of 89 μg/ml. Our findings demonstrated that the stem bark fractions and isolated compounds from <em>C. grandis </em>exhibited various promising biological activities, including antibacterial, antifungal, cytotoxic, and antioxidant properties.</p> <p>Bioresearch Commu. 9(2): 1320-1329, 2023 (July)</p> 2023-06-20T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 Sheikh Adnan Sakib, Zimam Mahmud, Md Rejaul Karim, Tania Rahman, Md Enamul Haque Screening of Anti-inflammatory and Analgesic Activities of Caulerpa Racemosa from the Bay of Bengal, Bangladesh 2023-06-19T09:56:59+00:00 Khadiza Rezwana Chowdhury Md Abdul Alim Nazia Rifat Zaman Abu Nayem Ethneen Mustafa Audri Pujan Mondal Mohammad Nazir Hossain <p><em>Caulerpa spp; </em>is a remarkably potential seaweed due to its pharmacological importance, high nutritional compositions, biological activities , and human health benefit. It is a species of ulvophyte green algae inhabiting mostly in the intertidal and shallow sub-tidal coastal regions in the Asia- Pacific and commonly consumed in South-East Asia for its high contents of vitamins and minerals. Besides its culinary uses, it is well-reported for its antibacterial, antifungal, diabetes, blood pressure, and lipid-lowering properties. However, to date, no extensive assessment of the diversity, distribution, and biological activity assay of these seaweeds found on the Bangladesh coast has been carried out. This study aimed at anti-inflammatory and analgesic studies of 50% ethanolic extract of <em>Caulerpa racemosa. </em>collected from St. Martin's Island, Bangladesh. Consequently, secondary metabolites such as steroids, flavonoids, glycoside, and saponin were also detected in the phytochemical assay. In the present study, 25 &amp; 50mg/kg body weight of ethanolic extract of <em>C. racemosa </em>was used in hot plate, acetic acid, formic acid, and carrageenan-induced paw edema in Swiss albino mice showing <em>C. racemosa </em>extract has significant analgesic and anti-inflammatory properties.</p> <p>Bioresearch Commu. 9(2): 1330-1339, 2023 (July)</p> 2023-06-20T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 Khadiza Rezwana Chowdhury, Md Abdul Alim, Nazia Rifat Zaman, Abu Nayem, Ethneen Mustafa Audri, Pujan Mondal, Mohammad Nazir Hossain Exploring the Probiotic Proficiency of Dairyderived Lactic Acid Bacteria and Their Antimicrobial Efficacy Against Multi-drug Resistant Diarrheal and Uro-Pathogens 2023-06-19T09:57:00+00:00 Fatema Jannat Abonee Israt Dilruba Mishu Sarmin Akter Sabita Rezwana Rahman Md Abdul Malek <p>Multidrug resistance (MDR) poses a global health threat, necessitating the exploration of alternative solutions. Probiotics, especially lactic acid bacteria (LAB), offer promising options against the impending crisis due to their recognized safety and potential health benefits. Probiotic potential characterization and selection of candidate LAB strains are highly crucial in probiotic product formulation. This study aimed to identify LAB from dairy product yogurt and evaluate their potential probiotic properties, i.e. aggregation capacity; tolerance to gastric and intestinal conditions; as well as antimicrobial potency. Ten LAB isolates were characterized based on colony characteristics, cellular morphology, and biochemical tests. The LAB isolates, both single and in mixed consortia, displayed a time-dependent increase in auto-aggregation, ranging from 21% to 71% after 5 hours of incubation. Isolate SW2 exhibited the highest auto-aggregative capability (65%). Co-aggregation studies revealed varying degrees of co-aggregation between probiotic LAB and pathogens, with some isolates showing stronger interactions (YD3, SW1, and SW2). Mixed consortia from sample TT demonstrated the highest co-aggregative ability with all tested pathogens. These findings highlight the potential of these isolates to form protective clusters, aiding in their survival and colonization within the gastrointestinal (GI) tract, besides the competitive exclusion of pathogens. The isolates demonstrated good tolerance to simulated gastric and intestinal conditions, as indicated by their non-significant reduction (only 1-2 log) in the bacterial count after 180 minutes of treatment. These findings indicate that LAB isolates can withstand harsh GI conditions, highlighting their suitability as probiotics. Antimicrobial profiles of the LAB isolates were evaluated using radial streak method and turbidimetric microtiter plate assay against eight MDR diarrheal and Uro-pathogens (n=4 for each). LAB isolates SKY1, SW1, SW3 and TT1 exhibited the highest antimicrobial activities; while pathogens DP2, UP41 and UP42 showed the most sensitivity. Exhibited antimicrobial activity of the LAB isolates points to their potential as formidable weapons against MDR infections. Overall, the results indicate that dairy-derived LAB isolates used in this study exhibit potential probiotic traits. Further research is warranted for their mechanisms, safety, efficacy, and use in probiotic supplement development.</p> <p>Bioresearch Commu. 9(2): 1340-1350, 2023 (July)</p> 2023-06-20T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 Fatema Jannat Abonee, Israt Dilruba Mishu, Sarmin Akter, Sabita Rezwana Rahman, Md Abdul Malek Improvement of Alpha-amylase Activity from Bacillus Licheniformis using UV Radiation and Modified Media Composition 2023-06-19T09:57:01+00:00 M Mahfuza Khatun Farahdiba Zarin Kazi Zarin Tasnim Fahria Sarmin <p>Alpha-amylases are glycosidic bond hydrolyzing enzymes produced in many microorganisms. In the modern era, the spectrum of amylase applications has expanded into various industries, including medical fields. Among other approaches, strain improvement by mutation and culture optimization are attractive methods for increasing the productivity of alpha-amylase in bacterial strains. The present study aimed at enhancing the yield of the enzyme alpha-amylase from the host strain <em>Bacillus licheniformis</em>. The UV irradiation has been used to induce mutations in the bacterial strain with different time durations. Afterwards, the mutant strains were cultured in different modified growth media for enzyme production. Among the four time periods,the highest enzyme activity (705.23 U/ml) was observed after 24 hours which is more than two-fold higher compared to the enzyme activity of the host stain (345.31 U/ml). In addition, enzyme yield varied significantly in modified culture media (i.e, MP1 and MP2, MP3 and MP4) with different carbon and nitrogen compositions. The mutant strain cultured in MP3 medium had the highest amylase activity which was 1461.2 U/ml at 24 hours. More interestingly, this medium also had the highest enzyme activity (1080.5 U/ml) at 48 hours. The trend of enzyme activity showed a decreasing tendency when the strains cultured in MP1, MP2, and MP3 media, but exceptionally, a sharp decreasing trend was seen in MP4 media from 622.1 U/ml at 24 hours to 428.4 U/ml at 48 hours. From the findings, it can be concluded that <em>B. licheniformis </em>is a good candidate to employ for alpha-amylase production in a modified MP3 culture condition for a short time. However, other limiting factors need to be considered for increasing the yield.</p> <p>Bioresearch Commu. 9(2): 1351-1356, 2023 (July)</p> 2023-06-20T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 M Mahfuza Khatun, Farahdiba Zarin, Kazi Zarin Tasnim, Fahria Sarmin Ultra-diluted Atropine Belladonna Managed Lipoma: A Study of Two Cases 2023-06-19T09:57:03+00:00 Nazmul Hasan <p>A lipoma is a benign tumor of fatty tissues. It is usually harmless; however, may sometimes need laboratory examinations to confirm diagnosis. Conventional medicines are mostly ineffective in diminishing fat spar, therefore surgical removal is preferred. This article is to report case studies of two individuals of a fairly large lipoma, which were treated with ultra-diluted atropine belladonna. In both cases the lipoma wall punctured within few days, drained all the debris and healed lesion surface observed within four weeks. This alternative treatment evidenced that ultra-diluted atropine belladonna may have significant role in lipoma management. More extensive research is needed to understand the mode of action of ultra-diluted atropine belladonna in managing lipomas.</p> <p>Bioresearch Commu. 9(2): 1357-1360, 2023 (July)</p> 2023-06-20T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 Nazmul Hasan