Per Rectal Bleeding in Children: Experiences in the Department of Paediatric Surgery in BSMMU
Keywords:Per rectal bleeding, Rectal Polyp, DRE, Colonoscopy
AbstractPer rectal bleeding is a frequently encountered clinical complaint in routine medical/surgical practice in paediatric patients. It has different aetiology in both extremes of age. This study was carried out in an attempt to find out causes, presentation and the proper management that can be offered to the affected infants and children.This retrospective study was carried out from January 2012 to December 2014 in the department of Paediatric Surgery of Bangabandhu Sheikh Mujib Medical University (BSMMU), Dhaka, Bangladesh. All patients presenting with the complaint of per rectal bleeding were included. But patients who needed emergency surgical intervention were excluded from this study. The data were reviewed for gender, age, causes of rectal bleeding and type, number, site, recurrence rate and the modality of treatment employed in children having colorectal polyp. Technetium-labeled red blood cells scans was used for the diagnosis of Meckel's Diverticulum. Complete blood picture and routine stool examination were done for all cases.Most polyp cases were diagnosed with digital rectal examination (DRE). Colonoscopy was performed for some cases in the Paediatric Gastroenterology Department of BSMMU. Also all the rectal polyps and colonic mucosal biopsies taken during colonoscopy submitted to histopathological examination. Per rectal bleeding was the chief complaint in 326 (1.5%) patients Out of 21,533 patients presenting to the outpatient department of Paediatric Surgery of BSMMU, Dhaka, Bangladesh over a period of three years. In this study, it was reviewed 326 patients, among them 208 (63.89%) were boys and 118 (36.19%) were girls. The male female ratio was 1.8:1. The ages ranged from 14 months to 14 years (mean age: 5.8years) at diagnosis. The most common aetiology was juvenile polyps which were found in 209 (64.11%) of the cases. It was to be found that anal fissure in 33 (10.12%) patients, rectal prolapse in 27 (8.2%) patients, non-specific colitis in 15 (4.60%) patients, Meckel's Diverticulitis in 3 (0.9%) patients, juvenile polyposis coli in 5 (1.5%) patients and familial adenomatous polyposis coli (FAP) in 4 (1.2%) patients. However, the cause of per rectal bleeding remained unknown suspecting chronic constipation in 30 (9.20%) patients. No statistically significant differences were observed between males and females as well as different age groups regarding the means of the underlying causes of per rectal bleeding in children(p > 0.05). The prevalence of anal fissure in less than 2 years old patients and juvenile polyps in the 2-6 years old patients were significantly higher than the other causes (p < 0.001). Other causes of per rectal bleeding prevailed in children were more than 2 years old. Colorectal polyps are common causes of per rectal bleeding in children. Proper physical examination including DRE along with the colonoscopy promotes both rapid and accurate diagnosis and the opportunity for immediate therapeutic measures.
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