Bangladesh Pharmaceutical Journal 2019-05-18T13:59:33+00:00 Prof. Dr. Md. Anwar Ul Islam Open Journal Systems A publication of Bangladesh Pharmaceutical Society. Topical Nanoemulsion of Rifampicin with Benzoic Acid and Salicylic Acid: Activity Against Staphylococcus aureus, Stap. epidermis and Candida albicans 2019-05-18T13:59:33+00:00 Kohinur Begum Mashmum Shababa Shahid Reza Ul Jalil <p>The aim of this study was to formulate a topical nanoemulsion which can be used to treat both bacterial and fungal infections of the skin. Eight self-emulsifying drug delivery systems composed of different combinations of rifampicin (1%), benzoic acid (6%) and salicylic acid (3%) were formulated and designated as F1, F2, F3, F4, F5, F6, F7 and F8. Nanoemulsions of the eight formulations were prepared using oleic acid, Tween 80 and water by sonication method. Antibacterial and antifungal effects were observed against Staphylococcus aureus, Stap. epidermis and Candida albicans by the Kirby-Bauer method. The nanoemulsion containing only rifampicin showed strong activity against S. aureus and S. epidermis, but not against C. albicans. The nanoemulsion containing both benzoic acid and salicylic acid showed better activity in C. albicans, but not against S. aureus and S. epidermis. However, the nanoemulsions consisting of all three active ingredients showed significant results against S. aureus, S. epidermis and C. albicans.</p> <p>Bangladesh Pharmaceutical Journal <strong>22</strong>(1): 1-6, 2019</p> 2019-01-29T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Measurements of Metal Contamination, Antimicrobial and Antioxidant Activities of Five Medicinal Herbs from Azad Kashmir 2019-05-18T13:59:29+00:00 Muhammad Riaz Muhammad Zahid Muhammad Azhar Sherkheli Muhammad Altaf Saima Manzoor Noman Abbasi Rehana Rashid Muhammad Qayyum Khan Saiqa Andleeb <p>We studied the metal contaminations as well as antimicrobial and antioxidant activities of five medicinal species: Berberis lyceum (Sumbal), Datura stramonium (Joz-e-masel), Semicarpous anacardium (Bhalawa), Fumaria indica (Shahtara) and Gymnema sylvestre (Gurmar) using atomic absorption spectrophotometry and agar-well diffusion method against E. coli and S. aureus and ABTS<sup>+</sup><sup>● </sup>decolorization assay. We found that the contamination levels of K, Ca, Mg, and Ni are above the standard permissible limits and should be monitored. B. lyceum has been found to possess highest antimicrobial activities against both strains. Besides B. lyceum, D. stramonium, S. anacardium and F. indica have shown promising antioxidant activities. Phytochemical investigations are required to isolate antimicrobial and antioxidant compounds from these medicinal plants.</p> <p><em>Bangladesh Pharmaceutical Journal </em><strong>22</strong>(1): 7-12, 2019</p> 2019-01-29T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Peripheral Analgesic and Anti-diarrheal Activities of Leaf of Syzygium cumini (L.) Skeel 2019-05-18T13:59:25+00:00 Md Shahidulla Kayser Rubel Nath Halima Khatun Mohammad A Rashid <p>Syzygium cumini has been used in folk medicine to treat many diseases. To establish the potential medicinal value of leaves of S. cumini, the current study was carried out to assess the peripheral analgesic and anti-diarrheal activities in mice model. The crude methanol extract and its petroleum ether and chloroform soluble fraction were administered to the experimental mice at a dose of 200- and 400- mg/kg b.w. (denoted as CME1, CME2, PESF1, PESF2, CLSF1 and CLSF2 respectively) using acetic acid induced writhing method and castrol oil induced anti-diarrheal assay protocol. The extract and its Kupchan fractions exhibited significant (p &lt; 0.001) reduction of writhing response in a dose dependent manner. In the acetic acid-induced writhing test, the activity decreased in the order diclofenac (75.33%) &gt; PESF2 (70.33%) &gt; CME2 (67.00%) &gt; PESF1 (64.00%) &gt; CLSF2 (61.33%) &gt; CME1 (56.67%) &gt;CLSF1 (48.67%). All the fractions significantly (p &lt; 0.001) attenuated anti-diarrheal effect in a dose dependent manner with the highest activity observed by CME2 (47.73%) as compared to standard lopeiramide (54.55%). The results of our study, being reported for the first time, provide reasonable indication that the methanol extract of S. cumini leaf and its different fractions possess peripheral analgesic and antidiarrheal activities.</p> <p><em>Bangladesh Pharmaceutical Journal </em><strong>22</strong>(1): 13-17, 2019</p> 2019-01-29T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## In vivo Neurological, Analgesic and In vitro Antioxidant and Cytotoxic Activities of Ethanolic Extract of Leaf and Stem Bark of Wedelia chinensis 2019-05-18T13:59:21+00:00 Sayema Khanum Md Shahid Sarwar Mohammad Safiqul Islam <p>Wedelia chinensis is a widely used anti-inflammatory and hepatoprotective medicinal plant in Bangladesh. In this study, analgesic, neurological, antioxidant and cytotoxic activities of the ethanolic extract of leaf and stem bark of W. chinensis were investigated. Oral administration of the ethanolic extract of W. chinensis (200- and 300-mg/kg body weight) was investigated on animal model for neurological activity using open field test and hole cross test. Acetic acid induced writhing method was used to assess the analgesic activity. DPPH (1,1-diphenyl, 2-picryl hydrazyl) radical scavenging assay was used for determining the antioxidant activity, while brine shrimp lethality bioassay was used for investigating cytotoxicity. The ethanol extract of the plant produced significant reduction (P&lt;0.05) of locomotion in both doses (200- and 300-mg/kg body weight) indicating pronounced neurological activity. Oral administration of alcoholic leaves and stem extracts significantly (p &lt; 0.05) inhibited writhing response in mice. The percentage of scavenging of DPPH free radical was found to be concentration dependent with IC50 value of 44.10 ± 0.65 and 38.96 ± 0.50 μg/ml for leaves and stem extracts, respectively. Our findings indicate that W. chinensis may be a source of natural antioxidant with potent analgesic, neurological and cytotoxic activities.</p> <p><em>Bangladesh Pharmaceutical Journal </em><strong>22</strong>(1): 18-26, 2019</p> 2019-01-29T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Antioxidant, Antimicrobial, Anti-diarrheal and Analgesic Activities of Diospyros malabarica (Desr.) Kostel 2019-05-18T13:59:18+00:00 Md Moniruzzaman Md Ruhul Kuddus AM Sarwaruddin Chowdhury Mohammad A Rashid <p>The present study was designed to evaluate the antioxidant, antimicrobial, antidiarrheal and analgesic activities of methanol extract of Diospyros malabarica (Desr.) Kostel buds growing in Bangladesh. The total phenolic content of methanol extract of D. malabarica and its Kupchan fractions was determined and expressed in gallic acid equivalent (GAE). In the DPPH free radical scavenging assay, the aqueous soluble fraction of the methanol extract of D. malabarica revealed maximum free radical scavenging activity having IC50 value of 6.17 μg/ml. In antimicrobial assay, all the test samples displayed prominent antimicrobial activity against the test organisms under in vitro conditions. Among these, the carbon tetrachloride soluble fraction was found to exhibit the highest activity against Bacillus cereus, Salmonella Typhi, Salmonella Paratyphi, and Candida albicans with the zone of inhibition as 32, 30, 28 and 30 mm, respectively. In evaluation of antidiarrheal activity, the D. malabarica extracts showed significant anti-diarrheal potential in a dose dependent manner. During the evaluation of analgesic activity by radiant heat tail-flick method, the plant extract at 400 mg/kg b.w. exhibited highest elongation (373.04%) as compared to morphine (472.48%). On the other hand, in acetic acid-induced writhing test, the extract at 200- and 400-mg/kg b.w. showed 61.11 and 66.67% inhibition of writhing in mice model, respectively as compared to 68.06% inhibition produced by the standard diclofenac-Na. The findings of this study justify some of the traditional uses of D. malabarica and reveal the bioactivity of the plants. Further studies are required to isolate and identify the bioactive compounds.</p> <p><em>Bangladesh Pharmaceutical Journal </em><strong>22</strong>(1): 27-33, 2019</p> 2019-01-29T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Combination Therapy of Momordica charantia Linn. (Bitter Melon) with Antihyperglycemic Agent Gives Increased Antioxidative and Hepatoprotective Actions in Alloxan-induced Diabetic Rats 2019-05-18T13:59:14+00:00 Monirul Islam Md Saiful Islam Shaheda Zannah Mamunur Rashid <p>Bitter melon, a popular vegetable of the Asian and African community, is used as an antidiabetic herb for the management of diabetes and its associated complications. The fastest growing metabolic disorder, diabetes mellitus (DM), is now a major cause of morbidity and mortality in developed countries. All the associated complications produced in diabetes are mainly caused by the imbalance between generation of free radicals and the antioxidant systems like catalase (CAT) and super oxide dismutase (SOD) enzymes. Again increased level of serum glutamate pyruvate transaminase (SGPT) and serum glutamate oxaloacetate transaminase (SGOT) are considered a consequence of hepatocyte damage due to non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and patients with diabetes have an increased risk NAFLD and steatohepatitis. The present study was aimed at evaluating the effects of fixed dose combination therapy of Momordica charantia crude methanolic extract with metformin on oxidative stress and liver dysfunction indices in alloxan-induced diabetic Swiss Albino rats. Various groups of alloxan-induced diabetic rats (AIDRs) were daily treated for four weeks with bitter melon extract (BME) [(300 mg/kg body weight (BW)], metformin [(15 mg/kg body weight (BW)] and their combination dose (150 mg/kg BW + 7.5 mg/kg BW), separately through oral gavage. In our study, we observed that combination therapy lowered SGPT &amp; SGOT level by 34.58% and 47.89%, respectively and increased SOD &amp; CAT enzyme activity by 74.94% and 43.36%, respectively in comparison with their diabetic control groups. The changes obtained from the combination therapy were significantly (p&lt;0.05) better than those of metformin and BME therapy alone. These findings suggest that this fixed dose combination therapy is more potent than their individual monotherapy and diabetic patients with increased oxidative stress and liver complications may be benefited by using this treatment.</p> <p><em>Bangladesh Pharmaceutical Journal </em><strong>22</strong>(1): 34-40, 2019</p> 2019-01-29T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Hypoglycemic and Hypolipidemic Activities of Psychotria sylhetensis Hook in Alloxan-induced Type 2 Diabetic Rats 2019-05-18T13:59:10+00:00 Israt Jahan Bulbul Umma Shafia Joty Ridoy Ahamed Mohammad Rashedul Haque Mohammad A Rashid <p>The current study was carried out to determine the hypoglycemic and hypolipidemic activities of methanolic extract P. silhetensis leaves in alloxan-induced diabetic rats. In this study diabetes was induced in rats by intraperitoneal administration of 150 mg/kg of alloxan. Animals were treated for one week with the plant extract at doses of 250 and 500 mg/kg body weight. Metformin (100 mg/kg b.w.) was used as standard for comparison. The anti-diabetes activity was examined by measuring blood glucose level at 0, 3, 5 and 7 days in diabetic induced animal models. Blood samples were collected at day eight of the treatment and analyzed for triglyceride (TG), total cholesterol (TC), high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) and low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) after sacrifice. Alloxan-induced diabetic rats exhibited a significant decrease in plasma glucose level when treated with P. silhetensis leaf extract as compared to normal, diabetic control and standard rats. All tested lipid parameters were improved after the treatment with methanolic extract of P. silhetensis and metformin as compared to diabetic rats. The results of the present study showed that P. silhetensis possesses significant anti-diabetic properties and has beneficial effects on diabetic hyperlipidemia.</p> <p><em>Bangladesh Pharmaceutical Journal </em><strong>22</strong>(1): 41-44, 2019</p> 2019-01-31T10:31:46+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Phytochemical and Toxicity Evaluation of Traditional Herb: Lagerstroemia speciosa L. (Banaba) by MCF-7 Cell Line and Brine Shrimp Lethality Bioassay 2019-05-18T13:59:05+00:00 AK Azad WS Azizi AFH Ismail Syed Atif Abbas Jalal Uddin Zubair Khalid Labu <p>The main objective of this study was to determine the cytotoxicity of crude extract of the leaves of Lagerstroemia speciosa (Banaba). In vitro MCF-7 cell line and in vivo brine shrimp lethality bioassay methods were followed to investigate the cytotoxicity of the selected sample. In this study, the qualitative phytochemical assessment demonstrated the presence of alkaloids, carbohydrate, glycosides, saponins, terpenes, steroids, phenols and flavonoids in Banaba extract. Moreover, the present findings revealed the non-cytotoxic nature of L. speciosa leaves extract on both MTT-assay and brine shrimp lethality bioassay.</p> <p><em>Bangladesh Pharmaceutical Journal </em><strong>22</strong>(1): 45-49, 2019</p> 2019-01-31T10:31:52+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Analgesic, Anti-diarrheal, Anti-depressant, Membrane Stabilizing and Cytotoxic Activities of Bridelia verrucosa Haines 2019-05-18T13:59:00+00:00 Tasmia Tabassum Md Abdul Bari Md Ruhul Kuddus Mohammad A. Rashid <p>The present study was aimed for the evaluation of analgesic, anti-diarrheal and anti-depressant activities of methanol crude extract of Bridelia verrucosa leaves in Swiss albino mice. The analgesic activity was assessed by formalin-induced paw licking method, where the crude extract of B. verrucosa (400 mg/kg, b.w.) exhibited 54.55% reduction of licking response in mice as compared to 69.09% reduction exhibited by standard acetylsalicylic acid. In the castor oil-induced diarrhea in mice, the plant extract at the dose of 400 mg/kg, b.w., demonstrated 57.67% reduction of diarrheal feces in mice. The antidepressant activity of the plant extract was evaluated through phenobarbitone-Na induced sleeping time test. The methanol extract of B. verrucosa and its different Kupchan fractions were also subjected to screenings for membrane stabilizing and cytotoxic activities using acetylsalicylic acid and vincristine sulphate as standard, respectively.</p> <p><em>Bangladesh Pharmaceutical Journal </em><strong>22</strong>(1): 50-55, 2019</p> 2019-01-31T10:31:59+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Impact of Gypsum and Potash Fertilizers on Heavy Metals and Nutrients Levels in Some Selected Leafy Vegetables and Assessment of Potential Health Risk 2019-05-18T13:58:56+00:00 Zakia Sultana Rajia Sultana Md Rokonujjaman Hasina Akhter Simol Md Zakir Sultan Md Abdus Salam <p>Field experiment was conducted in absence and presence of potash and gypsum fertilizers, to compare and investigate the quantity levels of heavy metals and nutrients in leafy vegetables with growth stage and plant species variations, respectively. Seeds of Spinacia oleracia (Spinach), Colocasia esculenta (Taro), Ipoma aquatica (Water spinach), Cucurbita maxima (Pumpkin leaves), Basella alba (Indian spinach), Amaranthus gangeticus (Red amaranth), Coccinia grandis (Ivy gourd), Corchorus olitorius (Jute leaves), Basella rubra (Malabar Spinach), Coriandum sativum (Coriander leaves), Amaranthus lividus (Amaranth) were sown in the experimental filed in Joypurhat district of Bangladesh. The quantity of heavy metals [cadmium (Cd), lead (Pb), nickel (Ni), and zinc (Zn)] and nutrients [sodium (Na), potassium (K) and calcium (Ca)] in vegetables were determined by atomic absorption spectrometer and flame photometer, after the microwave digestion of these vegetables with 70% concentrated HNO3. The quantities of heavy metals were increased with the age of the plant, but the increases were not linear. Moreover, the order of heavy metals level in different vegetables was Zn &gt;Ni &gt;Cd &gt;Pb. The Hazard Quotient (HQ) for Zn, Ni, Cd and Pb were as 0.143, 0.085, 0.1029 and 0.806, respectively. The sequence of HQ for the heavy metals followed the decreasing order Pb &gt;Zn &gt;Cd &gt;Ni. The HQ value for all the heavy metals, Zn, Cd Ni and Pb were less than 1, which is considered safe or indicates no adverse effect on human health.</p> <p><em>Bangladesh Pharmaceutical Journal </em><strong>22</strong>(1): 56-67, 2019</p> 2019-01-31T10:32:10+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Phytochemical Screenings and Bioactivities of Duabanga grandiflora (Roxb. ex DC.) Walp. 2019-05-18T13:58:52+00:00 Farjana Akhter Quazi Sufia Islam Mohiminul Adib Abdullah Al Faruq Mohammed Ibrahim <p>The aim of this research was to find out the phytochemical constituents and to evaluate the antibacterial, antioxidant, antidiarrheal and antipyretic activities of different extracts of Duabanga grandiflora. Antibacterial study was carried out by the disk diffusion method where the n-hexane extract showed the inhibitory activity against Staphylococcus aureus (12.3 mm) and Bacillus cereus (11.3 mm) as compared to standard drug ciprofloxacin. A quantitative antioxidant assay was done by DPPH free radical scavenging activity, where at the dose of 100 μg/ml the different extracts of D. grandiflora leaves revealed the highest inhibition of 81.07, 82.48, and 80.33%, respectively in comparison to standard ascorbic acid (86.9%). The ethanol extract showed IC50 value 1.91 μg/ml, which was found to be as potent as standard ascorbic acid (1.90 μg/ml). In antidiarrheal activity test by using castor oil induced diarrheal mice, the result showed different extracts (500 μg/ml) of plant possessed moderate antidiarrheal activity. It significantly increased the latency period and reduced the number fecal count in comparison to standard drug loperamide 3mg/kg body weight. In antipyretic activity test by using Brewer’s yeast induced pyrexia in Swiss albino mice the different extracts of D. grandiflora demonstrated mild to moderate antipyretic activity as compared to standard paracetamol</p> <p><em>Bangladesh Pharmaceutical Journal </em><strong>22</strong>(1): 68-72, 2019</p> 2019-01-31T10:32:18+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Effects of Aqueous Extract of Basella alba L. leaves on Blood Cell Count in Rats 2019-05-18T13:58:48+00:00 Farhana Sabrin AF Mohammed Shafiqul Alam Muhammad Rashedul Islam Md Elias Al Mamun Jakir Ahmed Chowdhury <p>The effect of aqueous extract of Basella alba (puishak) leaves on blood cell count of rats was studied. Forty rats of both sexes weighing between 100-150 gm were used. The rats were divided into four groups (7 rats in each group), with group A as the control group and experimental groups were denoted as B, C and D. With all aseptic precautions, aqueous extract of Basella alba (Puishak) leaves was administered into the three different doses (For group B: 60 mg/kg bw, group C: 80 mg/kg bw and group D: 100 mg/kg bw). Control group A also received distilled water as a placebo at the dose of 10 mg/kg bw for 14 days. At day 15, blood samples were collected and sent for haematological analysis. Data analysis of blood count profile of 28 rats revealed that there is an increased number of RBC, WBC and platelet count in experimental groups than in control group. ANOVA test revealed that increased blood cell counts following administration of aqueous leaves extract of keeves of B. alba were statistically significant (p value for each case was .0001&lt;.05) than control group. Paired samples t test was performed to compare between baseline hematological parameters and parameters after 14 days of intervention. Then comparison between Group A &amp; Group B, between Group A &amp; Group C and between Group A &amp; Group D were done. In all cases, probability (p) value &lt; 0.05 was considered as statistically significant.This it is clearly evident that aqueous extract of B.alba has positive stimulant effect on blood cells count of rats. Moreover, it was found that increment of doses also increases the cell count that is positively correlated with the hypothesis.</p> <p><em>Bangladesh Pharmaceutical Journal </em><strong>22</strong>(1): 73-78, 2019</p> 2019-01-31T11:00:14+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Preliminary Phytochemical Screening and Assessment of Pharmacological Activities of Leaves and Stems of Gynura procumbens (Lour.) Merr. 2019-05-18T13:58:44+00:00 Tuz Mia Nur Akhi Mohiminul Adib Quazi Sufia Islam Irin Sultana Rafiqul Haider Muhammad Ibrahim <p>The present study was designed to evaluate the preliminary phytochemical profiles and pharmmacological activities of different extractives (methanol and chloroform) of the leaves and stems of Gynura procumbens (Lour.) Merr. Preliminary phytochemical screenings demonstrated the presence of alkaloids, glycosides, steroids, flavonoids, tannins, saponins, gums and amides and reducing sugar in leaves and stems. Significant α-amylase inhibitory activities were found by the methanol (66.67%) and chloroform (70.63%) extracts of leaves of G. procumbens as compared to the standard drug acarbose (95.45%) at a concentration of 400 μg/ml. In the castor oil-induced diarrhea, the maximum inhibition of defecation was found by the chloroform fraction. During the anxiolytic activity test which was performed by open field and hole cross method, different extractives of leaves and stems of G. procumbens (500 mg/kg bw) reduced the total count of square crossed and hole crossed to a considerable extent in comparison to the control groups. In antipyretic assay, both extracts reduced the temperature to a significant extent in comparison to the standard group.</p> <p><em>Bangladesh Pharmaceutical Journal </em><strong>22</strong>(1): 79-84, 2019</p> 2019-01-31T11:00:21+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Evaluation of Analgesic, Antidiarrheal and Anti-hyperglycemic Activities of Dactyloctenium australe (Poaceae) 2019-05-18T13:58:40+00:00 Md Enamul Hoque Md Akbar Hossain Md Sohel Rana <p>Dactyloctenium australe belongs to the family of Poaceae. It is also called gramineae or true grasses. Poaceae is the fifth largest family of flowering plants. The current study was conducted on methanol extract of the aerial parts of D. australe (MEDA) to evaluate its in vivo analgesic activity by acetic acidinduced writhing method in mice. The plant extract was also evaluated for antidiarrheal and antihyperglycemic activities using castor oil-induced diarrhea and oral glucose tolerance test, respectively. In acetic acid-induced writhing test, the extract showed 52.18 % and 62.40 % inhibition of writhing at the doses of 200-400mg/kg body weight, respectively while standard aspirin at the dose of 50 mg/kg bw showed 58.12 % writhing inhibition. In anti-hyperglycemic test, the extract revealed its activity in a dose dependent manner. In antidiarrheal activity test, the extract exhibited 48.54 % and 72.92 % inhibition of defecation at the doses of 250-500mg/kg bw, respectively whereas the standard loperamide (3 mg/kg bw) displayed 70.24 % inhibition of defecation.</p> <p><em>Bangladesh Pharmaceutical Journal </em><strong>22</strong>(1): 85-91, 2019</p> 2019-01-31T11:00:29+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Typhonium trilobatum Demonstrates Both Antioxidant and Acetylcholinesterase Inhibitory Activities In vitro 2019-05-18T13:58:36+00:00 Simin Shabnam Lopa Md Kamrul Hasan Md Salim Ahammed KM Monirul Islam AHM Khurshid Alam Md Aziz Abdur Rahman Mamunr Rashid Golam Sadik <p>Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is a progressive neurodegenerative disorder of the elderly people. Cholinergic dysfunction and oxidative stress have been found to be related with the development of the disease. Typhonium trilobatum L. Scott has been used traditionally in folk medicine as a central nervous system stimulant. In this study, we have investigated the various extracts of T. trilobatum for acetylcholinesterase and antioxidant activities in vitro. All the tested extracts exhibited inhibition against acetylcholinesterase. Petroleum ether extract exhibited the highest inhibition with an IC50 of 255.26 g/ml. Likewise all the extracts were found to possess antioxidant activity. In reducing power assay, petroleum ether extract showed the highest reducing power with an absorbance of 0.874 at 0.1 mg/ml concentration and in DPPH radical scavenging assay, chloroform extract exhibited the highest scavenging activity with an IC50 of 619.54 µg/ml. Phytochemical analyses of the four extracts revealed that the ethyl acetate extract contained the highest amount of flavonoids and petroleum ether had the highest amount of phenolics. These results suggest that T. trilobatum has both antioxidant and cholinesterase inhibitory activities, which may be useful in reducing the risk of AD.</p> <p><em>Bangladesh Pharmaceutical Journal </em><strong>22</strong>(1): 92-98, 2019</p> 2019-01-31T11:00:34+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## A Review on Applications of Nanobots in Combating Complex Diseases 2019-05-18T13:58:32+00:00 Tashnuva Rifat Md Shahadat Hossain Md Mahbubul Alam Abu Shara Shamsur Rouf <p>In the current years, a lot of research works have been continued in the quest to find a desired drug delivery system within the human body. Among different drug delivery systems, nanobots have become much popular due to its capability to perform different tasks like actuating, sensing, signaling, information processing and intelligence at nanoscale dimension. A nanobot is a robotic machine that can be programmed to diagnose, monitor and treat various vital diseases. It works at cellular level with minimum side effects and thus substitute the conventional treatment procedures. The major limitations of nanobots are proper designing and manufacturing process. In spite of its expensive manufacturing set up, they are pre-eminent for medical applications, such as nanobots like respirocytes, microbivores and clottocytes have been designed to act as artificial substitutes of blood. This article describes the use of nanobots in different fields of medical science like diagnosis and treatment of cancer, diabetes, aneurysm, tetanus, HIV, skin disease, gout as well as in the field of dentistry, surgery and treating many other diseases. It also represents the recent research which has been applied in vivo to different animals. Scientists hope that nanobots will act on molecular level, protect the biological system and thus ensure a better and longer life.</p> <p><em>Bangladesh Pharmaceutical Journal </em><strong>22</strong>(1): 99-108, 2019</p> 2019-01-31T11:00:41+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Pharmacological Values and Phytochemical Properties of Devil’s Cotton (Ulatkambal) - A Review 2019-05-18T13:58:28+00:00 Nargis Sultana Chowdhury Farhana Farjana Sifat Jamaly Mst Nadira Begum Mst Elina Akhter Zenat <p>Devil’s cotton (Ulatkambal) is a genus in the family Malvaceae, with one or two species from Asia and Australia. Literature review revealed that Abroma augusta (Devil’s cotton) is widely used in Ayurvedic medicine as a popular drug. Devil’s cotton has been claimed to possess major biological activities like anti-diabetic, analgesic, anti-inflamatory, thrombolytic, antioxidant, hypolipidemic etc. They are also utilized by the traditional local healers of different Asian countries to treat various diseases like diabetes mellitus, as uterine tonic in emmerogogue, dysmenorrhea, amenorrhoea, sterility and other menstrual disorders, rheumatic pains of joints and headache with sinusitis. Biochemical profiling of different parts of the plant demonstrated the presence of some important phytochemicals like alkaloids, abromin, sterol, friedelin, abromasterol, taroxerylacetate, taraxeral and β-sitosterol. The aim of this review was to analyze the published report based on the medicinal values of Devil’s cotton species as well to provide the updated information about the ethnomedicinal, pharmacological as well as the phytochemical properties.</p> <p><em>Bangladesh Pharmaceutical Journal </em><strong>22</strong>(1): 109-116, 2019</p> 2019-01-31T11:23:40+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## A Comprehensive Review on the Phytoconstituents from Six Species of the Genus Amaranthus 2019-05-18T13:58:24+00:00 Mohammad Musarraf Hussain <p>The objective of this review is to consider the phytoconstituents from six species under the genus Amaranthus (A. retroflexus, A. spinosus, A. viridis, A. caudatus, A. hypocondriacus and A. tricolor). A total of sixty five (1-65) phytoconstituents with chemical structures have been reported in this study. A. retroflexus consists of high number of reported phytoconstituents.</p> <p><em>Bangladesh Pharmaceutical Journal </em><strong>22</strong>(1): 117-124, 2019</p> 2019-01-31T11:23:46+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Current Pharma News Vol.22(1) 2019-05-18T13:58:20+00:00 Md Anwar Ul Islam <p>Abstract not available</p> <p><em>Bangladesh Pharmaceutical Journal </em><strong>22</strong>(1): 125-134, 2019</p> 2019-01-31T11:23:53+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement##