Bangladesh Pharmaceutical Journal 2021-02-01T09:38:11+00:00 Prof. Dr. Md. Anwar Ul Islam Open Journal Systems A publication of Bangladesh Pharmaceutical Society. Bioactivities of Colocasia affinis Schott and Profiling of its Bioactive Polyphenols by HPLC-DAD 2021-02-01T09:14:11+00:00 Shrabanti Dev Rabindra Nath Acharyya Manik Chandra Shill Md Abdullah Al Bari Kaniz Asma Imran Mahmud Hemayet Hossain Nripendra Nath Biswas Masum Shahriar Asish Kumar Das <p>Traditional medicines including Ayurveda, Unani have been used as therapeutics in the Indian subcontinent since 5000 BC. Because of the abundance of secondary metabolites, medicinal plants are becoming priceless natural resources for better drug development. Till date almost no ethnopharmacological evidences were available on <em>Colocasia </em>genus except <em>Colocasia esculenta. </em>As a part of our continuing assessment of evidence based use of traditional medicine, we have identified bioactive polyphenols in the ethanolic leaves extract of <em>Colocasia affinis </em>Schott using HPLC-DAD method and evaluated its anti-allergy, anti-inflammatory and anti-diabetic potentials for the first time. Chromatographic investigation showed the presence of p-coumaric acid, trans-ferulic acid, rosmarinic acid, myricetin and kaempferol in the leaves extract. Pharmacological profile exploration demonstrated its anti-inflammatory activity at a dose of 250- and 500-mg/kg in xylene-induced ear edema in mice. The extract significantly reduced the allergy like symptoms such as sneezing, scratching, rhinorrhea, redness and swelling in Tolune diisocyanate (TDI) sensitized allergy model mice at 250- and 500-mg/kg doses. Besides, the extract also exhibited reduction in the level of neutrophils, lymphocytes and eosinophils in a dose dependent manner in the experimental animal. The extract also confirmed reduction of blood glucose levels in the experimental mice at a dose of 250- and 500-mg/kg. Therefore, it is evident that <em>C. affinis </em>demonstrated possesses medicinal values through its anti-inflammatory, anti-allergic and anti-hyperglycaemic potentials.</p> <p>Bangladesh Pharmaceutical Journal <strong>24</strong>(1): 1-10, 2021</p> 2021-01-25T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Comparative Cytotoxicity of Selected Mikania species using Brine Shrimp Lethality Bioassay and Sulforhodamine B (SRB) Assay 2021-02-01T09:14:12+00:00 Rafeza Khatun Iffat Hasnin Anamul Haque Md Aziz Abdur Rahman <p>This study aims to assess the comparative cytotoxic activity of the ethanolic extract of <em>Mikania cordata </em>(MC), <em>Mikania micrantha </em>(MM) and <em>Mikania scandens </em>(MS) (Family: Asteraceae) using brine shrimp lethality bioassay and colorimetric sulforhodamine B assay method. In SRB assay, A549 human lung carcinoma, SK-Mel-2 skin melanoma and B16F1 mouse melanoma cell lines were used. In brine shrimp assay, the LC50 for MC, MM, MS and vincristine were found to be 29.04, 15.84, 32.35, and 1.2 μg/ml, respectively. The results indicate that all the <em>Mikania </em>species showed moderate lethality against nauplii. In SRB assay, 50% cell growth inhibition concentration (IC50) of MC, MM, MS and cisplatin against B16-F1 were 33, 15, 39 and 6.8 μg/ml, respectively. Similar data were observed for other cell lines indicating moderate cytotoxicity of the extracts. Among the species, <em>M</em>. <em>micrantha </em>showed relatively potent cytotoxic effect followed by <em>M. cordata </em>and <em>M</em>. <em>scandens. </em>Similar data were observed for brine shrimp lethality bioassay and the results suggest that <em>M</em>. <em>micrantha </em>possesses highest cytotoxic potentials among all the species.</p> <p>Bangladesh Pharmaceutical Journal <strong>24</strong>(1): 11-16, 2021</p> 2021-01-25T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Formulation and Antioxidant Activity Evaluation of Spondias mombin - Abelmoschus esculentus Mucilage Emulsion 2021-02-01T09:14:14+00:00 Joseph O Oiseoghaede Aminat A Oyawaluja Olukemi A Odukoya Margaret O Ilomuanya Oriyomi I Yinusa Omotayo K Raji <p>Plant gums and mucilage have wide applications in pharmaceutical formulations as emulsifying agents. But these are quite costly, therefore there is always the need for cheaper alternatives. In this study, Okra mucilage from <em>Abelmoschus esculentus </em>(L.) Moench pods was used to formulate <em>Spondias mombin </em>L. leaf extract emulsion. The emulsion was assessed for the effect of the mucilage on antioxidant activity of the extract using four standard <em>in vitro </em>assays. Phytochemical screenings of the mucilage as well as physico-chemical and microscopic characterization of the emulsion were also carried out. The mucilage contained carbohydrates, reducing sugars, terpenoids and unsaturated lactones. The pH of the resulting emulsion was 6.88. The size of the oil globules were small with the average size of 4. 8μm. The extract had superior 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging, hydrogen peroxide radical scavenging and ferric ion reducing capacity compared to the emulsion (p ≤ 0.05). In addition, the emulsion had a better metal chelating activity compared to the extract (p ≤ 0.05). Okra mucilage may have reduced the antioxidant activity of the extract suggesting its incongruity in this emulsion formulation.</p> <p>Bangladesh Pharmaceutical Journal <strong>24</strong>(1): 17-25, 2021</p> 2021-01-25T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## A Comparative Study of Memory, Attention, Cognition and Oestradiol in Pre and Postmenopausal Women in Bangladesh 2021-02-01T09:14:15+00:00 Kaniz Rabeya Mamtaz Mahal Neela Ragib Ahsan Bishyajit Kumar Biswas Md Monir Hossain <p>Memory, attention, and cognitive dysfunction are psychopathological conditions which most commonly occur after menopause. Different clinical studies revealed a shred of substantial evidence that oxidative stress and estrogen are interlinked in various cognitive dysfunction, including memory impairment, age-related dementia, and Alzheimer's disease. There is a higher chance of developing cardiovascular disease after menopause. Sharp declines in concentrations of circulating estradiol and estrone are associated with menopause. Estrogen replacement therapy (ERT) enhances the blood circulation to the hippocampus and cortex, providing the optimum environment for the growth and survival of cholinergic neurons. Hence, it improves hippocampal neuron density and ultimately contributes to synaptic plasticity in the hippocampus enhances short and long-term memory. In this study, we assessed memory, attention, and cognition function between pre- and post-menopausal groups. After preliminary screening and applying exclusion criteria, fifteen premenopausal women and fifteen postmenopausal women were finally selected. Different neuropsychological tests such as logical memory test, digit span test, letter cancellation test, trail making test and Stroop test were performed to evaluate the memory, attention, and cognition status. Blood estradiol level was also assessed by using commercial kits. Significant difference (p&lt;0.05) was found in LM-II in logical memory test, digit span test (backward), letter cancelation test, TMT-B in trail making test, the score of part C in stroop test between premenopausal and postmenopausal women. Serum oestradiol concentration (pg/ml) was significantly lower (p&lt;0.001) in postmenopausal women (44.18±10.52) than premenopausal women (175.48 ± 43.20). The current study demonstrates the memory decline and cognitive dysfunction in postmenopausal women and there is a significant difference in estradiol level between pre and postmenopausal women. Estrogen has many neurotrophic actions in the brain and helps to improve memory and cognition. Therefore, estrogen replacement therapy, dietary supplements or a drug having an agonistic effect on estrogen receptors might improve the status of memory, attention, and cognitive function in postmenopausal women.</p> <p>Bangladesh Pharmaceutical Journal <strong>24</strong>(1): 26-32, 2021</p> 2021-01-25T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Phytochemical Investigation of Schleichera oleosa (Lour.) Oken Leaf 2021-02-01T09:14:17+00:00 Noushin Anjum Md Jamal Hossain Mohammad Rashedul Haque Akhtaruzzaman Chowdhury Mohammad A Rashid Md Ruhul Kuddus <p><em>Schleichera oleosa </em>(Lour.) Oken. is a medicinal plant of Bangladesh with enormous traditional applications in folk medicine. The current study was designed to isolate the secondary metabolites by successive chromatographic separation of <em>n</em>-hexane and dichloromethane soluble fractions of a methanol extract of leaves of <em>S. oleosa</em>. A total of four compounds were separated and identified as 5,7-dihydroxy-4'-methoxyflavone, stigmasterol, lupeol and betulinic acid. The structures of the isolated compounds were elucidated by analysis of their 1H NMR data and comparison with published values.</p> <p>Bangladesh Pharmaceutical Journal <strong>24</strong>(1): 33-36, 2021</p> 2021-01-25T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Assessment of Quality of Azithromycin, a Macrolide Antibiotic by NMR Spectroscopy 2021-02-01T09:14:19+00:00 - Mohammad Shoeb Md Farhanul Alam Md Mazharul Islam Nargis Parvin Md Nazrul Islam Md Iqbal Rouf Mamun <p>A total of forty-five pharmaceutical tablets containing 500 mg azithromycin from 9 (nine) different companies were collected from local pharmacies and evaluated the quality of the antibiotics with standard azithromycin by physical, chromatographic (HPLC), Fourier Transform Infrared (FT-IR), and <sup>1</sup>H &amp; <sup>13</sup>C Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) spectroscopic studies. Weight variation of all tested tablets were within 0.1-1.8% which is in the allowed variation of 5%. Two prominent absorption bands were observed at 1723 and 1187 cm<sup>−1</sup> in the FT-IR spectrum of all samples and standard for the presence of &gt;C=O and -C-O groups, respectively due to the macrocyclic lactone ring. HPLC coupled with PDA detector (at 210 and 215 nm) gave reproducible results at retention time of 10.5 min for standard and samples. The <sup>1</sup>H and <sup>13</sup>C NMR spectral data of the standard azithromycin and test samples were found to be identical which led to the conclusion that <sup>1</sup>H- and <sup>13</sup>C-NMR experiments are feasible tools for qualitative determination of azithromycin in tablets. All the described methods determined the quality of analyzed tablets well.</p> <p>Bangladesh Pharmaceutical Journal <strong>24</strong>(1): 37-44, 2021</p> 2021-01-25T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Evaluation of Red and Green Colored Bell peppers for the Production of Polyclonal IgM and IgG Antibodies in Murine Spleen Cells 2021-02-01T09:14:20+00:00 Md Moklesur Rahman Sarker <p>Immunostimulants are greatly required for the upregulation of immunity to fight against viral and bacterial infections and cancers. Bell peppers (<em>Capsicum annuum </em>L.), eaten as vegetables, are rich sources of vitamin C and E, provitamin A, β-carotene, and numerous phenolic compounds. Antimicrobial, antioxidant, anti-mutagenic and anti-inflammatory properties of Bell peppers were reported. Our research group for the first time reported the immunomodulatory activities of Bell peppers. In this study, we evaluated the antibody production abilities of two different colored Bell peppers (red and green) in the culture of antibody producing splenic B cells of mice. Antibodies and the number of viable cells were determined by an ELISA and MTT assays, respectively. Red Bell pepper Extract (RBPE) at the doses of (0.375, 0.75, 1.5, and 2.25 mg/mL) significantly augmented the production of polyclonal IgM and IgG antibodies <em>in-vitro</em>. The highest amount of IgM antibody production was observed by the dose of 1.5 mg/kg which was 3 times higher than that of the untreated cells. Similarly, RBPE also enhanced the production of IgG antibody in the culture of murine splenic B cells. On the contrary, cultural treatment of murine splenic B cells with Green Bell pepper Extract (GBPE) could not stimulate the B cells, and hence, failed to produce neither IgM nor IgG antibody. Thus the current findings suggest that consumption of Red Bell Pepper extract or its vegetables, not green pepper, may be beneficial to strengthen humoral immune responses.</p> <p>Bangladesh Pharmaceutical Journal <strong>24</strong>(1): 45-53, 2021</p> 2021-01-25T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Nutritional Analysis and Mineral Content Determination of Emilia sonchifolia DC 2021-02-01T09:14:22+00:00 Md Masud Morshed Md Sohel Rana Talha Bin Emran Md Didaruzzaman Sohel Mohammad Hassan Kawsar <p>Now-a-days consumption of plant-based foods, including green leafy vegetables are being considered as part of a healthy diet and importance is given on this by almost all health regulatory bodies of the developed countries. The plant, <em>Emilia sonchifolia </em>belongs of the family, Asteraceae. Nutritional composition of the plant and presence of some essential major elements were analyzed by using standard methods. Freshly collected healthy plants were subjected to assessment for different parameters and nutritional content such as moisture, fat, ash, protein, crude fiber, carbohydrate and energy value as well as probable mineral contents. After nutritional assessment it was revealed that, the contents of total moisture, fat, ash, protein, fiber and carbohydrate were 83.18%, 0.938%, 2.84%, 3.11%, 2.84% and 7.042%, respectively. The total energy content of the plant was 52.624 kcal. The results of the nutritional assessment of <em>E. sonchifolia </em>were near to the popular edible spinach of <em>Amaranthus </em>which contained moisture 81.8 - 83.9%, fat 0.3 - 0.5%, ash 2.8 - 3.6%, protein 4.1 - 4.8%, carbohydrate 4.3 - 5.2%, and energy 47 - 51 kcal. Concentration of macro minerals calcium (Ca), potassium (K), magnesium (Mg) and sodium (Na) was found to be 310, 137, 119 and 55 mg/100g, respectively whereas the concentration of micro minerals iron (Fe), copper (Cu), zinc (Zn), manganese (Mn) and chromium (Cr) was observed as 29, 0.17, 1.21, 1.52 and 0.20 mg/100g, respectively which was between the recommended limit.</p> <p>Bangladesh Pharmaceutical Journal <strong>24</strong>(1): 54-60, 2021</p> 2021-01-25T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Understanding and Dealing the SARS-CoV-2 Infection: An Updated Concise Review 2021-02-01T09:14:23+00:00 Md Jamal Hossain Md Ruhul Kuddus Mohammad A Rashid Md Zakir Sultan <p>Viral infection has made the world to pass through the most critical time of the current century. In December 2019, the Wuhan city of China faced a novel etiological viral agent with atypical secondary pneumonia. The unique virus was severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) that caused coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. According to the worldometer data, as of December 24, 2020, the world lost more than 1.74 million lives and infected more than 79.3 million people with the novel coronavirus-2. As there is no approved drug to combat the disease or vaccine against the virus, the infection continuously triumphed over the current medical system. The epidemiological analysis showed that geriatric patients are generally the most susceptible to the viral infection, and pediatric patients exhibited milder complications. The clinical characteristics of COVID-19 displayed that the most frequent symptoms are dry cough, fever, dyspnea, and sputum production. Herd immunity is a tested strategy that could moderate viral transmission in developing countries. In this study, authors abridged the epidemiological outcomes, clinical features, and pathophysiology of SARS-CoV-2 infection. The article also focused on vaccine development, herd immunity, and the most promising repurposed therapeutics for the treatment of COVID-19 with their clinical trial updates.</p> <p>Bangladesh Pharmaceutical Journal <strong>24</strong>(1): 61-75, 2021</p> 2021-01-25T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## A Short Review on the Bioactive Constituents from Six Terminalia Species 2021-02-01T09:14:25+00:00 Mohammad Musarraf Hussain <p><em>Terminalia </em>as a genus has received a great attraction to evaluate and examine the pharmacological potential having their medicinal properties. Different species under <em>Terminalia </em>genus have been used as herbal medicine with various formulations in the treatment of abdominal pain, cancer, cough, conjunctivitis, diarrea, heart problem, leproscopy, urinary tract infection, and sexual related diseases. These properties have been reported to express abundant biological characteristics for example antioxidant, antiparasitic, antibacterial, antifungal, antiviral, and anti-inflammatory. This review has constructed to solicitude the phytochemicals from the genus <em>Terminalia</em>. A total six species belongs to this genus such as <em>Terminalia chebula, T. citrina, T. phanerophlebia, T. belerica, T. catappa, and T. arjuna </em>have been studied and fifty-six phytochemicals with their chemical structures have been reported in this review. <em>Terminalia chebula </em>consists of a higher number of phytochemicals as compared to the other species.</p> <p>Bangladesh Pharmaceutical Journal <strong>24</strong>(1): 76-82, 2021</p> 2021-01-25T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Current Pharma News Vol.24(1) 2021-02-01T09:38:00+00:00 Md Akbar Hossain <p>Abstract not available</p> <p>Bangladesh Pharmaceutical Journal <strong>24</strong>(1): 83-86, 2021</p> 2021-02-01T09:37:55+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## New Drug Approvals Vol.24(1) 2021-02-01T09:38:05+00:00 Md Akbar Hossain <p>Abstract not available</p> <p>Bangladesh Pharmaceutical Journal <strong>24</strong>(1): 87-88, 2021</p> 2021-02-01T09:38:03+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## New Indications & Dosage Froms for Existing Drugs Vol.24(1) 2021-02-01T09:38:11+00:00 Md Akbar Hossain <p>Abstract not available</p> <p>Bangladesh Pharmaceutical Journal <strong>24</strong>(1): 89-90, 2021</p> 2021-02-01T09:38:09+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement##