Bangladesh Journal of Scientific and Industrial Research <p>Full text articles available</p> en-US <p>Bangladesh Council of Scientific and Industrial Research (BCSIR) holds the copyright to all contents published in <em>Bangladesh Journal of Scientific and Industrial Research </em>(<em>BJSIR</em>). A copyright transfer form should be signed by the author(s) and be returned to BJSIR.</p><p>The entire contents of the <em>BJSIR</em> are protected under Bangladesh Council of Scientific and Industrial Research (<em>BCSIR</em>) copyrights. <em></em></p><p><a href="" rel="license"><img style="border-width: 0;" src="" alt="Creative Commons Licence" /></a><br /><em>BJSIR</em> is an open access journal, and articles are distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial License (CC BY-NC) <a href="" rel="license">Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License</a> which allows others remix, tweak, and build upon the articles non-commercially, and although their new works must also acknowledge and be non-commercial, they don’t have to license their derivative works on the same terms.</p> (Dr Mamtaz Dawlatana) (Md Fahmid Uddin Khondoker) Mon, 30 Dec 2019 05:23:46 +0000 OJS 60 Karyomorphological study of Enhydra fluctuans Lour. (Asteraceae) <p>In the present study, karyomorphological features of <em>Enhydra fluctuans </em>Lour. were investigated. Orcein-staining was used for the authentic chromosomal characterization and identification. In <em>E. fluctuans </em>‘Simple Chromocenter Type’ of interphase nuclei was observed with many small heterochromatin blocks after orcein staining. Prophase chromosomes showed ‘Gradient Type’ with orcein staining. This species was found to possess 2n=10x=110 with basic chromosome number x=11 and this is probably the first report for this species. The centromeric formula of this species was ‘38m+70sm+2ac’. The above features indicated that <em>E. fluctuans </em>is an advance polyploid with asymmetric karyotype. The total chromatin length (2n) was 295.92 μm. Individual chromosome length ranged from 1.84-4.26 μm. The relative length of each chromosome ranged from 0.006-0.014. The above mentioned data will be useful for karyomorphological characterization of <em>E. fluctuans </em>from Bangladesh.</p> <p><em>Bangladesh J. Sci. Ind. Res.</em><strong>54(4)</strong>, 283-288, 2019</p> MS Rahman ##submission.copyrightStatement## Mon, 30 Dec 2019 04:59:38 +0000 Influence of NaCl on the formation of stoichiometric polycrystalline La0.85Na0.15MnO3 <p>Origination of defects and loss of Na during the sintering process are the major problems for the conventional solid-state synthesis technique to form sodium (Na) doped lanthanum manganite. To minimize defect and Na loss during the sintering process, the sodium (Na) doped lanthanum manganite with 15% substitution of La by Na (La<sub>0.85</sub>Na<sub>0.15</sub>MnO<sub>3</sub>) was synthesized using the NaCl flux material incorporated with the conventional solid-state reaction technique (flux method). The amount of micro strain, lattice strain and dislocation density for the flux method to grow polycrystalline La<sub>0.85</sub>Na<sub>0.15</sub>MnO<sub>3</sub>were detected successfully. The structural study using X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) and Energy Dispersive Analysis X-Ray (EDAX) showed that the use of flux synthesis technique instead of conventional solid-state reaction technique was satisfactory to obtain stoichiometric La<sub>0.85</sub>Na<sub>0.15</sub>MnO<sub>3</sub> polycrystalline structure with a smaller defect. From the closer inspection of the XRD spectrum for La<sub>0.85</sub>Na<sub>0.15</sub>MnO<sub>3</sub> significantly showed a higher order layered structure for the cathode material for using this flux technique, which is a very important feature to increase the efficiency of the cathode material.</p> <p><em>Bangladesh J. Sci. Ind. Res.</em><strong>54(4)</strong>, 289-296, 2019</p> R Majumder, MM Hossain, ME Hossain, MAR Sarker ##submission.copyrightStatement## Mon, 30 Dec 2019 04:59:47 +0000 Synthesis and characterization of N, N′-bis (isatin) diamino zirconium (IV) complexes <p>N, N′-bis (isatin) diamine schiff base ligands were synthesized by the condensation reaction of Isatin with various diamine (ethane-1,2-diamine, propane-1,3-diamine and hexane-1,6-diamine) in 2:1 molar ratios. These ligands were used to prepare Zr (IV) complexes. Prepared ligands and complexes were characterized by using conductance measurement, FT-IR, UV-Visible and 1HNMR spectroscopy. The presence of FT-IR band for azomethine group supports the formation of ligand. Vibrational bands for Zr←N and Zr←O in complexes signify the coordination through O and N sites of ligands. 1HNMR peak for NH moiety in ligand gets almost disappeared in complex reveals tautomerism of NH with nearby carbonyl oxygen due to the effect of complexation. The absence of peak above 500 nm in the electronic spectra indicates d0 system of zirconium in complexes. The elemental analytical data was analogous to theoretical composition of ligands and complexes. The molar conductance values obtained for the complexes represent their non-electrolytic character.</p> <p><em>Bangladesh J. Sci. Ind. Res.</em><strong>54(4)</strong>, 297-306, 2019</p> A Sarker, T Hossain, MN Bashir, KJ Fatema, AKML Rahman ##submission.copyrightStatement## Mon, 30 Dec 2019 04:59:54 +0000 Modification of 80-100 penetration grade bitumen <p>Bangladesh is facing severe problem in using 80-100 penetration grade bitumen for flexible pavement construction due to its high temperature susceptibility, e.g. lower penetration index, insufficient viscosity and lower moisture resistance. To improve these properties bitumen modification is essential. Present work describes the modification of general 80-100 penetration grade bitumen by incorporating natural rubber latex and an organic polymeric additive, polyaniline. Mixing parameters, such as amounts of natural rubber and polyaniline, mixing time and temperature and stirring speed were controlled and investigated carefully. Six bituminous aggregate binders were prepared by varying amounts of natural rubber latex into bitumen by wet process. Physical tests, e.g. penetration, softening point, ductility and viscosity were performed on all samples and compared with unmodified base bitumen. Modified bitumen samples showed better properties compared to ordinary 80-100 penetration grade bitumen. Spectral, thermal and scanning electron microscopic tests were performed on control and bitumen-natural rubber-polyaniline blend samples. Result showed better mixing efficiency of the constituents and thus improved physical, thermal and anti-stripping properties suitable for paving application in Bangladesh and like countries. All findings were discussed in details.</p> <p><em>Bangladesh J. Sci. Ind. Res.</em><strong>54(4)</strong>, 307-320, 2019</p> SK Ray, RH Bhuiyan, MS Islam, MJ Abedin, PK Nandy, Z Islam, MR Hasan, HP Nur ##submission.copyrightStatement## Mon, 30 Dec 2019 05:00:04 +0000 Phytochemical screening and determination of minerals and heavy metals in the flowers of Nyctanthes arbor-tristis L <p>Dried powder of the flowers of <em>Nyctanthes arbor-tristis </em>L<em>. </em>was analyzed for phytochemical screening, proximate compositions, mineral constituents and heavy metals analysis. The phytochemical screening indicated the presence of carbohydrates, flavonoids, glycosides, cardiac glycosides, reducing sugar, saponins, steroids, tannins and terpenoids. Alkaloids, anthraquinones and phlobatannins were absent. The proximate compositions was found to be high in moisture content (92.27 ± 0.09 %), the ash content was found to be (0.53 ± 0.02 %) while the protein content was 0.97 ± 0.05 % by fresh weight basis. The air dried flowers sample revealed highest in oxygen content (50.16 %) and lowest in sulfur content (0.10%). A total of six anions were analyzed. The sample was found rich in fluoride (94.87 ± 2.501 mg/Kg) and sulfate (165.24 ± 5.14 mg/Kg) content. A total of fifteen metals were analyzed. Heavy metals such as Pb, Cd, Hg, Cr and As were found in trace amounts, which were within the acceptable limits according to WHO and FAO</p> <p><em>Bangladesh J. Sci. Ind. Res.</em><strong>54(4)</strong>, 321-328, 2019</p> MM Haque, N Sultana, SMT Abedin, SE Kabir ##submission.copyrightStatement## Mon, 30 Dec 2019 05:00:11 +0000 Refused derived fuel pellets from municipal solid waste and rice husk <p>The objective of this study was to optimize the parameters for the development of refused derived fuel (RDF) pellets from municipal solid waste (MSW) and rice husk by using Response Surface Methodology (RSM). In this a systematic study was conducted, where three parameters were varied according to RSM factorial design. The binder concentration (5-10%) pressure (700-1200 psi) and retention time (3-7 minutes) were used for RDF pellet development under hydraulic press, measured hardness bulk density (BD) and durability (DU). The T3 treatment results revealed the highest pellet hardness, bulk density, and durability 25 kg, 805 kg/m3, 99% respectively by application binder concentration (5%), pressure (1200 psi) and retention time (5 minutes). The experimental data on response variables were fitted into quadratic polynomial model using the multiple regression analysis and found that it was statistically significant quadratic model. The RDF physical chemical and mechanical characteristics were also evaluated and found their relationship between HHV, carbon, ash, DU, BD and energy density. The ash contents were inversely proportional to DU and HHV whereas DU was directly related to BD.</p> <p><em>Bangladesh J. Sci. Ind. Res.</em><strong>54(4)</strong>, 329-338, 2019</p> MK Iqbal, A Nadeem, MT Butt ##submission.copyrightStatement## Mon, 30 Dec 2019 05:00:21 +0000 Liquid-liquid extraction of mineral acids using Tri-n-octylamine <p>The present work reports the extraction behaviors of mineral acids: HClO4, HNO3, HCl and H2SO4 (commonly found in acidic bleed solutions from the hydrometallurgical route of metal extraction processes) by tri-n-octylamine (TOA) dissolved in distilled colorless kerosene. The systems have been investigated as functions of various experimental parameters, such as time, [acid], [TOA], temperature, extraction stage and the organic to aqueous phase volume ratio (O/A). Strippings was also examined. Equilibration time is less than 60 min. The acid concentration in the organic phase at equilibrium is increased with increasing initial acid concentration in the aqueous phase for all systems. However, the is after %extraction decreased with increasing initial acid concentration in the aqueous phase. The % extraction increased remarkably with increasing [TOA] for all cases. Being the ratio of the [acid] in the organic to aqueous phase at equilibrium equal to extraction ratio, D; the log D vs. log [TOA] plot is almost a curve with slope 1 at lower concentration region and with slope ~2 at higher concentration region. The extraction efficiency of TOA varies in the order: HClO<sub>4</sub>&gt; HNO<sub>3</sub>&gt; HCl &gt; H<sub>2</sub>SO<sub>4</sub>. The acid-base-neutralization (extraction) reactions are exothermic with ΔH value much higher than -57 kJ/mol obtainable for of a strong acid - strong base neutralization. The loading capacity of extractant (g per 100 g TOA) for acids varied in the order: HClO<sub>4</sub> (30.69) &gt; HNO<sub>3</sub> (20.49) &gt; H<sub>2</sub>SO<sub>4 </sub>(17.87) &gt; HCl (10.31). On using lower organic to aqueous phase volume ratio (O/A), the organic phase saturated with acid can be obtained on stage-wise extraction. The extracted organic phase, for all systems (excepting H<sub>2</sub>SO<sub>4</sub>-system) under investigation, can be stripped effectively in a single stage by 0.10 g eq/L NaOH solution to the extents of more than 96%. However, for H<sub>2</sub>SO<sub>4</sub>-system, two-stage stripping will be found effective.</p> <p><em>Bangladesh J. Sci. Ind. Res.</em><strong>54(4)</strong>, 339-346, 2019</p> AK Karmakar, RK Biswas, MF Khatun ##submission.copyrightStatement## Mon, 30 Dec 2019 05:00:29 +0000 Buckwheat flour fortified bread <p>This study was conducted to explore the possibility of substitution of wheat flour with 10%, 20%, 30%, 35% and 40% buckwheat (<em>Fagopyrum esculentum</em>) flour and to formulate bread with improved nutritional value along with acceptable nutritional and sensory attributes, and to compare with locally available breads. The results showed that the ash (0.80-1.21%), protein (10.11-16.23%), fat (4.88-5.85%), fiber (0.07-0.19%), energy (301-322 kcal/100g) and mineral contents were increased with the increasing content of buckwheat flour in the bread preparation. Physical characteristics were decreased with the increasing content of buckwheat flour. On sensory evaluation, bread formulated with 30% buckwheat flour was found acceptable. In comparison with locally available breads, 30% buckwheat flour substituted bread was found significantly higher in ash, protein, fiber and energy content. Based on these results, it can be concluded that bread prepared with 30% substitution of wheat flour with buckwheat flour is nutritionally superior over locally available breads.</p> <p><em>Bangladesh J. Sci. Ind. Res.</em><strong>54(4)</strong>, 347-356, 2019</p> S Mohajan, MM Munna, TN Orchy, MM Hoque, T Farzana ##submission.copyrightStatement## Mon, 30 Dec 2019 05:00:40 +0000 Heavy metal concentration and health risk assessment in commonly sold vegetables in Dhaka city market <p>This study assesses the levels of heavy metals in vegetables (<em>Cucumis sativus, Solanum lycopersicum, Ipomoea aquatica, Amaranthus cruentus, Basella alba, Brassica oleracea, Musa acuminata</em>) collected from Kawran Bazar vegetable market located in Dhaka, Bangladesh. Also, it examines potential health risks from the consumption of these vegetables. The samples were randomly collected, processed and analyzed for heavy metals using Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer. Among the vegetables <em>Basella alba </em>had the highest heavy metal content followed by <em>Cucumis sativus, Amaranthus cruentus, Solanum lycopersicum, Brassica oleracea, Musa acuminate </em>and <em>Ipomoea aquatica. </em>The average daily intake for Cr (0.245 mg/person/day) was above the permissible maximum tolerable daily intake of 0.20 mg/person/day endorsed by WHO/FAO (2013). The hazard quotient (HQ) values for Cd in <em>Basella alba </em>(4.400) and <em>Brassica oleracea </em>(1.333), for Cr in <em>Ipomoea aquatica </em>(1.756)<em>, Amaranthus cruentus </em>(1.655)<em>, Basella alba </em>(3.033) and <em>Musa acuminate </em>(1.333) as well as the hazard indices (HI) for <em>I. aquatica </em>(2.537)<em>, A. cruentus </em>(2.791)<em>, B.alba </em>(8.883)<em>, B. oleracea </em>(2.295)<em>, M. acuminate </em>(2.999) exceeded unity, signifying presence of health risks from consumption of the vegetables. This study recommends regular monitoring of heavy metals in vegetables and foodstuffs to prevent excessive accrual in food chain.</p> <p><em>Bangladesh J. Sci. Ind. Res.</em><strong>54(4)</strong>, 357-366, 2019</p> M Sultana, MN Mondol, AA Mahir, R Sultana, SF Elahi, N Afrose, AS Chamon ##submission.copyrightStatement## Mon, 30 Dec 2019 05:00:49 +0000 Lipids profile of bitter melon (Momordica charantia L .) fruit and ebony (Diospyros mespiliformis Hochst ex A. DC .) tree fruit pulp <p>There are several underexploited plant seeds or fruits in Nigeria with little information about their chemical composition. To this end a comprehensive study on fatty acid, phospholipids and phytosterols composition of bitter melon (<em>Momordica charaantia</em>) fruit and ebony tree (<em>Diospyros mespiliformis</em>) fruit pulp were determined using standard analytical techniques. The most concentrated fatty acid (%) was linoleic acid in <em>Momordica charantia </em>fruit (45.47) and 44.82 in <em>Diospyros mespiliformis </em>fruit pulp. The increasing order of the concentrated fatty acids in <em>Momordica charantia </em>fruit were: linolenic acid (2.38) &lt; stearic acid (7.52) &lt; oleic acid (20.18) &lt; palmitic acid (23.64) &lt; linoleic acid (45.47) while that of <em>Diospyros mespiliformis </em>fruit pulp were: linolenic acid (5.73) &lt; stearic acid (8.62) &lt; oleic acid (18.95) &lt; palmitic acid (20.88) &lt; linoleic acid (44.82). Arachidonic, arachidic, palmitoleic, margaric, behenic, erucic, lignoceric, myristic, lauric, capric and caprylic acids were present in small quantities with none of them recording up to 1.0% in both of the two samples. The results also showed low concentration of monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA) (20.41%) in <em>Momordica charantia </em>fruit and 19.13% in <em>Diospyros mespiliformis </em>fruit pulp, and values of polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) were 2.44 and 5.78% for the two samples, respectively. The respective phospholipids composition showed a highest concentration of phosphatidylcholine in <em>Momordica charantia </em>and <em>Diospyros mespiliformis </em>(100.31and 88.12 mg/100 g) while lysophosphatidylcholine and phosphatidic acid were the least concentrate values of 12.62 and 14.52 mg/100 g in <em>Momordicacharantia </em>and <em>Diospyros mespiliformis, </em>respectively. The concentrations of phytosterols were of low values except in sitosterol with values of 153.28 and 119.46 mg/100 g in <em>Momordica charantia </em>and <em>Diospyros mespiliformis, </em>respectively. This study provides an informative lipid profile that will serve as a basis for further chemical investigations and nutritional evaluation of <em>Momordica charantia </em>fruit and <em>Diospyros mespiliformis </em>fruit pulp.</p> <p><em>Bangladesh J. Sci. Ind. Res.</em><strong>54(4)</strong>, 367-374, 2019</p> MO Aremu, AA Waziri, FJ Faleye, AM Magomya, UC Okpaegbe ##submission.copyrightStatement## Mon, 30 Dec 2019 05:00:58 +0000 Oxidative stabilization of corn oil with spinach extract <p>The present study was aimed to analyze the antioxidant activity of spinach (<em>Spinacia oleracea</em>) extract in oxidative stabilization of refined, bleached and de-odorized (RBD) corn oil (CO). Corn oil was supplemented with three different concentrations 600, 1200 and 1800 ppm of methanolic spinach extract and then stored at 25<sup>o</sup>C and 60<sup>o</sup>C. Different oxidation measuring parameters such as peroxide value (PV), free fatty acid (FFA) value, iodine value (IV), conjugated dienes (CD), conjugated trienes (CT) and para-anisidine value (PAV) were examined. The potency of spinach extract as natural antioxidant was found to be as effective as the synthetic antioxidants BHA and BHT used as standards and highest stabilization was observed in the order CO-1800&gt;CO-1200&gt;CO-BHT&gt; CO-BHA&gt;CO-600&gt;CO-control. The results showed a significant effect of spinach extract in enhancing the oxidative stability of corn oil.</p> <p><em>Bangladesh J. Sci. Ind. Res.</em><strong>54(4)</strong>, 375-382, 2019</p> M Tehseen, S Hina, Alim un Nisa, A Ahmad ##submission.copyrightStatement## Mon, 30 Dec 2019 05:01:07 +0000 Functional properties of germinated and non-germinated cereals : A comparative study <p>Cereal grains play an important role in human nutrition which is useful both for infants and adults. The practice of germination of cereal grains has become popular now-a-days. The present research was carried out to study the functional properties of germinated and non-germinated cereal flours (wheat, maize, sorghum). Bulk density and tapped density were increased in germinated maize but decreased in germinated sorghum and wheat. In germinated wheat and sorghum flour, carr index, foaming capacity, foaming stability and swelling capacity were increased but decreased in germinated maize flour. The water holding capacity of germinated wheat (GW), germinated maize (GM) and germinated sorghum (GS) (0.93g/g, 1.91g/g and 2.06g/g respectively) was found as higher than the non-germinated wheat (NGW), non-germinated maize (NGM), non-germinated sorghum (NGS) (0.5g/g, 1.27g/g and 1.16g/g respectively). Germination process increased oil holding capacity, emulsion activity, emulsion stability and acidity of all three flour samples. The oil holding capacity of maize flour (1.75g/g) was increased which was higher than the other samples. Germinated sorghum had higher acidity (0.97%) than other germinated cereals. The pH value of germinated wheat, maize and sorghum flour was decreased due to germination. The observed functional properties indicated that germinated flours may have important functional ingredients for preparation of different snacks, baked products and other food product.</p> <p><em>Bangladesh J. Sci. Ind. Res.</em><strong>54(4)</strong>, 383-390, 2019</p> A Siddiqua, MS Ali, S Ahmed ##submission.copyrightStatement## Mon, 30 Dec 2019 05:01:14 +0000