What cannot be measured cannot be done; risk factors for childhood tuberculosis: a case control study
Childhood tuberculosis is one of the major causes of childhood mortality and morbidity though much neglected within our National Tuberculosis Control Program. This case control study was carried out to identify the risk factors for tuberculosis among children. Cases (n=95) and controls (n=94) were selected from Directly Observed Treatment Short Course (DOTS) centers of four upazillas of Dhaka and Gazipur districts. Cases were childhood tuberculosis patient, who were test positive by sputum microscopy from January to May, 2011 and controls were children who visited DOTS laboratory suspecting tuberculosis infection but were sputum negative. Both cases and controls were selected from the sputum examination registers and were traced at home for exposure data. The study showed more girls were infected than boys. Several socio demographic and environmental factors were found to be associated with the development of childhood tuberculosis. Logistic regression model was constructed to find out the important predictors which revealed age, education of the respondents, indoor environment and contact pattern were significantly associated with childhood tuberculosis. Children more than 14 years of age had 6.25 times higher risk of developing childhood tuberculosis; (Odds ratio=6.25; 95% CI for OR=2.00 to 19.55), Children completed primary education had 3.12 times lower risk of developing childhood tuberculosis, (Odds ratio=.32; 95% CI for OR=.10 to 1.00). Those who resided in better in-house environment had 4.35 times lower risk of developing childhood tuberculosis (Odds ratio=.23; 95% CI for OR=.06 to .95) and children came in contact with source tuberculosis cases who were their relatives or neighbors were 5.26 times lower risk of developing childhood tuberculosis than being in contact with family members with TB (Odds ratio=.19; 95% CI for OR=.07 to .49). Contact Screening should be incorporated in National TB program for early detection and effective treatment of tuberculosis. Improvement of indoor environment and ventilation status of the bedroom might reduce the risk of developing childhood tuberculosis.
Bangladesh Med Res Counc Bull 2012; 38: 27-32
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