Bangladesh Journal of Veterinary Medicine <p>The Bangladesh Journal of Veterinary Medicine is published by the Bangladesh Society for Veterinary Medicine. Quality papers (e.g. peer reviewed, plagiarism checked) are published twice a year (June &amp; December).</p> Bangladesh Society for Veterinary Medicine en-US Bangladesh Journal of Veterinary Medicine 1729-7893 PREVALENCE OF PARASITIC INFECTIONS OF GAME BIRDS IN DHAKA CITY CORPORATION, BANGLADESH Game birds are silent controller of maintaining ecological balance. To study the prevalence of intestinal parasites in game birds, a total of 60 birds (budgerigar, parrot, cockatoo, dove, turkey and teeter) were collected from several places of Dhaka Municipality area, during the period of June 2017 to November, 2017. Alongside the effects of age, sex, season and treatment on the prevalence of parasitic infection in game birds were studied. Coprologic analysis revealed that the overall prevalence of intestinal parasitic infection was 45%, of which 21.67% of <em>Ascaridia galli</em>, 10% for <em>Balantidium coli</em> and 13.33% for <em>Eimeria </em>spp<em>.</em> The prevalence of <em>Ascaridia galli</em> was 28.7%, t 22.22% and 16.6% in teeter, budgerigar<em> </em>and parrot respectively. <em>Eimeria </em>spp. (16.67%) in budgerigar. The prevalence of <em>Ascaridia galli</em> was highest (25%) followed by <em>Eimeria spp</em> (16.67%) in parrot. The prevalence of <em>Ascaridia galli</em> in cockatoo was 16.67%. In dove prevalence of <em>Balantidium coli</em> (44.44%) was highest followed by <em>Ascaridia galli </em>(22.22%). The prevalence of <em>Eimeria </em>spp. and <em>Balantidium coli</em> were highest (25%) followed by <em>Ascaridia galli </em>(12.50%) in turkey. The prevalence of <em>Ascaridia galli</em> was highest (28.57%) followed by <em>Eimeria spp</em> (14.23%) in teeter. Age of this game birds had significant (p&gt; 0.05) influence on the infections and odds ratio of Chick (&lt;6 month) vs young (&gt;6 month to 1 year), young vs adult (&gt;1 year) and chick vs adult were 1.28, 1.08 and 1.4 respectively. The sex of the game birds had significant (p&gt;0.05) influence on the infections with intestinal parasites and odds ratio of male vs female was 0.81. Game birds had significant (p&gt;0.05) on the infection in the seasons of the year and odds ratio of summer vs winter was 2.12. Game birds had significant (p&gt;0.05) on the infection in the treatment given and the odds ratio of treated vs non-treated was 0.89. It may be concluded that game birds, irrespective of age, sex, season, treatment, intestinal parasites are the serious threat to game birds in Dhaka Municipality area, Bangladesh. T. Hasan S. Mazumder M. M. Hossan M. S. Hossain N. Begum P. Paul ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-07-12 2018-07-12 16 1 1 6 10.3329/bjvm.v16i1.37366 STUDY ON POSTNATAL GROWTH AND DEVELOPMENT OF CROP AND PROVENTRICULUS OF DIGESTIVE TRACT OF BROILER The experiment was carried out to investigate postnatal growth and development of crop and proventriculus of digestive tract of broiler. Total 45 (“Cobb-500”) chickens of three age groups like day 1(D1), day14 (D14), day 28 (D28) were used each group containing fifteen chickens. All birds were slaughtered after respective days then crop and proventriculus were collected. Total length, diameter and weight were determined by “slide calipers” and electronic balance. Then the samples were processed and stained with H and E stain for histological study. The length (cm), diameter (cm) and weight (gm) of crop and proventriculus were increased gradually with the age where highest at 28 and lowest at day 1. Number of mucosal folds of crop was highest at 1 and lowest at day 28. The keratinized stratified squamous epithelium of crop was thickest at day 28. Submucosa contains thin loose connective tissue. Tunica muscularis contains thick inner circular and thinner outer longitudinal smooth muscle and externally covered by adventitia.<strong> </strong>The mucosa of the proventriculus has macroscopic papillae with numerous folds and lined by simple columnar epithelium. Submucosal glands are lined by simple cuboidal to low columnar epithelium. Lamina propria contains loose connective tissue and muscularis contains scattered bundles of smooth muscle. Tunica muscularis consists of smooth muscle and externally covered by serosa. K. Akter M. T. Mussa M. A. Sayeed M. A. Hai M. M. Uddin ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-07-12 2018-07-12 16 1 7 11 10.3329/bjvm.v16i1.37367 EFFECTS OF PROBIOTICS AND PHYTOEXTRACTS ON GROWTH AND IMMUNOMODULATING PERFORMANCES OF BROILER CHICKENS <p>An investigation was carried out to find out the effects of probiotics and phytoextracts (Korolla- bitter melon, Triphala-traditional three herbal components  and Safi-commercial polyherbal products) on growth, hemato-biochemical (TEC, TLC, ESR, Hb concentration, PCV, ALT, AST, Cholesterol, Tryglyceride, HDL and LDL) and immunomodulating performance of broiler chickens. The study was performed from February to April, 2017. A total of 150, seven-days-old broiler chicks were divided into five (05) groups using 30 chicks in each group. The group A was designated as control group (without probiotics and phytoextracts), with probiotics (Exolution<sup>®</sup>) Group B, with phytoextract (Korolla-bitter melon) Group C, Triphala-traditional three herbal components Group D and Safi Group E. Chicks were reared for 35 days and body weight were measured on weekly basis. Broilers were sacrificed at the end of 35 days and blood samples were taken for hematological analysis. Serum samples were also taken for biochemical tests. Broilers in all treatment groups were necropsied at the end of the experiment to observe and determine the weight of the gross lymphoid organs (spleen, thymus and bursa of Fabricious). Both body weight gain, hematological parameters like TEC, TLC, Hb concentration and PCV values and size of lymphoid organs (spleen, thymus, Bursa of Fabricious) were increased in birds supplemented with probiotics and phytoextracts as compared with control group. In biochemical parameters, AST and ALT values were decreased significantly (p&lt;0.05 and p&lt;0.01) in groups B, C, D, E from that of the control group. The findings of the experiment would help us to assess the use of proper feed additives as healthy growth promoter and immunomodulator in broiler chickens.</p> F. T. Zuhra A. K. Paul M. M. Riad M. S. Ahmed ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-07-12 2018-07-12 16 1 13 21 10.3329/bjvm.v16i1.37368 EFFECT OF GREEN TEA POWDER AS AN ALTERNATIVE OF ANTIBIOTIC ON GROWTH PERFORMANCE, MEAT QUALITY AND BLOOD LIPID PROFILE OF BROILER A study was conducted with green tea powder to evaluate the effect on broiler growth, meat quality and the development of internal organ. The broiler growth, meat quality and the blood profile have been improving day by day by using green tea powder with poultry feed. The experiment design should be well planned. Biosecurity of experimental design was maintained<strong> </strong>properly. Feed intake, feed conversion ratio is efficient in experiment birds. The live weight gain was significantly (P&lt;0.05) higher in the group of Green Tea in the feed. The initial body weights of group T<sub>o</sub>, T<sub>1</sub>, T<sub>2</sub>, T<sub>3</sub> and T<sub>4</sub> day of the experiment were 176.8 ±1, 184.2±1.3, 185.1±1, 190.2±084, 180.2±1.22 gm respectively and after 35<sup>th</sup> day of experiment final body weight were 1972±3.22, 1992±2.77, 1940±3.17, 1778±3.52, 1918±2.81 gm respectively. The net body weight gains were 1795.2±2.22, 1807.8±1.47, 1754.9±2.17, 1727.8±2.68, 1737.8±1.52 gm respectively and economics of production were analyzed and found the net profit per broiler. Green tea powder has significantly impact on feed intake T<sub>o</sub>, T<sub>1</sub>, T<sub>2</sub>, T<sub>3</sub> and T<sub>4</sub> respectively 3058± 4.23, 2971±4.01, 2995±5.57, 3208±4.3 and 3226±5.25 and increase body weight. Here the total cholesterol is lower in the group of broiler supplied green tea 0.5% and compare to other group of GT and antibiotic group. Triglyceride level showed significant (P&lt;0.01) differences among different groups where highest level was found in T<sub>1</sub> and lowest in T<sub>3 </sub>groups  due to green tea powder concentration of blood plasma of broiler chicken. M. M. Rahman M. S. Hossain M. H. Abid M. R. Nabi M. A. Hamid ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-07-12 2018-07-12 16 1 23 29 10.3329/bjvm.v16i1.37369 EFFICACY OF MEDIUM CHAIN FATTY ACIDS AND SACCHAROMYCES CEREVISIAE ON GROWTH PERFORMANCE OF BROILER The study was conducted to determine the effect of medium chain fatty acids and <em>Saccharomyces cerevisiae</em> on performance in broiler birds. A field trial was carried out on 200 broiler chicks ((Lohman) dividing them into four treatment groups each having 50 birds such as treatment group 1 (T<sub>1</sub>), treatment group 2 (T<sub>2</sub>), treatment group 3 (T<sub>3</sub>), and a control group (C). The treatment group 1 (T<sub>1</sub>) was supplied with a standard feed containing medium chain fatty acids (MCFA) and <em>Saccharomyces cerevisiae</em> (<em>S. cerevisiae</em> type boulardii 2.0x10<sup>10 </sup>CFU/gm).Treatment group 2 (T<sub>2</sub>) was supplied with a standard feed rich in medium chain fatty acids (MCFA). Treatment group 3 (T<sub>3</sub>) was supplied with a standard feed having <em>Saccharomyces cerevisiae</em> (S. cerevisiae type boulardii 2.0x1010 CFU/gm. MCFA and <em>S. cerevisiae</em> lacked standard feed was given to the control group(C).  The inclusion rate of MCFA per kilogram of feed was 2 gm for 10 days, 1.5 gm for successive 10 days and 1gm for next 8 days, and of <em>Saccharomyces cerevisiae</em> was 0.2gm for 10 days, 0.15 gm for successive 10 days and 0.10 gm for next 8 days during the study period of 4 weeks. Weekly weight gain and, at the end of the study, body weight, feed consumption, FCR and mortality rate were recorded. Analysis of data revealed that the final average body weight and average weight gain of the birds belonging to the groups T<sub>1</sub>, T<sub>2</sub> and T<sub>3 </sub>were higher (p&lt; 0.01) than the control group. FCR was 1.36, 1.37, and 1.38 for the treatment group T<sub>1</sub>, T<sub>3</sub> and T<sub>2</sub> respectively which were better than (p&lt;0.05) control group. There was no significant difference between the treatment group T<sub>2</sub> and T<sub>3</sub> but there was significant difference between the treatment group and control group (p&lt;0.10) in terms of feed consumption. In case of livability, there was significant difference among bird groups T<sub>1</sub>, T<sub>2</sub>, T<sub>3</sub> and control group (p&lt;0.01). Data analyses regarding organ weight showed that the addition of MCFA and SC in the diet of treatment group one (T<sub>1</sub>) significantly increased (p&lt;0.01) the weight of intestine with chymus, intestine without chymus, gizzard, head and neck by 41%, 17%, 5%, 8%  and 11% respectively compared with  control group. No significant differences were observed among the experimental groups for the weight of liver, spleen, and pancreas. M. S. Islam M. S. Rahman M. A. Islam S. M. S. H. Belal ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-07-12 2018-07-12 16 1 31 38 10.3329/bjvm.v16i1.37370 CONVENTIONAL PCR BASED DETECTION OF Brucella abortus INFECTED CATTLE IN SOME SELECTED AREAS OF BANGLADESH <p><em>    Brucella </em>spp. are facultative intracellular bacteria causing chronic disease which may persist for the whole life of the affected organism. In animals brucellosis affects reproduction, fertility and reduces newborns survival and also milk production. The present research was carried out to estimate the prevalence and to identify the risk factors of brucellosis along with determination of genetic diversity in Bangladesh. In CCBS&amp;DF (government farm) out of 191 cows the MRT prevalence (positive) was 7.85% and RBT prevalence (positive) was 7.33%. In Rangpur out of 238 cows the MRT prevalence (positive) was 1.88% and RBT prevalence is 1.56%. In Jamalpur out of 201 cows the MRT prevalence was 1.49% and RBT prevalence 0.05%. In Gaibandha out of 93 cows the MRT prevalence was 1.07% and RBT prevalence 0%. In Mymensingh out of 320 cows the MRT prevalence was 1.88% and RBT prevalence 1.56%. Among the five groups of cows the high prevalence of MRT and RBT prevalence was in Government Farm 7.85% and 7.33%. On the other hand the lower prevalence in cows of Gaibandha which was MRT and RBT 1.07% and 0% respectively and followed by Jamalpur  MRT 1.49% and RBT 0.50%, in Rangpur MRT 1.68% and RBT 1.26%, and in Mymensingh district  MRT 1.88%  and RBT 1.56%. The prevalence of brucellosis was significantly (p&lt;0.01) higher in CCBS&amp;DF than all district (Table 8). Out of 14 MRT and RBT positive milk samples of CCBS&amp;DF (21.43%) were PCR positive but all other 9 such samples originated from Jamalpur, Rangpur, Gaibandha and Mymensingh districts were PCR negative.</p> M. A. S. Sarker M. M. Begum M. F. Rahman M. T. Islam L. Yasmin M. A. Ehsan M. S. Rahman ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-07-12 2018-07-12 16 1 39 44 10.3329/bjvm.v16i1.37372 DETERMINATION OF AN EFFECTIVE MEDIA AND ITS HORMONE AND PROTEIN SUPPLEMENNTATION FOR IN VITRO MATURATION OF OOCYTES OF INDIGENOUS ZEBU COWS <em>In vitro</em> maturation (IVM) of oocytes is the first important step for successful in vitro embryo production of any mammalian species. The objectives of the present study were to determine an effective basic medium and its hormone and protein supplementation for IVM of oocytes of indigenous zebu cows. The oocytes were derived from ovaries of locally slaughtered cows after aspiration of follicle. The oocytes were cultured in medium for 24 hrs at 38.5ºC with 5% CO<sub>2 </sub>in humidified air for maturation. The maturation of oocytes was evaluated by examining the presence of first polar body extrusion in denuded oocytes under inverted microscope. To determine an effective basic medium, the oocytes were cultured in fetal bovine serum (FBS) supplemented tissue culture medium (TCM), modified synthetic oviduct fluid (mSOF) and Tyrodes albumin lactate pyruvate (TALP) medium. The maturation rate was significantly higher (74±4.2) in TCM medium than that of TALP medium (58.2±6.2). To determine an effective hormone supplementation for maturation medium, the oocytes were cultured in either in follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) or gonadotrophin supplemented TCM. The maturation rate of oocytes was significantly (p&gt;0.05) higher (73.3±4.0) in FSH supplemented medium than that of gonadotrophin supplemented counterpart (60.2±6.6). To determine an effective protein supplementation, the oocytes were cultured in FBS, oestrus cow serum (OCS) and bovine serum albumin (BSA) supplemented TCM 199. The maturation rate of oocytes were 73.0±5.9, 71.1±2.8, and 62.5±9.4 in medium supplemented with FBS, OCS and BSA respectively (p&gt;0.05). In conclusions, TCM supplemented with either FBS, OCS or BSA as protein and FSH as hormone may be used as medium for IVM of oocytes of indigenous zebu cows. M. M. Rahman S. N. M. Morshed N. S. Juyeana M. M. U. Bhuyian ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-07-12 2018-07-12 16 1 45 51 10.3329/bjvm.v16i1.37373 COMPARISON OF HEMATO-BIOCHEMICAL PARAMETERS BETWEEN APPARENTLY HEALTHY AND BOVINE TUBERCULOSIS AFFECTED CATTLE IN CHITTAGONG, BANGLADESH The cross-sectional study was carried out to compare the hematological and serum biochemical profiles between bovine tuberculosis (bTB) affected and apparently healthy cattle during the period from March 2014 to October 2016. A total of 189 blood samples were collected from 93 bTB affected and 96 apparently healthy cattle of 3 Upazilas of Chittagong. The bovine tuberculosis (bTB) was diagnosed primarily by Caudal Fold Tuberculin Tests (CFTT) and confirmed by the Comparative Intradermal Tuberculin Test (CITT). The whole blood was analyzed for hematology, and serum samples were used for biochemical analysis. The study revealed that, the values for TEC, Hb and PCV were higher in infected cohort (based on CFTT) in compare to their counterpart control group. Among these three parameters only PCV values were statistically significant (P ≤ 0.05). Only basophil percentage was significantly (P ≤ 0.05) higher in infected cohort. The values of total protein, albumin, creatinine and SGOT were insignificantly lower and the values of calcium &amp; phosphorus were also insignificantly higher in bTB affected cattle than control group of cattle. M. B. Hossain M. M. Khan M. A. Rumi M. Ahammed M. S. Bari ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-07-12 2018-07-12 16 1 53 57 10.3329/bjvm.v16i1.37374 EVALUATION OF PESTE DES PETITS RUMINANTS (PPR) CELL CULTURE VACCINE IN GOATS AND SHEEP IN INDIA Peste des Petits Ruminants (PPR) is a highly contagious viral disease of ruminants. The disease has high impact on small ruminants market, especially in Africa and Middle East. India has a large population of sheep and goats, having significant part in world ruminant population. Prevention and control programs by vaccines are necessary parts of ruminants business. PPR vaccines are successfully used by small and large farmers in various parts of India. Researches have been done to investigate the efficacy of PPR vaccines on sheep and goats, but few data are available on sero-conversion in the bodies. In present study, sheep and goats were vaccinated with Sungri/96 strain and serum collection was done up to one year. Antibodies levels were measured with competitive ELISA. Antibody levels reached to protective levels within 21 days of vaccination, which continued up to one year. Sheep responded to vaccine slightly better than goats. Further studies are required to investigate total duration of protection by PPR vaccine in small ruminants. S. Baksi H. Dave N. Rao P. Malsaria M. Khan P. Chauhan ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-07-12 2018-07-12 16 1 59 63 10.3329/bjvm.v16i1.37377 FARMERS’ KNOWLEDGE, ATTITUDE AND PRACTICES OF MASTITIS IN DAIRY COWS AT SELECTED AREAS OF BANGLADESH The research work was designed to assess farmers’ knowledge, attitude and practices about bovine mastitis. The data were collected by using structured questionnaire through face to face interview techniques among the 65 dairy farmers of Dhaka, Mymensingh, and Gazipur.  Disproportionate stratified random sampling was used to select the farmers based on study areas. Most of the studied farms are small (75.4%) in the studied area, only a few (10.8%) farms were large in Dhaka. In Gazipur and Mymensingh almost (86.2%) firms were small and rest of (13.8%) was medium. According to farmer’s knowledge, major cause of mastitis was microorganisms (46.15%), but 20% farmer reported that it is due to injury and 27.69% farmer don’t know the causes of the mastitis. Most of the farmers (87.7%) think that the source of infection is unhygienic floor, but others have no clear conception about it. Before milking only 23.10% farmers’ wash the whole udder where 58.5% used single towel. About 76.9% farmers have no knowledge of screening mastitis and only 9.2% of total farmers performed regular mastitis checking. Among the farmers, 55.4% are used antiseptic solution during washing the floor and others wash their floor only by water. Highest number of farmer use Tube well water (44.6%) for daily management of their farms. Most of the farmer takes suggestions from village doctor or pharmaceutical representative (64.62%) for maintaining the diseases condition. This study recommends that identification of factors associated with sub-clinical mastitis will help to take necessary steps to reduce the prevalence of sub-clinical mastitis. The most effective way to control sub-clinical mastitis is to take preventive measures such as regular cleaning of the floor, keeping the udder clean, milkman's cleanliness, and dry cow therapy especially in high yielding dairy cows. M. A. Rahman Y. A. Sarker M. M. Parvej A. Parvin M. A. Rimon M. Tarafder S. Sultana A. K. Saha ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-07-12 2018-07-12 16 1 65 70 10.3329/bjvm.v16i1.37378 STATUS OF MILK PRODUCTION AND SUBCLINICAL MASTITIS IN DAIRY COWS ALONG WITH SOCIOECONOMIC CONDITION OF THE FARMERS A cross sectional study was conducted to characterize the present situation of milk production, to identify the existing socioeconomic status of dairy farmers, and to determine the prevalence of subclinical mastitis (SCM) in dairy cows. A total of 229 smallholder dairy farms at Bangladesh Agricultural University surrounding areas were investigated during January to March 2015. Direct interview with farmers, and physical examination of the cows were done to collect farm and cow level data. It appeared that all of the farmers were involved in other occupations besides dairying, in which almost half of them (48.29%) belong to agricultural cultivation. Educational level of the most of the farmers was illiterate to primary level (68.5%). The average annual income of farm owners was Tk. 219109.17, of which around half of the total income comes from livestock. Average milk production of the farms was 7.73 L/day with a range of 0.5 to 305 L. Milk samples were collected from 101 milking cows and were subjected to somatic cell count (SCC) by automatic nucleocounter machine. The overall prevalence of subclinical mastitis was 20.79%. The prevalence of subclinical mastitis was comparatively higher in Sahiwal cows (42.86%), cows that yield &gt;5 to 10 L milk per day, and in late lactation stage (&gt;180 days). M. M. Hasan S. Talukder M. A. Maghla K. N. Shithi S. Akter N. Hasan M. A. Islam M. A. Islam M. R. Alam M. N. Mia S. N. Trisha R. A. Lima S. Rana M. Kamruzzaman M. S. Hossain B. H. Mehedi H. A. Rifat M. A. Ehsan M. T. Islam ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-07-12 2018-07-12 16 1 71 79 10.3329/bjvm.v16i1.37379 IN-VITRO EFFICACY OF VERENDA (Ricinus communis) LEAVES EXTRACT AGAINST TICKS IN CATTLE Tick infestation is commonly found in every commercial cattle farm and domestically reared cattle. Farm generally used acaricides to treat tick infestation; however finding new, cheap and alternative source of acaricides is a prime concern. Here, we investigated the <em>in-vitro</em> efficacy of verenda (<em>Ricinus communis</em>) leaves extracts to treat tick infestation. We prepared aqueous, methanolic and ethanolic extract of verenda leaves to apply on ticks. A total of 90 ticks (both hard ticks and soft ticks) was collected from cattle in local area of Mymensingh region and divided into 3 treatment groups: A (aqueous), B (ethanol), C (methanol) and D (control). All groups were sub-divided into 3 sub-groups on the basis of concentration of 1%, 2% and 3% treatments. Ticks were treated with different concentration of extract and observation of tick was performed 12, 24 and 36 hours interval. The whole experiment was repeated thrice. Our data suggests 3% methanolic extract confer highest efficacy against ticks and verenda leaves extract could be used alternatively as acaricides. S. Islam S. Talukder J. Ferdous M. M. Hasan Y. A. Sarker S. Sachi M. A. Alim M. H. Sikder ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-07-12 2018-07-12 16 1 81 86 10.3329/bjvm.v16i1.37380 PREDISPOSING FACTORS ASSOCIATED WITH DISEASES IN ANIMALS IN NIGERIA AND POSSIBLE BOTANICAL IMMUNOSTIMULANTS AND IMMUNOMODULATORS: A REVIEW <p>The factors predisposing to diseases in Nigeria, Sub-Saharan was classified basically as animal, environmental, cliental among others. This review   was aimed at broadening the horizon of the Veterinarian. These factors were discussed in the<span style="text-decoration: line-through;"> light</span> perspective of the peculiarity of Nigeria being a developing country. The write- up also proffered some solutions using organic botanicals agents which are relatively safe in food animals with little residual effect. Some of the plants suggested are: <em>Allium sativm, Curcuma longa, Discorea japonica, Ziginber officinale, Jatropha gossipofolia, Datura spp  </em>and<em> Boerhaavia diffusa</em>. Supplements suggested are ascorbic acid, citric acid and Vitamin E. Immunomodulating supplements suggested are interferons, L-carnitine. The immunomodulating and immunostimulating agents suggested could be used in immunocompromised animals due to contemporary predisposing factors to diseases in this geographical region.</p> K. T. Biobaku S. A. Amid ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-07-12 2018-07-12 16 1 87 101 10.3329/bjvm.v16i1.37381 BIOCHEMICAL AND PATHOLOGICAL EFFECTS OF PALM, MUSTARD AND SOYBEAN OILS IN RATS The investigation was conducted to determine the effects of different edible oils in experimental animals. A total of 36 male Long Evans rats of one month age were randomly divided into four equal groups. Rats of Group A were kept as control by feeding rat pellet. Rats of Group B, C and D were fed rat pellet by mixing of palm, mustard and soybean oils respectively, at the dose of 15 % in feed for 6 months. The methods included determination of weight gains, lipid profiles and histopathological lesions in different organs: aorta, liver, heart and kidneys at 0 day, 3 months and 6 months interval. All experimental rats exhibited progressive weight gain during the research period and soybean oil treated group showed the highest significant (P&lt;0.01) body weight gain (153 %) but mustard oil resulted significant (P&lt;0.05) increased liver weight (4.557g) after 6 months. Soybean oil showed significant (P&lt;0.01) increased total cholesterol (204.25 mg/dl), HDL (53.15 mg/dl) and LDL (113.06 mg/dl) than other groups. Triglyceride levels of all oil treated groups were significantly (P&lt;0.05) lower than control group. Histopathology revealed that palm oil fed group had fatty liver, narrowed blood vessel and thickened aorta of heart. Soybean oil fed group also showed narrowed blood vessels but mustard oil fed group showed no noticeable change in the mentioned vital organs. After the investigation, mustard oil proved comparatively better than palm and soybean oil. M. S. Hoque M. E. Kabir M. M. Hasan M. T. Rahman M. Rashid T. Ruba M. H. Rahman A. B. M. J. Uddin M. M. Hossain ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-07-12 2018-07-12 16 1 107 114 10.3329/bjvm.v16i1.37385 DETECTION OF MULTI–DRUG RESISTANT SALMONELLA FROM MILK AND MEAT IN BANGLADESH This study was conducted to investigate the prevalence of <em>Salmonella </em>spp<em>. </em>in milk, chicken meat and beef and to determine the multi-drug resistance (MDR) profile of <em>Salmonella </em>spp<em>. </em>in Mymensingh and Gazipur districts, Bangladesh. A total of 169 samples of milk (n=108), chicken meat (n=51) and beef (n=10) were collected from Bangladesh Agricultural University (BAU) dairy farm, American dairy farm, Gazipur and different  small dairy farms of municipal area during July 2016 to June 2017. <em>Salmonella </em>spp.<em> </em>were isolated on various selective agar media such as: Salmonella-Shigella (SS) agar, Xylose-Lysine Deoxycholate (XLD) agar, Eosine-Methylene Blue (EMB) agar. Identification of <em>Salmonella </em>spp. was done by colony characteristics, Gram staining, biochemical test and Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR). Multi-drug resistant <em>Salmonella </em>spp.<em> </em>was detected by disc diffusion test using 10 commonly used antibiotics. The overall prevalence of <em>Salmonella </em>spp.<em> </em>in all food samples was 21.89%. A total of 29 (56.86%) chicken meat, 02 (1.85%) milk, and 06 (60%) beef samples were <em>Salmonella </em>spp<em>. </em>positive. Antibiogram study showed that an overall 89.19% of <em>Salmonella </em>spp. was found multi-drug resistant. Specifically 100%, 66.67% and 93.10% of the <em>Salmonella </em>spp<em>.</em> isolates originated from milk, beef and chicken meat respectively were multi-drug resistant. The result of this study suggests that MDR <em>Salmonella </em>spp. is prevalent in the milk and meat which might cause public health hazard if proper hygienic measures are not undertaken at farm and marketing level. M. A. Rahman A. K. M. A. Rahman M. A. Islam M. M. Alam ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-07-12 2018-07-12 16 1 115 120 10.3329/bjvm.v16i1.37388 SEASONAL VARIATION OF GILL, SKIN, MUSCLE, LIVER AND KIDNEY PATHOLOGY OF MRIGAL (Cirrhinus cirrhosus) IN CULTURAL POND FISHERIES, MYMENSINGH, BANGLADESH <p>An investigation on the seasonal variation of gill, skin muscle, liver and kidney pathology of Mrigal (<em>Cirrhinus cirrhosus</em>) was carried out from four Government (Govt.) and four Private (Pvt.) fish farms, Mymensingh, Bangladesh during June, 2010 to May, 2012. Fish sampling and water quality parameters were monitored monthly basis. For histopathological studies skin, muscle, gill, liver and kidney were collected, processed and stained in Haematoxylin and Eosin.  Histologically, Mrigal of different fish farms were more affected in colder months. All the investigated organs of Mrigal were exhibited few abnormalities during summer, however, mild hyperplasia, haemorrhage, partial loss of secondary gill lamellae, marked and hypertrophy was observed during the rainy season. Several pathological changes like necrosis, fungal granuloma, protozoan and monogenean cyst, vacuolation, melanomacrophase, haemorrhage, hypertrophy, hyperplasia and clubbing were recorded in all the investigated organs. Among them fish gills and skin were more affected followed by liver and kidney. In some cases, large bacterial colony and protozoan cyst were observed in the secondary gill lamellae of Mrigal. The ectoparasites were very common in gills and skin of all fishes. Water quality parameters were taken and management practices were investigated fortnightly interval in different farms. These were almost similar for all experimental ponds. The risk of being infestation by parasites of carp significantly (p&lt;0.001) increased when the water quality parameters such as temperature, dissolved oxygen, pH, ammonia, hardness, alkalinity, transparency and depth of water etc. were not maintained the optimum level.</p> D. R. Das K. J. Chandra ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-07-12 2018-07-12 16 1 121 129 10.3329/bjvm.v16i1.37389 SEROPREVALENCE OF EQUINE BRUCELLOSIS: FIRST REPORT IN BANGLADESH Despite the endemicity of brucellosis, there is no report on the equine brucellosis in Bangladesh. The Rose Bengal Test (RBT) was used to determine the seroprevalence of <em>Brucella</em> antibodies amongst 112 horses from different areas of Bangladesh. The overall seroprevalence of equine brucellosis was 1.79%.The prevalence recorded in Ghatail area was 3.45% and there was no positive reactor in Shakipur and Savar areas. Sex wise prevalence showed that the prevalence was 3.08%in female and 0.00% in male horse. Only the adult (&gt;3 years of old) horses showed the positive RBT reaction (2.35%), whereas young (&lt;3 years of old) horses did not showed positive RBT reaction. The present study reports the first serological prevalence of <em>Brucell</em><em>a</em> infection in horses in Bangladesh. There is need for the inclusion of horses in brucellosis surveillance and control strategies in Bangladesh to safeguard people from high risk. M. K. S. A. Millat N. M. Shafy S. T. Sharmy F. Yeasmin M. F. Karim M. A. Ehsan R. R. Sarker F. Khtun M. A. Wares M. M. Hasan I. Nishidate M. S. Rahman ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-07-12 2018-07-12 16 1 103 106 10.3329/bjvm.v16i1.37383