Bangladesh Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology The official journal of the Bangladesh Physiological and Pharmacological Society. Department of Pharmacology BSMMU en-US Bangladesh Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology 1561-1566 Assessment of cardiovascular behavioural risk factors in medical student <p>It is an established fact that life-style related behavioral factors are mainly responsible for cardiovascular diseases. Doctors are playing very important role in imparting knowledge to the society as to how to stay away from diseases by adopting preventive measures. We studied the prevalence of life-style related risk behavior in medical students and to determine the effect of these factors on blood pressure.</p> <p>The study was conducted on 249 medical students, from which 182 were boys and 67 were girls of age group 16-29 years. In a random cross-sectional survey of medical students were interviewed for anthropometric measurements, BMI, dietary habits, physical activity and cardiovascular parameters. Cardiovascular risk factors in boys of medical college are more than girls. Out of 182 boys studied 48 [26.37%] were having their blood pressure values higher than 130/90 mm Hg. because of their faulty living/eating habits.</p> <p>Junk food, cola, alcohol and smoking is on rising trend with predominance of physical inactivity and overweight and as a consequence rise in the blood pressure. Dietary and exercise counseling is required for such students.</p> <p>DOI: <a href=""></a></p> <p>Bangladesh J Physiol Pharmacol 2014; 30(2):1-8</p> Manoj Bundela Jayant Kumar ND Soni Raghuveer Choudhary - Rajnee ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2015-03-25 2015-03-25 30 2 1 8 10.3329/bjpp.v30i2.22675 Patterns of medicine use in patients of common respiratory diseases treated in the Department of Pediatrics of BSMMU Hospital <p>The present study had attempted to evaluate the medicine use pattern in selected respiratory diseases treated in the Department of Pediatrics of Bangabandhu Sheikh Mujib Medical University (BSMMU) Hospital.</p> <p>An observational cross sectional study was conducted in the department of Pediatrics, Bangabandhu Sheikh Mujib Medical University (BSMMU) between January 2012 to June 2013. Retrospective prescribing data of sixty cases of bronchiolitis and childhood pneumonia and thirty cases of bronchial asthma was collected from the Record Room and reviewed for inclusion. Then the included treatment records were reviewed and appraised thoroughly. Information regarding patient profile, clinical diagnosis and detail information about medicine was documented in an audit form.</p> <p>Average number of medicine was 3.84, 4.31 and 4.47 in bronchial asthma, bronciholitis and pneumonia respectively and 4.28 for respiratory diseases. Generic prescribing was 12.46% for department of Pediatrics. Antimicrobials were used in 90.00, 96.66 and 100.00 percent cases of bronchial asthma, bronchiloitis and pneumonia respectively. In case of pneumonia, highest prescribed antimicrobial was Ceftriaxone. Intravenous and oral steroids were used in 63.33, 26.66 and 0.00 percent cases of bronchial asthma, bronchiloitis and pneumonia respectively. Wide variation was observed with medicine selection in different respiratory diseases treated in the department of Pediatrics of BSMMU.</p> <p>Appropriateness of prescribing cannot be ascertained by medicine use study only. It was revealed that lots of diversity was present in the treatment or selection of medicine. Detail study using newer and comprehensive method and indicators may provide better understanding about prescribing, which might be beneficial to formulate interventions.</p> <p>DOI: <a href=""></a></p> <p>Bangladesh J Physiol Pharmacol 2014; 30(2):9-13</p> Swarmita Afreen Md Sayedur Rahman ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2015-03-25 2015-03-25 30 2 9 13 10.3329/bjpp.v30i2.22676 Study of autopsy based suicidal hanging <p><strong>Introduction: </strong>Hanging is one of the most commonly used methods for suicide in most countries. Commission of suicide by hanging is increasing in the people of Bangladesh. Suicidal hanging is detrimental to social health. Appropriate measures to prevent it are essential.</p> <p><strong>Objectives: </strong>To find out the demography, cause and nature of suicidal hanging.</p> <p><strong>Study design: </strong>It is a cross sectional type of descriptive study.</p> <p><strong>Setting: </strong>Data was collected on predesigned proformas from postmortem reports recorded by the students of DFM and MD in Forensic Medicine at Dhaka medical college during their course.</p> <p><strong>Subject: </strong>Autopsy performed on the cases of suicidal hanging at Dhaka Medical College Morgue from September, 2011 to June, 2013.</p> <p><strong>Result: </strong>Out of 100 cases, eighty two (82%) were female and the most commonest (50%) age group were from 11-20 years. In 18(18%) cases Dopatta were the commonest material used for hanging. Quarrel with husband 12(12%) were the predominant cause to destroy life. In ninety (90%) cases had complete suspension where the most commonest situation of gap was on the back (38.89%). During autopsy of suicidal hanging there were injuries on the body of deceased in few cases. But these injuries did not result in death of the victim.</p> <p>DOI: <a href=""></a></p> <p>Bangladesh J Physiol Pharmacol 2014; 30(2): 14-17</p> Nirupama Talukder Kh A Karim Tarana Chowdhury Ashan Habib Azreen Momen Chowdhury Kawser Perveen ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2015-03-25 2015-03-25 30 2 14 17 10.3329/bjpp.v30i2.22677 An experimental study on effects of wheatgrass (Triticum aestivum) juice on low density lipoprotien (LDL) level in blood of experimentally induced hypercholesterolaemic male long Evans rat <p>An experimental study was done to observe the hypocholesterolaemic effect of wheatgrass (Triticum aestivum) juice on experimentally induced hypercholesterolaemic rats, especially on serum low density lipoprotein (LDL) level, which was carried out in the Department of Pharmacology &amp; Therapeutics, Dhaka Medical College, Dhaka, between July, 2009 and June, 2010. A total number of 48 healthy adult male Long Evans rats (Norwegian strain) were used for the present study. 6 rats were taken in each group of total 8 groups treated differently with 1 control group. Rats of the first 5 groups were sacrificed at 29<sup>th</sup> day and their serum total cholesterol levels were measured. The rest of the rats were sacrificed at 57<sup>th</sup> day and their serum total cholesterol levels were measured. The mean serum LDL of 10ml/kg grass juice fed normal rats was decreased by 11.64% than that of the laboratory diet fed control group (P&lt;0.01). Serum LDL of the group of rats treated with 10ml/kg grass juice and1% cholesterol diet were decreased by 36.59% than that of the hypercholesterolaemic control group (P&lt;0.001). Serum LDL of the hypercholesterolaemic rats treated with 10ml/kg grass juice for 28 days were decreased by 29.10%, and in hypercholesterolaemic rats treated with 20ml/kg grass juice for 28 days were decreased by 39.46% (P&lt;0.001). Reduction of LDL as evident on hypercholesterolaemic rats treated with 20ml/kg grass juice, which was similar to hypercholesterolaemic rats treated with 0.14mg/kg Atorvastatin for 28 days.</p> <p>DOI: <a href=""></a></p> <p>Bangladesh J Physiol Pharmacol 2014; 30(2): 18-24</p> Rokhsana Dil Afroz Abu Sadat Mohammad Nurunnabi Md Ismail Khan Tuhin Jahan ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2015-03-25 2015-03-25 30 2 18 24 10.3329/bjpp.v30i2.22678 Effect of ethanolic extract of Aloe vera (Aloe barbadensis) gel on blood glucose level of alloxan induced hyperglycaemic mice <p>The purpose of this study was to show the antidiabetic effect of ethanolic extract of Aloe vera gel in alloxan induced hyperglycaemic mice. Ethanolic extract of Aloe vera gel was orally administered for four weeks at a dose of 300mg/kg body weight. Weekly estimates of fasting blood glucose level in normal non-diabetic and alloxan induced hyperglycaemic mice were assessed. Ethanolic Aloe vera gel extract revealed no blood glucose lowering action upon non-diabetic mice. But, a significant reduction in blood glucose level (p&lt;0.001) was seen in diabetic mice, when compared with diabetic control. Similar results were found when compared with a standard antidiabetic drug, gliclazide. To conclude, as administration of ethanolic extract of Aloe vera gel significantly reduces blood glucose level in hyperglycaemic mice, it can optimistically emerge as a new hope in the management of diabetes mellitus.</p> <p>DOI: <a href=""></a></p> <p>Bangladesh J Physiol Pharmacol 2014; 30(2): 25-31</p> Shammin Haque Ferdous Ara Md Jalaluddin Iqbal Halima Begum Nazmun Nahar Alam ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2015-03-25 2015-03-25 30 2 25 31 10.3329/bjpp.v30i2.22680 Comparative evaluation of platelet augmentation activity of Carica papaya leaf juice and hydrocortisone in thrombocytopenic rats <p><strong>Aim </strong> The study aims at determining the possible effects of Carica papaya leaf juice and hydrocortisone in increasing the platelet count in thrombocytopenia similar to dengue fever.</p> <p><strong>Methodology </strong> The study was carried out on 24 Long Evans Norwegian strain healthy rats to investigate the comparative platelet increasing effect of Carica papaya leaf juice and hydrocortisone in experimentally induced thrombocytopenic rats. Thrombocytopenia was induced by 3 doses of cyclophosphamide (100mg/kg body weight) given subcutaneously. The rats were divided into 4 groups comprising of six animals in each group. These groups included a normal control and a cyclophosphamide induced thrombocytopenic control and the remaining two cyclophosphamide induced thrombocytopenic groups were administered Carica papaya leaf juice and hydrocortisone respectively.</p> <p>The duration of study was 15 days. The clotting time was determined on the 15th day although blood samples were obtained from the rat tails at various time intervals to determine the platelet count.</p> <p>Collected data was tabulated and Statistical analysis was performed by using appropriate significant test. A probability value P &lt; 0.05 was considered to be statistically significant.</p> <p><strong>Result </strong> Average platelet counts of the test and control groups were (6.89)×10<sup>5</sup>/?L and (6.75)×10<sup>5</sup>/?L respectively before the experiment. In the experiment there was no significant difference in the platelet counts during the first 3 days in either group. However, platelet counts within the test group started to fall after Day 3 and remarkable thrombocytopenia developed after 7days and the average value was (2.68)×10<sup>5</sup>/?L. From day 11 Carica papaya leaf juice and Hydrocortisone was given in two test groups following cyclophosphamide and platelet counts observed to reach a peak level at Day 14 (7.83)×10<sup>5</sup>/?L in case of following Carica papaya leaf juice, and (4.05)×10<sup>5</sup>/?L in case of following Hydrocortisone. The clotting time was determined on day 15 and it was found to be considerably lower (95.5 ± 2.762 sec) in case of Carica papaya leaf juice than (129±3.124 sec) in Hydrocortisone.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion </strong> Carica papaya leaf juice has more platelet increasing effect than hydrocortisone and this study also reflects that Carica papaya leaf juice may be a potential candidate for further research leading to the development of a herbal therapeutic agent for thrombocytopenia manifested in diseases such as dengue.</p> <p>DOI: <a href=""></a></p> <p>Bangladesh J Physiol Pharmacol 2014; 30(2): 32-40</p> Tansena Akhter Md Ismail Khan Eliza Omar Eva ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2015-03-25 2015-03-25 30 2 32 40 10.3329/bjpp.v30i2.22681 Drug utilization trends in ENT out patient department in a private teaching hospital in Bangladesh <p>A cross-sectional descriptive study was carried out among individuals attending the ENT out-patient department from 1st June 2012 to 3Oth August 2012 in Z.H. Sikder Women’s Medical College &amp; Hospital, Dhaka. Bangladesh. The primary aim of this study was to generate up to date information on drug use in the ENT outpatient service of our hospital indications for use. A total of 150 prescriptions were randomly audited at varying time interval from the department of ENT during a three month period. The data was collected in customized proforma. Maximum cases were of otitis media 74(49.33%), sinusitis 24 (16.00%), tonsilitis 15 (10.00%), pharyngitis 14 (09.33%), DNS 14 (09.33%), rhinitis 07 (04.66%), adenoiditis 02 (01.33%). The average number of drugs used in the prescriptions was 2.94%. None of the drugs were prescribed by generic name. All of them were prescribed with trade names. The topical preparations were the most commonly prescribed drugs. Middle and lower income group of patients generally attend out-patient department, the average cost per prescription was 112 taka. The average cost to be high in this group. Educational sessions for the doctors at different levels to encourage prescribing by generic names and on correct writing of prescriptions may be considered. Studies covering a larger number of patients and for a longer time period are required. A greater number of patients can be studied, seasonal variations can be overcome and drug utilization can be measured quantitatively.</p> <p>DOI: <a href=""></a></p> <p>Bangladesh J Physiol Pharmacol 2014; 30(2): 41-45</p> Omma Hafsa Any Layla Afroza Banu Rezina Sultana Nashid Tabassum Khan Marufa Hossain Selina Akhtar ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2015-03-25 2015-03-25 30 2 41 45 10.3329/bjpp.v30i2.22682 Comparison of results obtained by widal agglutination test & polymerase chain reaction among clinically suspected typhoid fever cases <p>The diagnosis of typhoid fever currently depends on isolation of Salmonella Typhi from blood. The sensitivity of blood culture is very low due to prior antibiotic treatment which is a common practice in Bangladesh. The sensitivity of blood culture also decreases at later stage of the disease. Widal test is the most utilized test in Bangladesh next to blood culture because it is inexpensive, less invasive. But the result of the test is controversial due to false negative &amp; false positive results in some cases.  In this study, a recently introduced polymerase chain reaction-based technique (which has 100% specificity for S. Typhi) was compared with widal test among 80 clinically suspected typhoid fever cases.  Among 80 cases, the respective figures of positivity for PCR &amp; widal test were 70% &amp; 43.75% respectively.  It can be concluded that PCR based technique is more sensitive &amp; much superior to widal for diagnosis of typhoid fever.</p> <p>DOI: <a href=""></a></p> <p>Bangladesh J Physiol Pharmacol 2014; 30(2): 46-50</p> Shafinaz Khan Md Ruhul Amin Miah Shammin Haque Chowdhury Rafia Naheen ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2015-03-25 2015-03-25 30 2 46 50 10.3329/bjpp.v30i2.22683