Bangladesh Pharmaceutical Journal 2019-09-08T14:11:10+00:00 Prof. Dr. Md. Anwar Ul Islam Open Journal Systems A publication of Bangladesh Pharmaceutical Society. Design of Experiment (DoE) Approach to Prepare, Characterize and Optimize the Gastroretentive Mucoadhesive Microspheres of Repaglinide 2019-09-08T14:11:10+00:00 Aditi Bhowmick Tushar Saha James Regun Karmoker Md Selim Reza <p>In this present investigation, gastroretentive mucoadhesive microspheres of Repaglinide was formulated, characterized and optimized by applying the design of experiment (DoE) for better release profile and sustain action of the drug. Solvent evaporation technique was used to prepare microspheres, where Methocel K15M CR (X<sub>1</sub>), Eudragit L 100 (X<sub>2</sub>) and rpm (X<sub>3</sub>) were used as independent variables whereas percent cumulative drug release at 8 hours (Y<sub>1</sub>), bond strength (Y<sub>2</sub>) and swelling at 8 hours (Y<sub>3</sub>) were used as dependent variables. Particle size, surface morphology, mucoadhesive bond strength, swelling study, and drug entrapment efficiency were determined to characterize the prepared microspheres. <em>In vitro </em>dissolution study was performed in 0.1N HCl (pH 1.2) media for 8 hours. Response surface of dependent variables was calculated by design expert software and it was found that most of the responses were fitted to the quadratic model. Percent cumulative drug release at 8 hours was found minimum 61.34% and maximum 87.29%, the minimum and maximum range of mucoadhesive bond strength was found 426.02 to 13335.74 N/m<sup>2</sup> and in case of swelling at 8 hours, it was found 157.43 and 230.22%. After analyzing the responses, proposed formula was obtained from which minimization of percent cumulative drug release at 8 hours as well as swelling and maximization of bond strength was obtained. Thermal behavior was investigated by DSC study and no interaction was found between drug and excipients from FTIR study.</p> <p>Bangladesh Pharmaceutical Journal <strong>22</strong>(2): 135-145, 2019</p> 2019-07-21T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Isolation and Characterization of Malasezzia Species from Dandruff Samples and Determination of its Sensitivity Towards Antifungal Agents 2019-09-08T14:11:05+00:00 Kohinur Begum Farjahan Nur Mashmum Shababa Shahid <p>Dandruff is a perennial skin condition manifesting as inflammation and physiologic scaling on the scalp. <em>Malassezia </em>species are the part of the skin microflora of humans and the etiological agents of dandruff. <em>Malassezia </em>comprises of lipophilic and non-lipophilic yeasts. At present topical azoles are used for the treatment of dandruff. This study was conducted to isolate and identify the <em>Malassezia </em>spp. from dandruff samples and to determine their responsiveness towards antifungal agents such as fluconazole, ketoconazole, miconazole and nystatin. <em>Malassezia </em>spp. was isolated using selective media and identified by biochemical tests and microscopic examination. Antifungal activities were assessed by the Kirby Bauer method using well diffusion technique. Total fifteen <em>Malassezia </em>spp. including <em>M. furfur</em>, <em>M. pachydermatis, M. sympodialis </em>and <em>M. globosa </em>were identified from twenty five dandruff samples. Among them, <em>M. furfur </em>was most prevalent (66.67%) followed by <em>M. pachydermatis </em>(13.33%), <em>M. sympodialis </em>(13.33%) and <em>M. globosa </em>(6.67%). All strains were sensitive to the antifungal agents but to different extent. Fluconazole and ketoconazole proved to be the most effective agents against these microorganisms.</p> <p>Bangladesh Pharmaceutical Journal <strong>22</strong>(2): 146-152, 2019</p> 2019-07-21T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Formulation and In-vitro Evaluation of Bilayer Tablets of Atenolol and Amlodipine 2019-09-08T14:11:01+00:00 KM Yasif Kayes Sikdar Ahad Ahamed Md Mahbubul Alam Md Raihan Sarkar BK Sajeeb <p>The present investigation was focused on formulation and <em>in-vitro </em>evaluation of a fixed dose bilayer tablet of two prominent antihypertensive agents, atenolol and amlodipine. The tablets were designed to immediately release atenolol (ATF1-ATF5) by using different percentage of sodium starch glycolate as super-disintegrant for prompt blood pressure lowering activity and sustain release amlodipine (AMF1- AMF5) by varying the percentage of hydroxy propyl methylcellulose (HPMC) for prolonged activity. After evaluation of the physical and chemical parameters of the formulations according to United States Pharmacopoeia (USP) guidelines, the best immediate release formulation was found in ATF1 in terms of dissolution (99.87% after 45 minutes) and other tablet properties like hardness, disintegration time, good flow properties etc. However, the best sustained release activity was found in AMF3 in terms of dissolution (99.98% after 24 hours with constant release) and other tablet properties. After optimization of the formulations, both atenolol and amlodipine parts were successfully compressed into bilayer tablets and post-compression parameters were evaluated. In 0.1 N HCl medium, the release of atenolol from bilayer tablet was found 98.97% after 45 minutes and in case of amlodipine it was found 98.12% in 0.1 N HCl medium followed by phosphate buffer medium after 24 hours. Drug release kinetics showed that the atenolol layer followed Case I, QasiFickian transport and amlodipine layer followed Anomalous (non-Fickian) transport. Compatibility study was conducted by using Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) and Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC). Moreover, crystalline nature of substances and extent of its conversion to amorphous form was studied using X-ray Diffractometry (X-RD).</p> <p>Bangladesh Pharmaceutical Journal <strong>22</strong>(2): 153-169, 2019</p> 2019-07-21T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Preparation and In-vitro Characterization of Gastroretentive Floating Tablets of Domperidone 2019-09-08T14:10:56+00:00 Ikramul Hasan Tushar Saha Md Selim Reza <p>The present investigation was design for domperidone floating table preparation and <em>in-vitro </em>characterization. The ultimate target was increasing gastric retention by means of floatability of the tablet. Hydrophilic cellulosic polymers, Methocel K15M and Methocel K100M were used in this experiment for achieving release controlling property. Sodium bicarbonate played the key role of floatation by generating gas. Direct compression was the method of choice for preparing the tablets. The tablets were evaluated for physical parameters, buoyancy study, total floating time determination and dissolution study. Acidic dissolution medium (0.1N HCl), mimicking the environment of the stomach, was used in USP II apparatus for 12 hours to find out the pattern of drug release. The release mechanism was analyzed by exploring the zero order, first order, Higuchi and Korsmeyer equations. All the physical parameters were within acceptable range and Methocel K100M showed more floating lag time and sustained release property than Methocel K15M. All the formulations showed more than 12 hours floating time. Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) study confirmed the compatibility of the drug with the excipients.</p> <p>Bangladesh Pharmaceutical Journal <strong>22</strong>(2): 170-175, 2019</p> 2019-07-21T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## In vivo Anti-diarrheal and CNS Depressant Activities of Hemigraphis hirta (Vahl) T. Anders. 2019-09-08T14:10:51+00:00 Md Shahidulla Kayser Moazzema Binta Bashar Tufael Ahmed DA Anwar Al Aman <p><em>Hemigraphis hirta </em>has been used by folk practitioners to alleviate symptoms of several diseases, although the pharmacological activities of this plant have not been thoroughly explored. The current study was designed to assess the anti-diarrheal and CNS depressant activities of <em>H. hirta </em>in mice model. For both assays, the experimental mice received the methanolic crude extract and its petroleum ether soluble fraction at dose of 200 and 400 mg/kg body weight which are denoted as CME 200, CME 400, PESF 200 and PESF 400, respectively. Both fractions remarkably attenuated castor oil-induced diarrheal effect in a dose-dependent manner and the results were comparable to standard loperamide (89.47%). Among all, PESF 400 exhibited statistically significant (p &lt; 0.01) anti-diarrheal activity as demonstrated by 78.95% inhibition of defacetion. Compared to reference drug diazepam, all the tested samples considerably shortened the time for onset of sleep and prolonged the duration of phenobarbitoneinduced sleep in mice. The results of our present study, being reported for the first time, demonstrate that the methanol extract of leaves of <em>H. hirta </em>and its organic soluble partionates possesses significant anti-diarrheal and CNS depressant properties. However, this preliminary screening requires further detailed investigation to confirm these findings as well as to isolate and characterize the bioactive compounds.</p> <p>Bangladesh Pharmaceutical Journal <strong>22</strong>(2): 176-180, 2019</p> 2019-07-21T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Boehmeria glomerulifera Miq. Exhibits in vivo Antidepressant and Antidiarrheal Activities 2019-09-08T14:10:47+00:00 Muhammed Mahfuzur Rahman Sharmin Khandker Shampa Md Abdul Bari Mohammad Kaisarul Islam Mohammad A Rashid <p><em>Boehmeria glomerulifera </em>Miq., is medicinal herb belongs to the family Urticaceae. It is used for treating various diseases by folk practitioners and rural people. The CNS antidepressant and antidiarrhoeal activities of the crude extract were investigated at 200 and 400 mg/kg bw in Swiss Albino mice model. The crude methanolic extract revealed significant (p &lt; 0.05) antidepressant activity in mice at 400 mg/kg bw. On the other hand, in the castor oil-induced antidiarrheal assay, the extract demonstrated significant (p &lt; 0.05) antidiarrhoeal activity at 400 mg/kg bw.</p> <p>Bangladesh Pharmaceutical Journal <strong>22</strong>(2): 181-184, 2019</p> 2019-07-21T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Antidepressant and Sedative-hypnotic Activities of Methanolic Extract of Grewia asiatica Linn. Leaves in Mice 2019-09-08T14:10:42+00:00 Rasna Jebin Md Islam Molla Surid Mohammad Chowdhury Md Rajdoula Rafe <p><em>Grewia asiatica </em>(Family-Malvaceae), known as Phalsa in Bangladesh, is also native to India, Nepal, Pakistan, Cambodia and Thailand. The plant has a long history of traditional uses. The present investigation was designed to evaluate acute toxicity test, antidepressant and sedative-hypnotic activities of the methanolic extract of the leaves of <em>G. asiatica</em>. In acute toxicity test, methanolic soluble fraction of the plant extract of <em>G. asiatica </em>showed no significant changes in the body weight between the control and treated group at the doses of 1000, 2000 and 3000 mg/kg body weight. The extract could not significantly reduce immobility time in comparison with control group and standard drug (Nortriptyline) treated group in forced swimming and tail suspension tests. Sedative-hypnotic activity was evident at the doses of 100 and 200 mg/kg body weight after observing in hole board test. Sedative-hypnotic activity of short duration of action was also evident in hole cross and open field test.</p> <p>Bangladesh Pharmaceutical Journal <strong>22</strong>(2): 185-191, 2019</p> 2019-07-21T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Antidiarrheal Activity of Ethanolic Extract of Melochia corchorifolia L. and Glochidion thomsonii in Experimental Animal Models 2019-09-08T14:10:37+00:00 Nusrat Jahan Jannatul Ferdousi Md Jahir Alam Tasmina Rahman Mizanur Rahman Masum Shahriar <p>Diarrhoea is a public health problem in developing countries. It is therefore important to identify plants with antidiarrhoeal activity<strong>. </strong><em>Melochia corchorifolia </em>and <em>Glochidion thomsonii </em>have been used in folk medicine to alleviate several diseases. The present study was performed to investigate the anti-diarrheal properties of ethanolic extract of <em>M. corchorifolia </em>whole plant and <em>G. thomsonii </em>bark. Anti-diarrheal potential was evaluated using castor oil and MgSO4 induced diarrhea, GI motility test as well as castor oil induced enteropooling assay in mice. Extracts were used at 250 and 500 mg/kg per orally. Loperamide (10 mg/kg p.o) was used as standard drug. The ethanolic crude extracts exhibited statistically significant and dose-dependent (250 and 500 mg/kg) anti-diarrheal effect against the total number of episodes of defecation as well as diarrheal feces. In animals pretreated with MC and GT extract showed 42.53% (p&lt;0.05) and 53.13% (p&lt;0.001) protection at a dose of 250 mg/kg and 89.40% (p&lt;0.001)and 57.47% (p&lt;0.001) protection at 500 mg/kg against castor oil induced diarrhea. The MC extract at 500 mg/kg exhibited significant (p&lt;0.05) inhibition of diarrhea (51.04%) in MgSO4 induced diarrhea. In BaSO4 induced GI motility test both the extracts inhibited GI motility and GT at 500 mg/kg dose 38.77% which was highly significant (p&lt;0.01). In the Castor oil induced enteropooling assay MC 250 and 500 mg/kg and GT 250 and 500 mg/kg reduced the intestinal fluid accumulation by 27.42% and 48.39% (p&lt;0.01) and 38.71% (p&lt;0.05) and 51.61% (p&lt;0.01), respectively. The results suggested that both the extracts possessed significant antidiarrhoeal properties which was comparable with standard drug, loperamide and further studies are required to evaluate these effects and the potential of the plant.</p> <p>Bangladesh Pharmaceutical Journal <strong>22</strong>(2): 192-199, 2019</p> 2019-07-21T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Evaluation of Bioactivities of Gouania tiliaefolia Lam., an Indigenous Traditional Medicinal Plant of Bangladesh 2019-09-08T14:10:32+00:00 Tufael Ahmed Rifat Khan Nafisa Tabassum Fahima Aktar Mohammad Kaisarul Islam <p>The crude methanol extract of <em>Gouania tiliaefolia </em>Lam. was partitioned by the modified Kupchan method and the fractions were evaluated for total phenolic content, antioxidant, cytotoxic, thrombolytic, hypotonic and heat-induced membrane stabilizing activities. The petroleum ether soluble fraction (PESF) and methanol extract (ME) showed the highest phenolic content of 78.30 ±1.60 mg and 70.37 ± 0.84 mg, respectively, which were expressed in gallic acid equivalent (GAE). Similar trends were observed in case of anti-oxidant and cytotoxic activities, where the PESF possessed the highest free radical scavenging activity and brine shrimp lethality (IC<sub>50</sub> = 2.88 ± 0.02 μg/ml, LC<sub>50</sub> = 2.59 ± 0.14 μg/ml), followed by ME (IC<sub>50</sub> = 4.79 ± 0.17 μg/ml, LC<sub>50</sub> = 3.38 ± 0.08 μg/ml) and CSF (IC<sub>50</sub> = 37.51 ± 0.96 μg/ml, LC<sub>50</sub> = 73.55 ± 0.26 μg/ml). In case of assays for thrombolytic and membrane stabilizing activities, all extractives showed insignificant results compared to the respective standards. The crude methanol extract of <em>G. tiliaefolia </em>was used to examine the <em>in-vivo </em>analgesic (central and peripheral), antidiarrheal and antidiabetic activities in Swiss albino mice. In case of castor oil induced diarrhea, the ME gave better reduction of diarrhea by 71.43% (at 400 mg/kg-body weight) compared to loperamide (64.29%). Antidiabetic activity was evaluated by oral glucose tolerance test and the ME showed 71.42% and 75.39% reduction of blood glucose at doses 200 and 400 mg/kg-body weight, respectively when compared with the standard glibenclamide that reduced blood glucose by 66.17%. The central- and peripheral-analgesic activity was evaluated by the tail-flick test and acetic acid induced writhing test, respectively. In both the cases, ME demonstrated dose-dependent analgesic activity compared to the standards.</p> <p>Bangladesh Pharmaceutical Journal <strong>22</strong>(2): 200-207, 2019</p> 2019-07-21T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Leaves of Clerodendrum wallichi Merr. Exhibit Analgesic, Antioxidant and Cytotoxic Activities 2019-09-08T14:10:27+00:00 Tufael Ahmed Farah Ashrafi Noor Mahfuza Afroz Soma Fahima Aktar Md Ruhul Kuddus <p>The present study was conducted to evaluate the analgesic, antioxidant and cytotoxic activities of leaves of <em>Clerodendrum wallichii </em>Merr. The analgesic activity of the crude methanolic extract of <em>C. wallichii </em>(MECW) was determined by tail flick- and acetic acid-induced writhing method in Swiss albino mice. In tail flick method, oral administration of MECW at 400 mg/kg body weight exhibited 362.19% elongation of pain response in experimental mice at 60 min. The same dose of plant extract significantly (p &lt; 0.05) inhibited the acetic acid-induced abdominal constrictions in mice and this effect was dose-dependent. In addition, the methanol extract of <em>C. wallichii </em>(MECW) and its petroleum-ether (PESF), chloroform (CSF), dichloromethane (DCMSF) and aqueous (AQSF) soluble fraction were subjected to assay for determination of total phenol content, antioxidant and cytotoxic activities test by standard protocols. The highest amount of phenolic content was present in the MECW (75.44±0.68 mg of GAE/g of extract) while the AQSF displayed the highest free radical scavenging capacity (IC50 value of 7.23±0.05 μg/ml) as compared to 25.18±1.89 μg/ml exhibited by the standard butylated hydroxyl toluene (BHT). In brine shrimp lethality test, the number of surviving shrimp nauplii was counted and LC50 was assessed after 24 h. Both MECW and its PESF exhibited maximum toxicity towards brine shrimp with LC50 value of 10.3±0.01 μg/ml with respect to standard vincristine sulfate (having LC50 of 0.45 μg/ml). The results of the present investigations suggest that methanolic extract of <em>C. wallichii </em>possesses analgesic, antioxidant and cytotoxic activities, confirming the traditional use of the plant.</p> <p>Bangladesh Pharmaceutical Journal <strong>22</strong>(2): 208-213, 2019</p> 2019-07-21T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Analgesic, Anti-diarrheal, CNS-depressant, Membrane Stabilizing and Cytotoxic Activities of Canavalia virosa (Roxb.) W&A 2019-09-08T14:10:22+00:00 Mohammad Mahmudul Hasan Mohammad Abdullah Taher Md Azizur Rahman Tanvir Muslim <p>The methanol extract of the leaves of <em>Canavalia virosa </em>(Roxb.) W&amp;A was investigated for the evaluation of analgesic, anti-diarrheal and CNS-depressant activities in Swiss albino mice. The analgesic activity was assessed by formalin-induced paw licking method, where the crude extract of <em>C. virosa </em>(400 mg/kg, b.w.) exhibited 41.46% reduction of licking response in mice as compared to 73.17% reduction exhibited by standard acetylsalicylic acid. In the castor oil-induced diarrhea in mice, the plant extract at the dose of 200 mg/kg, b.w., demonstrated 56% reduction of diarrheal feces in mice, while the standard loperamide revealed 76% reduction of diarrheal feces. The CNS-depressant activity of the plant extract was assessed through phenobarbitone-Na induced sleeping time test. The methanol extract of <em>C. virosa </em>and its different Kupchan fractions were also subjected to screen membrane stabilizing and cytotoxic activities using acetylsalicylic acid and vincristine sulphate as standard, respectively.</p> <p>Bangladesh Pharmaceutical Journal <strong>22</strong>(2): 214-218, 2019</p> 2019-07-21T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Studies of Biological Activities of the Roots of Bombax ceiba L. 2019-09-08T14:10:17+00:00 Md Hasanur Rahman Mohammad A Rashid Tofail Ahmad Chowdhury <p>Bioactivities of the methanolic crude extract of root of Bombax ceiba L. and its organic and aqueous soluble partitionates were studied to investigate its medicinal importance. In Free radical scavenging assay by DPPH method, the aqueous soluble partitionate (AQSF) demonstrated the highest free radical scavenging activity with IC50 value of 3.33 ± 0.25 μg/ml. The brine shrimp lethality bioassay of different partitionates of the root demonstrated the significant lethality by the hexane soluble partitionate (HSF) having LC50 value of 1.19 ± 0.10 µg/ml. Among different fractionates of the root, the highest percentage (44.55 ± 0.12%) of clot lysis was exhibited by AQSF. The crude extract revealed promising antidiarrheal, hypoglycemic, central and peripheral analgesic activities at both doses of 200- and 400- mg/kg body weight in Swiss-Albino rat model.</p> <p>Bangladesh Pharmaceutical Journal <strong>22</strong>(2): 219-223, 2019</p> 2019-07-21T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Steroids from the Leave of Persicaria perfoliata (L.) H. Gross 2019-09-08T14:10:11+00:00 Md Sagar Hossain NM Mofiz Uddin Khan Md Saiful Quddus AM Sarwaruddin Chowdhury <p>β-sitosterol (<strong>1</strong>) and β-sitosterol-D-glucoside (<strong>2</strong>) were isolated from the dichloromethane soluble fraction of a methanol extract of the leave of <em>Persicaria perfoliata</em>. The crude fraction was subjected to antimicrobial screening and brine shrimp lethality bioassay, where moderate antimicrobial activity was observed against most of the test organisms was seen. The hexane soluble fraction also displayed significant cytotoxic activity with LC<sub>50</sub> 0.64 μg/ml in brine shrimp lethality bioassay. This is the first report of occurrence of these compounds from this plant.</p> <p>Bangladesh Pharmaceutical Journal <strong>22</strong>(2): 224-227, 2019</p> 2019-07-21T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Preparation and Evaluation of Palonosetron Hydrochloride Oral Thin Film 2019-09-08T14:10:06+00:00 Sreebash Chandra Bhowmik Marzia Alam Md Saiful Islam Pathan <p>The purpose of the current study was to develop a fast dissolving polymeric oral thin film containing palonosetron hydrochloride having good mechanical properties, fast disintegration, dissolution and good drug content uniformity. Solvent casting method was used to prepare the films. Compatibility between drugs and excipients were studied using FTIR and HPLC. Nine different formulations of film from F1 to F9 were prepared using different concentration of polymer A at drug-polymer A ratio (1:26), (1:28), (1:30), (1:32), (1:34), (1:36), (1:38), (1:40), (1:42) and at polymer A-plasticizer B of (65:10), (70:10), (75:10), (40:10), (42.5:10), (45:10), (47.5:10), (50:10), (52.5:10), respectively. The <em>in vitro </em>dissolution study was carried out in phosphate buffer (pH 6.8) at 37±0.5<sup>o</sup>C and 50 rpm using USP XXIV paddle method. Physicochemical evaluations of all the batches were performed including weight variation, thickness, folding endurance, pH, <em>in vitro </em>disintegration and drug release, FTIR and content uniformity test. Maximum and minimum drug dissolution were found in F6 (108.7%) and in F1 (98.5%), respectively. The maximum and minimum disintegration time were in F9 (43.8 sec) and F1 (25 sec), respectively which demonstrated that disintegration of the film was directly proportional to the polymer A and plasticizer B concentration. It is quite evident from the present research work that the film prepared using polymer A-plasticizer B were smooth, mechanically strong and easy to peel out. Among all the batches, formulation F5 showed best results with respect to disintegration (33 sec), drug dissolution (105%), content uniformity (98.51%) and folding endurance (731). Therefore, it can be said that combination of polymer A and plasticizer B can be prospectively used for the preparation of palonosetron hydrochloride oral thin film.</p> <p>Bangladesh Pharmaceutical Journal <strong>22</strong>(2): 228-234, 2019</p> 2019-07-21T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## A Mini Review on the Chemical Compounds of the Genus Acacia 2019-09-08T14:10:01+00:00 Mohammad Musarraf Hussain <p>The genus <em>Acacia </em>is a pioneering source of diversified chemical compounds. The purpose of this review is to compile of the phytochemicals from few species of <em>Acacia</em>. A total ten species of <em>Acacia </em>were studied and seventy six (1-76) phytoconstituents, including their chemical structures are reported in this review. The highest number of chemical compounds has been reported from <em>Acacia nilotica</em>.</p> <p>Bangladesh Pharmaceutical Journal <strong>22</strong>(2): 235-242, 2019</p> 2019-07-21T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement##