Bangladesh Journal of Medical Science https://www.banglajol.info/index.php/BJMS <p>A journal sponsored by the Ibn Sina Trust. Full text articles available.<br />NLM ID=101563859</p><p>Bangladesh Journal of Medical Sciences is included on <a title="DOAJ" href="https://doaj.org/toc/2076-0299?source=%7B%22query%22%3A%7B%22filtered%22%3A%7B%22filter%22%3A%7B%22bool%22%3A%7B%22must%22%3A%5B%7B%22term%22%3A%7B%22index.issn.exact%22%3A%222076-0299%22%7D%7D%2C%7B%22term%22%3A%7B%22_type%22%3A%22article%22%7D%7D%5D%7D%7D%2C%22query%22%3A%7B%22match_all%22%3A%7B%7D%7D%7D%7D%2C%22from%22%3A0%2C%22size%22%3A100%7D" target="_blank">DOAJ</a>.</p><p><strong>Journal Metrics</strong><br /><a href="https://www.scopus.com/sourceid/19900192321" target="_blank">CiteScore Tracker 2017</a>: Updated on April 30, 2018</p><p><img 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" alt="" /></p><p><a href="https://www.researchgate.net/journal/2223-4721_Bangladesh_Journal_of_Medical_Science" target="_blank">ResearchGate Journal Impact</a> (2013): 0.62</p><p><a href="https://www.scimagojr.com/journalsearch.php?q=19900192321&amp;tip=sid" target="_blank">Scimago Journal Rank</a> (2017): 0.17</p><p><img src="data:image/png;base64,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" alt="" width="152" height="114" /></p> en-US <p>Authors who publish in the Bangladesh Journal of Medical Science agree to the following terms that:</p><ol type="1" start="1"><li>Authors retain copyright and grant Bangladesh Journal of Medical Science the right of first publication of the work.<br /><br /></li><li><a href="http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/" rel="license"><img style="border-width: 0;" src="https://i.creativecommons.org/l/by/4.0/88x31.png" alt="Creative Commons Licence" /></a><br />Articles in Bangladesh Journal of Medical Science are licensed under a <a href="http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/" rel="license">Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License</a> CC BY-4.0.This license permits use, distribution and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.</li><li>Authors are able to enter into separate, additional contractual arrangements for the distribution of the journal's published version of the work (e.g., post it to an institutional repository or publish it in a book), with an acknowledgement of its initial publication in this journal.</li><li>Authors are permitted to post their work online (e.g., in institutional repositories or on their website) as it can lead to productive exchanges, as well as greater citation of published work.</li></ol> kholdun@hotmail.com (Dr Abu Kholdun Al-Mahmood) banglajol.info@gmail.com (Md Fahmid Uddin Khondoker) Fri, 31 May 2019 18:27:16 +0000 OJS 3.1.1.4 http://blogs.law.harvard.edu/tech/rss 60 The Necessity and Challenges of Clinical Research Involving Children https://www.banglajol.info/index.php/BJMS/article/view/41610 <p>Abstract not available</p> <p>Bangladesh Journal of Medical Science Vol.18(3) 2019 p.451-452</p> ZAMH Zabidi Hussin ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 https://www.banglajol.info/index.php/BJMS/article/view/41610 Thu, 30 May 2019 00:00:00 +0000 Old Home and Caring Elderly Population: Need or Dilemma https://www.banglajol.info/index.php/BJMS/article/view/41611 <p><strong><em>Background: </em></strong>Number of elderly population is growing very faster all over the world. This growth in elderly population relative to other age groups challenges mostly the existing health services, family relationships and social security. In this article we tried to address the gravity of the issue at family, social and national level. We also examined the parents care scenario in Western World and Asian societies.</p> <p><strong><em>Observations and conclusions</em></strong>: Our observations revealed that old people from both West and Asia are interested to stay in their home with their children and grandchildren. This is a way to transmit there real life experience to their third generation (grand children) which, however, is very essential for the emotional, humane and psychological development of our future generation of the World. The present day capitalistic attitude is eroding the emotion and affection to the old and a big number of then end up in West and although smaller in Asian countries, but showed increasing trend, end up old homes. There are, however, situations where facilities needed for care of older people who lost their children and sometimes ailing people in native countries where their children living or settled aboard. Taking into consideration of the growing issue and empathic care of those facilities in such situations run following guidelines and ethical rules.</p> <p>Bangladesh Journal of Medical Science Vol.18(3) 2019 p.453-457</p> Sharmin Islam, Aminur Rahman, Abu Kholdun Al Mahmood, Abdullah Al Mamun, Md Fahmid Uddin Khondoker ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 https://www.banglajol.info/index.php/BJMS/article/view/41611 Thu, 30 May 2019 00:00:00 +0000 Health Manpower Forecasting: A systematic Review for Models and Approaches https://www.banglajol.info/index.php/BJMS/article/view/41612 <p><strong><em>Background: </em></strong>An appropriate planning requires forecasting the demand and supply of health manpower in an accurate manner.</p> <p><strong><em>Objectives: </em></strong>The paper objective was to review health manpower forecasting approaches and methods and propose the improvement features for effectiveness of health manpower planning.</p> <p><strong><em>Data sources</em></strong><strong>: </strong>A systematic review was conducted for studies published in English from 1970-2014 using Pub Med, Science Direct, Pro Quest, and Google Scholar databases.</p> <p><strong><em>Study eligibility criteria</em></strong><strong>: </strong>Review articles, qualitative studies, questionnaire driven surveys, retrospective and prospective studies describing or applying various types of forecasting approaches and methods in health manpower forecasting were included in the review.</p> <p><strong><em>Data collection and study appraisal</em></strong><strong>: </strong>Two reviewers (SR and MA) independently appraised the studies to identify relevant ones to be included in the review.</p> <p><strong><em>Results: </em></strong>A total of 128 studies were included in the review. As a result, two main categories of approaches (conceptual and analytical) for health manpower forecasting were identified with their strengths and weaknesses.</p> <p><strong><em>Conclusions: </em></strong>Future forecasting methods should benefit from advantages of current approaches and overcome some of their main limitations. Applying a method which incorporates a wide range of factors affecting supply and demand, facilitates the collection of good quality data, monitors changing trends over time, considers the uncertainty of health systems and has a dynamic approach is proposed as an improvement roadmap for future forecasting.</p> <p>Bangladesh Journal of Medical Science Vol.18(3) 2019 p.458-472</p> Sima Rafiei, Sina Abdollahzade, Fariba Hashemi ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 https://www.banglajol.info/index.php/BJMS/article/view/41612 Thu, 30 May 2019 00:00:00 +0000 Human Leukocyte Antigen Genetic Variations in Obstructive Sleep Apnea Patients that were positive for HLA-DQB1*0602. https://www.banglajol.info/index.php/BJMS/article/view/41613 <p><strong><em>Background: </em></strong>Genetic variations in the HLA system may cause susceptibility to a large number of autoimmune and infectious diseases, and the complexity of HLA makes it hard to investigate HLA types associated with diseases. The association between HLA and Obstructive Sleep Apnea (OSA) is not well investigated due to the complexity of OSA pathogenesis; including genetic and non-genetic in different populations. Our previous study using PCR-SSPs technique showed that HLA-DQB1*0602 allele is associated with almost 6 times increase in risk in North Jordan OSA patients.</p> <p><strong><em>Aim: </em></strong>The aim of this study was to see if there are any HLA genetic variations using DNA sequencing technique in the region in which HLA-DQB1*0602 is located that might interact with HLA-DQB1*0602 and affect OSA development in OSA patients who were positive for HLA-DQB1*0602 allele.</p> <p><strong><em>Result: </em></strong>The DNA sequencing results showed 8 nucleotide substitution variations, which are p.G77E (c.230G&gt;A), p.R80R (c.240C&gt;G), p.Q85L (c.254A&gt;T), p.R87P (c.260G&gt;C), p.Y69D (c.205T&gt;G), p.A70V (c.209C&gt;T), p.A70A (c.210G&gt;A), p.Y79Y (c.237C&gt;T). Although only 5 variants resulted in amino acid change, all 8 variants were included in the statistical analysis, and none of these genetic variants was significant (p-value&gt; 0.05). Additionally, eight haplotypes were detected. Some of these haplotypes might have a role in disease development through the interaction with HLA-DQB1*0602 and other genetic variants or could be as markers for OSA by the mechanism of linkage disequilibrium<strong><em>.</em></strong></p> <p><strong><em>Conclusion</em></strong>: Further studies are needed to explain the pathogenesis of OSA in terms of possible self or non-self-antigens involved.</p> <p>Bangladesh Journal of Medical Science Vol.18(3) 2019 p.473-478</p> ThamerA Fattah Al Qatarneh, Suleiman Mohammad Momany, Nizar Mohammad Abuharfil, Amjad Abduallah Mahasneh, Yousef Saleh Khader, Ammar Khaled Daoud ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 https://www.banglajol.info/index.php/BJMS/article/view/41613 Thu, 30 May 2019 00:00:00 +0000 Evaluation of Semen Samples Before and After ‘Swim Up’ Technique with Mitotracker https://www.banglajol.info/index.php/BJMS/article/view/41614 <p><strong><em>Objectives: </em></strong>Infertility problems are seen in nearly 15% of married couples, and almost 50% of these involve male infertility. The sperm mitochondrion plays an important role in sperm motility. The morphology of sperm, sperm preparation techniques, and the number and motility of sperm during insemination are important parameters that affect the rate of pregnancy with intrauterine insemination. The aim of the study was to observe the changes in sperm mitochondrial activities and numbers with the Mito Tracker Red 580 kit at 30th, 45th and 60th minutes after swim up.</p> <p><strong><em>Materials and Methods</em></strong><strong>: </strong>In this study, we evaluated 20 oligospermic and 20 normospermic samples. The “swim-up” technique was applied to these oligospermic and normospermic samples, and changes in sperm mitochondria and number at 30, 45, and 60 min were observed using MitoTracker Red 580 staining.</p> <p><strong><em>Results:</em></strong>The numbers of swimming sperm in oligospermic and normospermic samples were higher at 30 min than at 45 and 60 min. No marked change was detected in the mitochondrial activities of swimming sperm in oligospermic and normospermic samples at 30, 45, and 60 min after the swim-up. Our findings demonstrate that the number of swimming sperm decreased with time, but no change was seen in the mitochondrial activity of the sperm by the swim-up technique.</p> <p><strong><em>Conclusion</em></strong><strong>: </strong>According to findings, mitochondrial movement is not exactly related to the 30th, 45th and 60th minutes. Therefore, it is thought that it needs to be investigated in mechanisms other than mitochondrial activity.</p> <p>Bangladesh Journal of Medical Science Vol.18(3) 2019 p.479-483</p> Seda Cetinkaya Karabekir, Aydan Özgörgülü ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 https://www.banglajol.info/index.php/BJMS/article/view/41614 Thu, 30 May 2019 00:00:00 +0000 The RAGE expression in glomerulus and the Malondialdehyde level in the kidney of Diabetes Mellitus rat model after exercise https://www.banglajol.info/index.php/BJMS/article/view/41615 <p><strong><em>Background: </em></strong>The main cause of complications in diabetes mellitus is a condition of oxidative stress due to increased reactive oxygen species (ROS). The increase in ROS can be triggered by the increase in advanced glycation end-products (AGE), which binds to its receptor (RAGE). The result of increased ROS will lead to lipid peroxidation in cell membranes and induce particular increase in malondialdehyde (MDA).</p> <p><strong><em>Objectives: </em></strong>The objective of this study was to evaluate the benefits of physical exercise in preventing complications of the kidneys caused by hyperglycemia.</p> <p><strong><em>Method: </em></strong>This study was a pure experimental research with post-test only group design. Subjects were 10 male Sprague Dawley rats induced with 35 mg/kgdose of streptozotocin (STZ). The subjects were divided into two groups, i.e. the STZ group and STZ group with physical exercise. Physical exercise was given in 9 weeks using a treadmill, in 5 times/week frequency, moderate intensity, 0 degree of tilt, gradually increased speed and duration.</p> <p><strong><em>Result: </em></strong>Regular and measurable physical exercise can decrease the blood glucose level(0,048) and reduce the RAGE expression in glomerulus(0,003) but increase MDA level in kidney (0,767<strong><em>).</em></strong></p> <p><strong><em>Conclusion</em></strong>: Regular and measurable physical exercise can decrease the blood glucose level and reduce the RAGE expression in glomerulus.</p> <p>Bangladesh Journal of Medical Science Vol.18(3) 2019 p.484-490</p> Diyah Candra Anita, Sri Lestari Sulistyorini, Sri Kadarsih ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 https://www.banglajol.info/index.php/BJMS/article/view/41615 Thu, 30 May 2019 00:00:00 +0000 Transient Bilateral Common Carotid Artery Occlusion (tBCCAO) of Rats as a Model of Global Cerebral Ischemia https://www.banglajol.info/index.php/BJMS/article/view/41616 <p><strong><em>Background</em></strong><em>: </em>Transient bilateral common carotid artery occlusion (tBCCAO) has been performed in rats as a model of global ischemia. However, the technique varied between laboratories and produced difficulties in the comparison of results. Variations such as rat strain, age, ischemic and reperfusion duration could affect the results. This review aims to provide a general overview of the variation of animal strains, duration of tBCCAO, reported cerebral ischemic area produced by tBCCAO, use of TTC staining for measurement of volume of brain ischemia and functional neurological tests.</p> <p><strong><em>Method: </em></strong>The data of this review were obtained from abstracts in PubMed database and Google Scholars and were not limited by publication time. Keywords used to search the abstracts were (BCCAO OR “<em>bilateral common carotid artery occlusion</em>” OR “<em>stroke</em>” OR “<em>cerebral ischemia</em>” OR “<em>brain ischemia</em>”) AND (<em>rat </em>OR <em>rats</em>). The research method of each study was identified from the collected abstracts. The abstracts were chosen for further study on the basis that they met the inclusion criteria which were English language articles; original research article; animal model used were adolescent, adult, and elderly rats; ischemic finding in rats’ cerebrum by BCCAO technique was presented; ischemic size were assessed and the result was described; studies that had control group; and studies that induced transient global ischemic to the rats’ cerebrum. Data that were extracted to the datasheet were references; animal model strain; ischemic duration; reperfusion duration; ischemic area; 2,3,5 Triphenyltetrazolium Chloride (TTC) staining; Cavalieri method; and rats’ neurological functional tests.</p> <p><strong><em>Results and Conclusions: </em></strong>There were differences in the ischemic area between Wistar and Sprague-Dawley rats after transient BCCAO. There were differences in the TTC staining solution concentration that was used to identify ischemic area of the brain following transient BCCAO. There was a very limited number of studies using Cavalieri method for the quantification of ischemic volume of rats’ brain after transient BCCAO. Neurological functional tests in animal models post transient BCCAO did not include sensory and memory functions tests.</p> <p>Bangladesh Journal of Medical Science Vol.18(3) 2019 p.491-500</p> Ety Sari Handayani, Rina Susilowati, Ismail Setyopranoto, Ginus Partadiredja ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 https://www.banglajol.info/index.php/BJMS/article/view/41616 Thu, 30 May 2019 00:00:00 +0000 Cost-of-illness and its determinants for type 2 diabetes mellitus in Bangladesh: https://www.banglajol.info/index.php/BJMS/article/view/41617 <p><strong><em>Background: </em></strong>Diabetes is one of the most prevalent non-communicable diseases (NCDs) all over the world and leading cause of death, disability, and economic loss. Diabetes imposes a heavy economic burden on individuals, their families and society as a whole. The aim of this study is to estimate the economic burden of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) in Bangladesh and to find association between glycemic control and Health Related Quality of Life with cost-of-illness (COI).</p> <p><strong><em>Methodology: </em></strong>This will be an analytical cross-sectional cost-of-illness study. Within a specific time period participants aged ≥18 years, registered with Bangladesh Diabetic Somiti and having type 2 diabetes for more than one year will be recruited from selected hospitals inside and outside Dhaka to cover all level of health care services. A pre-tested electronic questionnaire will be used for data collection. The questionnaire will include demographic, clinical, behavioral information of the participants and all cost related information related to diabetes management during last one year. Descriptive statistics will include mean (±SD) or median (percentile) or relative frequencies (percentage) depending on the data. Two samples independent t-test or Mann-Whitney U-test, ANOVA or Kruskal-Wallis test and chi-squared tests will be used for univariate analysis. The multivariable regression analysis and bootstrap method will also be employed to analyze the relationship between the total cost of care (dependent variable) and several potential explanatory variables (independent variables). Logistic regression analysis will be performed to assess the factors affecting glycemic control and health related quality of life (HRQoL). The calculated total cost-of-illness will be projected for T2DM in Bangladesh by a mathematical modelling.</p> <p><strong><em>Result &amp; discussion: </em></strong>The results of the study will be useful as background information to forecast the economic burden of type 2 diabetes mellitus in Bangladesh and will be beneficial to conceptualize health strategies at national level. Furthermore, recognizing the factors of cost-of-illness will help both patients and health care providers to improve the management plan and cost control and hence, to have better quality of life. Evidence about the magnitude of the burden of T2DM is important for public health policymakers who are involved in making health care priorities and allocating scarce resources to facilitate the greatest benefits for type 2 diabetic people in Bangladesh.</p> <p>Bangladesh Journal of Medical Science Vol.18(3) 2019 p.501-507</p> Afsana Afroz, Khurshid Alam, Mohammed J Alramadan, Md Nassif Hossain, Hasina Akhter Chowdhury, Liaquat Ali, Baki Billah ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 https://www.banglajol.info/index.php/BJMS/article/view/41617 Thu, 30 May 2019 00:00:00 +0000 Unusual anatomical variation in formation of sural nerve https://www.banglajol.info/index.php/BJMS/article/view/41618 <p><strong><em>Background: </em></strong>Sural nerve is formed by communication of medial sural cutaneous nerve, that arise from tibial nerve in popliteal fossa and peroneal communicating nerve, a branch directly from common peroneal nerve or from lateral sural cutaneous nerve.The objective of this study was described an unusual and few reported anatomical variation in formation of sural nerve.</p> <p><strong><em>Materials and Methods: </em></strong>The anatomical variation described was found during routine dissection performed by medical students of second semester in two maleembalbed adult cadavers of 75 and 65 years of age, respectivelyin the laboratory of Morphology of the University of Pamplona.</p> <p><strong><em>Results and Discussion</em></strong><strong>: </strong>In the left lower limb, both medial sural cutaneous nerve, and lateral sural cutaneous nervewere absent. The sural nerve arose directly from the tibial nerve. It’s observed a communicating branch between tibial nerve and common peroneal nerve. In the right lower limb, lateral sural cutaneous nerve was absent. The sural nerve arose directly from the common peroneal nerve.Peroneal communicating nerve was considered as absent in the two cases.Motor fiber from sural nerve to gastrocnemius muscle was observed in both lower limbs</p> <p><strong><em>Conclusions:</em></strong>The knowledge of the sural nerve (normal anatomy and variations in origin and course) is important in evaluating of the patients, as well explaining the different clinical findings necessary for accuracy treatment.</p> <p>Bangladesh Journal of Medical Science Vol.18(3) 2019 p.508-512</p> Humberto Ferreira Arquez ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 https://www.banglajol.info/index.php/BJMS/article/view/41618 Thu, 30 May 2019 00:00:00 +0000 Correlation of VEGF expression with prognostic factors of breast carcinoma https://www.banglajol.info/index.php/BJMS/article/view/41619 <p><strong>Background</strong>: Breast carcinoma is the most common malignant tumour and leading cause of cancer death among women worldwide. VEGF being a powerful mediator of angiogenesis, plays a major role in local growth as well as metastasis of many solid tumours including breast carcinoma.</p> <p><strong>Objective</strong>: This study aimed to evaluate the significance of VEGF expression in breast cancer and its correlation with prognostic parameters. Materials and methods: This study was conducted over a period of one year (February 2015 to January 2016). VEGF expression was evaluated in 57 histologically diagnosed cases of breast carcinoma with known ER and HER-2/neu status.</p> <p><strong>Result</strong>: Among 57 cases 52(91.2%) were positive for VEGF. Positive ER expression was seen in 39 cases which is 64.8% of total cases. 54% of the total cases were positive for HER-2/neu. VEGF expression was positively correlated (P value &lt;0.05) with tumour grade, tumour size and negatively correlated with ER (p&lt;0.005) and HER-2/neu (p&lt;0.005). Significant correlation also found with tumour type (p&lt;.005).</p> <p><strong>Conclusion</strong>: Considering the observations of the current study, it can be concluded that VEGF may play a crucial role in the pathogenesis of breast carcinoma and has a positive correlation with biologically aggressive tumour. So consideration of this biomarker (VEGF) is to be regarded as a prognostic parameter and critical evaluator of targeted chemotherapy</p> <p>Bangladesh Journal of Medical Science Vol.18(3) 2019 p.513-518</p> Jhuma Nandi, Moumita Maiti, Neepamanjari Barman, Moumita Paul, Sreepurna Medda, Sushil Ranjan Ghosal, Ranu Sarkar ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 https://www.banglajol.info/index.php/BJMS/article/view/41619 Thu, 30 May 2019 00:00:00 +0000 Comparison of Conventional Methods and Automated Systems for Determining Antibiotic Susceptibility of Bacteria Isolated from Urine Culture https://www.banglajol.info/index.php/BJMS/article/view/41620 <p><strong><em>Objective: </em></strong>The aim of our study was to compare the results obtained from different methods, which are used to determine the susceptibility to antimicrobials, and to determine the agreement between them.</p> <p><strong><em>Materials and Methods: </em></strong>A total of 397 strains consisting of 329 gram negative and 68 gram positive bacteria that were isolated from urine samples and identification and antibiogram of which were performed by automated systems, were included in the study. The results obtained from broth microdilution, E test, VITEK and disk diffusion were compared.</p> <p><strong><em>Results: </em></strong>Our antimicrobial susceptibility test results in gram negative bacteria showed a categorical agreement of 93.3% with a very major error rate of 1.5 in disk diffusion test, while a categorical agreement of 90% with a very major error rate of 2.2% in Vitek 2 test. The agreement for E test was 95.3% with a very major error rate of 1.1. In the antimicrobial susceptibility test of gram positive bacteria, the rate of agreement for disk diffusion, E test and Vitek 2 was 97.2%, 98.4% and 95.4% respectively. Very major error rate was found % 1.5 ve % 2.6 in disk diffusion and Vitek 2, respectively, while no very major error was found in E test.</p> <p><strong><em>Conclusions: </em></strong>In conclusion, our data suggest that disk diffusion test, Vitek 2 system and E test test are accurate and acceptable for antibiotic susceptibility tests of gram positive bacteria. The agreement rate of BMD and E test methods was found above 90% for all antibiotics, and it was reached a conclusion that the susceptibility results of gram negative bacteria for ceftriaxone and nitrofurantoin obtained from VITEK; the susceptibility results of disk diffusion test for ceftriaxone and ciprofloxacin should be confirmed by a more reliable method.</p> <p>Bangladesh Journal of Medical Science Vol.18(3) 2019 p.519-526</p> Mücahide Esra Koçoğlu, İsmail Davarci, Rabia Güney, Melike Taşçilar, Ferhat Zengi̇n, Mustafa Samasti ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 https://www.banglajol.info/index.php/BJMS/article/view/41620 Thu, 30 May 2019 00:00:00 +0000 Knowledge, Attitude, and Practice Regarding Cholera among Non-Academic Staff of International Islamic University Malaysia Kuantan Medical Campus https://www.banglajol.info/index.php/BJMS/article/view/41621 <p><strong><em>Background: </em></strong>Cholera is a water and food-borne infectious disease caused by <em>Vibrio cholerae. </em>Cholera usually causes fatality in the case of severe infections. Furthermore, cholera outbreaks are still recurring over time, especially in many developing countries. Cholera outbreak may be due to lack of basic knowledge, awareness and preventive attitude among public. The objectives of this study are to evaluate the knowledge, attitude and practice (KAP) regarding cholera among non-academic staff of IIUM Kuantan community, to find the related factors of KAP regarding cholera and to find the association between KAP regarding cholera.</p> <p><strong><em>Methods: </em></strong>This was a questionnaire-based cross-sectional study. This study used convenience sampling. The sample size for this study is 100 and was analyzed by using SPSS software using various tests. Those tests were independent t-test, Mann-Whitney test, Kruskal Wallis test and correlation test. There are six independent variables affecting knowledge, attitude and practice regarding cholera which are genders, marital statuses, and categories of occupation, different faculties, age-groups and level of education.</p> <p><strong><em>Results: </em></strong>Categories of occupations showed no significant difference between administrative and clinical staff knowledge (<em>p</em>=0.360) and practice (<em>p</em>=0.437) level. Respondent’s attitude however showed significant difference (<em>p</em>=0.034) between clerk and clinical staff. As for other sociodemographic variables, the results showed no significant difference for knowledge, attitude and practice level. The results showed low positive correlation between knowledge and practice regarding cholera (r=0.338), between attitude and practice regarding cholera (r=0.331) and between knowledge and attitude (r=0.233).</p> <p><strong><em>Conclusions: </em></strong>KAP practice scores were at an acceptable level.</p> <p>Bangladesh Journal of Medical Science Vol.18(3) 2019 p.527-535</p> Mohd Amir Fitrie Bin Mohd Rosdi, Nor Azlina A Rahman, Mainul Haque ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 https://www.banglajol.info/index.php/BJMS/article/view/41621 Thu, 30 May 2019 00:00:00 +0000 Immune profiling of saliva in patients with and without dental caries https://www.banglajol.info/index.php/BJMS/article/view/41622 <p><strong><em>Background: </em></strong>Dental caries is characterized by demineralization of inorganic portion of tooth and destruction of organic substances of tooth, which often leads to cavitation. The immune mechanisms play an important role in the pathogenesis of dental caries.This study was designed to determine the levels of salivary IgA, TGF-β and IL-17 in patients with dental caries.</p> <p><strong><em>Methodology: </em></strong>This was a comparative study of 87 individuals (29 healthy controls and 58 patients with dental caries) recruited from the Punjab Dental Hospital, Lahore. Group I included patients with dental caries up to 5 DMFT score (Decayed Missing Filled Teeth), group II had patients with 6 or more DMFT score and group III consisted of healthy individuals without dental caries. Commercially available ELISA kits were used for the detection of salivary IgA, TGF β and IL-17.</p> <p><strong><em>Results: </em></strong>Highest mean ± SD level of IL-17(2.99±1.11ng/L)and TGFβ (127.8 ±74.0ng/L) were detected in group III. While highest mean ± SD level of salivary IgA (μg/ mL) was detected in the group I (34.64±6.37μg/mL)</p> <p><strong><em>Conclusion: </em></strong>Level of salivary IgA was increased in patients of dental caries while levels of IL-17and TGFβ were decreased in patients of dental caries as compared to healthy individuals.</p> <p>Bangladesh Journal of Medical Science Vol.18(3) 2019 p.536-539</p> Ambreen Nawaz, Husniah Batool, Muhammad Kashif, Afia Abbas, Faheem Shahzad, Romeeza Tahir, Nadeem Afzal ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 https://www.banglajol.info/index.php/BJMS/article/view/41622 Thu, 30 May 2019 00:00:00 +0000 Recent cockroach bacterial contamination trend in the human dwelling environments: A systematic review and meta-analysis https://www.banglajol.info/index.php/BJMS/article/view/41623 <p><strong>Background</strong>: Cockroaches have been compromised with the human environment posing some risks to humans.</p> <p><strong>Objective</strong>: A systematic review and meta-analysis study about the bacterial contamination of cockroaches in the human dwelling environmentswere investigated.</p> <p><strong>Methodology</strong>: Relevant topics about bacterial contamination of cockroaches were collected from scientific websites between January 2016 and January 2017. After a preliminary review 32 of the collected topics were selected to become part of the detailed synthesis meta-analysis review.</p> <p><strong>Results</strong>: Results showed that the global mean bacterial contamination trend of cockroaches and Periplaneta americana ranged 45.0-80.0 and 55.0-75.0 %, respectively which were increased while it were 90.0-50.0 % for Blattella germanica which decreased in recent years. The global mean bacterial contamination of cockroaches, P. americana and B. germanica was also 67.9, 72.9 and 62.9 %, respectively which P. Americana had the most global mean bacterial contamination. Statistical analysis didn’t show any significant differences between any combination of bacterial contamination of the cockroaches, and P. americana and B. germanica surfaces such as totalexternal, total-internal and external-internal; any type environment of cockroaches, P. americana and B. germanica including households, hospitals and miscellaneous; any combination of bacterial contamination such as between total-total, external-external and internal-internal surfaces of the P. americana and B. germanica; and P. americana and B. germanica in combination environments of households-households, hospitals-hospitals and miscellaneous-miscellaneous (P &gt; 0.05).</p> <p><strong>Conclusions</strong>: The external and internal surfaces of any type cockroach have equal importance ofbacterial contamination and they threaten human health in the any type environment.</p> <p>Bangladesh Journal of Medical Science Vol.18(3) 2019 p.540-545</p> Hassan Nasirian ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 https://www.banglajol.info/index.php/BJMS/article/view/41623 Thu, 30 May 2019 00:00:00 +0000 The effect of Ramadan fasting on sebum production: association with nutritional intakes and sleeping pattern https://www.banglajol.info/index.php/BJMS/article/view/41624 <p><strong><em>Background: </em></strong>Sebum production is associated with several factors including hormonal, and nutritional factors. Sleeping pattern could also affect changes in androgen levels associated with sebum production and acne. During Ramadan, moslems are obliged to fast from dawn to sunset, causing nutritional intake and sleeping pattern changes.</p> <p><strong><em>Objectives: </em></strong>This study was aimed to find association between nutritional intake and sleeping pattern during Ramadan with sebum production.</p> <p><strong><em>Methods: </em></strong>Ramadan fasting practitioners (40 male, mean age ±SD : 19.19±1.03 years) were evaluted before and 3 weeks into Ramadan fasting. Parameters assessed were nutrient intakes (using 24-hour food recalls), sleep quality and duration (using Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index) and sleep diary. Sebum productions were measured using SebutapeR technique.</p> <p><strong><em>Results: </em></strong>Significant decreases were found in protein (p=0.014), total fat (p=0.031), milkshake(p=0.001) and cheese intakes (p=0.013). Glycemic load was also decreased significantly (p=0.006). Despite no reduction in total sleep duration, night sleep duration was significantly reduced during Ramadan (p=0.000) associated with more subjects with poor sleep quality (p=0.039). Sebum production was increased significantly during Ramadan (p=0.028)</p> <p><strong><em>Conclusion: </em></strong>Despite lower glycemic load and dairy products intakes, and lower sleep duration, Ramadan fasting was associated with increased sebum production. It was likely a result of circadian rhythm shift in sebaceous glands activities.</p> <p>Bangladesh Journal of Medical Science Vol.18(3) 2019 p.546-551</p> - Rosmelia, Ismail Setyopranoto, Hamam Hadi, Yohanes Widodo Wirohadidjojo ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 https://www.banglajol.info/index.php/BJMS/article/view/41624 Thu, 30 May 2019 00:00:00 +0000 Evaluation of Training Session Applying Gagne’s Events of Instructions https://www.banglajol.info/index.php/BJMS/article/view/41625 <p><strong><em>Background: </em></strong>This study explores the effectiveness of educator's training programs regarding the presentation, materials, facilities, relevance and usefulness of the training to the current employment and facilitator’s knowledge using Gagne’s event of instructions.</p> <p><strong><em>Method: </em></strong>A half day long training was conducted on September 2017 at reach of the two health care teaching institutes. At the end of training, evaluation was done and rated in 5 point Likert scale with 5 as the highest score. Participants agreed that the training was useful and relevant to their work.</p> <p><strong><em>Result: </em></strong>This study showed a positive perception of the learners which will help their job performance as well as the outcome of their dental teaching school and Gagne’s Events of Instructions can be used when conducting this type of training sessions.</p> <p><strong><em>Conclusion</em></strong>: Regular training program for staff development need to be carried out following a system approach with right mix of input and contents which process with right sequences of instructions to fill the gap between desired performance and actual staff performance.</p> <p>Bangladesh Journal of Medical Science Vol.18(3) 2019 p.552-556</p> Nurul Islam, Abdus Salam ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 https://www.banglajol.info/index.php/BJMS/article/view/41625 Thu, 30 May 2019 00:00:00 +0000 Mild cognitive impairment in mild brain injury (MBI) patients: An event related potential (ERP) and neuropsychology study. https://www.banglajol.info/index.php/BJMS/article/view/41626 <p><strong><em>Objectives: </em></strong>To evaluate auditory cognitive function in mild brain injury (MBI) patients, which is important to determine for rehabilitation and improve quality of their life.</p> <p><strong><em>Methods: </em></strong>Participants (n=19/group) were divided into group 1 (G1-control), group 2 (G2/1st test-MBI/within 7 days of road traffic accident-RTA) and group 3 (G3/2nd test-MBI/2-6 months after RTA). Event related potentials (ERPs) were conducted using a 128-sensor net; participants counted silently rare target tone stimuli and ignored standard tones. Several neuropsychology tests like Verbal fluency test (PAS), Wisconsin Card Sorting Test (WCST), Rey Auditory Verbal and Learning Test (RAVLTIM, RAVLTDR and RAVLTTS) and Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) were subsequently administered.</p> <p><strong><em>Results: </em></strong>Sensory (P50, N100) and cognitive (P300) ERP components were analysed from ERP waveforms. There were no significant group differences in amplitudes or latencies for all components across sites except P300 component amplitudes at T6 location. P50, N100 and P300 ERP components exhibited non-significantly increased amplitudes in G2 and G3 compared with G1 at all sites; non-significantly shorter latencies were identified at various sites. At several locations, G3 evoked non-significantly increased amplitudes and longer latencies with shorter latencies to other sites compared with G2 in all components. The MBI (G3) group exhibited significantly increased WCST, RAVLTIM and RAVLTDR scores compared with G1.</p> <p><strong><em>Conclusion</em></strong><strong>: </strong>These findings indicate MBI patients may have mild auditory, cognitive and executive dysfunctions with good auditory memory. MBI was associated with mild depression.</p> <p>Bangladesh Journal of Medical Science Vol.18(3) 2019 p.557-566</p> Faruque Reza, Tahamina Begum ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 https://www.banglajol.info/index.php/BJMS/article/view/41626 Thu, 30 May 2019 00:00:00 +0000 Corporate Social Responsibility in Healthcare: A case of Islamic Banks (IBs) in Bangladesh https://www.banglajol.info/index.php/BJMS/article/view/41627 <p>Healthcare is a basic necessity for any society. Banks in Bangladesh are engaged in Corporate Social Responsibility initiatives better than ever. Islamic banks (IBs)in Bangladesh have taken several CSR initiatives and contributing significantly to healthcare. The main objective of this study is to investigate the CSR practices of Islamic banks (IBs) in the healthcare sector during 2010–2015. The study used a content analysis methodology to analyze objectively and systematically the websites and annual reports of the IBs and the relevant publications of the central bank of Bangladesh. The findings of this study demonstrate that IBs are engaged in healthcare initiatives, which have been increasing significantly over a period of time. However, the results also portrayed that, among all the IBs, Islamic Bank Bangladesh Limited has done the highest contribution in healthcare CSR by establishing hospitals, operating health camps, providing medical assistance, assistance to mother and neonatal etc. This study has also contributed significantly to the relevant literature and paved the path for future research.</p> <p>Bangladesh Journal of Medical Science Vol.18(3) 2019 p.567-573</p> Md Shamim Hossain, Sofri B Yahya, Shafiqur Rahman, Farid A Sobhani, Raufa Rahman ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 https://www.banglajol.info/index.php/BJMS/article/view/41627 Thu, 30 May 2019 00:00:00 +0000 Effects on thrombocytic hemostasis of a new derivate indolinone https://www.banglajol.info/index.php/BJMS/article/view/41628 <p><strong><em>Objective</em></strong>. Specific activity of an antiplatelet drug of indolinone series (codenamed DI) was studied in vitro in a model of ADP-induced platelet aggregation in vitro and in vivo in a model of streptozotocininduced diabetes mellitus in rats.</p> <p><strong><em>Material and Methods. </em></strong>Acetylsalicylic acid and dipyridamole were used as reference drugs. In vitro tests have demonstrated that DI exhibits antiplatelet activity in a wide range of concentrations (0,75×10-6 – 1.5×10-5 М, р&lt;0,05), being comparable to acetylsalicylic acid and dipyridamole. <em>In vivo </em>tests have demonstrated dose-dependent antiplatelet activity of DI in doses of 2,5 – 20 mg/kg (21-14 %).</p> <p><strong><em>Results and Discussion.</em></strong>Increasing the dose of DI above 10 mg/kg doesn’t increase its antiplatelet activity. After multiple oral administration to rats with streptozotocin-induced diabetes mellitus in 10 mg/kg dose, DI has exhibited antiplatelet activity, reducing the platelet aggregation rate to that of the control group (р&lt;0,05).</p> <p><strong><em>Conclusion</em></strong>. Thus, DI isapromisingcompound for furtherdevelopmentof an antiplatelet drug with new mechanism of action</p> <p>Bangladesh Journal of Medical Science Vol.18(3) 2019 p.574-576</p> VV Bykov, V Yu Serebrov, VV Udut, EV Udut, VP Fisenko ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 https://www.banglajol.info/index.php/BJMS/article/view/41628 Thu, 30 May 2019 00:00:00 +0000 Pathogenic potential of Helicobacter pylori strains can explain differences in H. pylori associated diseases rates from Chile and Cuba https://www.banglajol.info/index.php/BJMS/article/view/41629 <p><strong>Background</strong>: The prevalence of Helicobacter pylori-related diseases varies geographically and it is partially determined by the virulence of the circulating strains. Cuba and Chile exhibit different gastric cancer rates, on despite of very similar H. pylori infection rates. We determined if differences in the pathogenic potential of H. pylori isolates from Chile and Cuba could explain the disease outcome in each population.</p> <p><strong>Methods</strong>: H. pylori isolates from 78 Chilean and 71 Cuban patients were analyzed using PCR for the presence of cagA, babA2, vacA alleles and the pattern of EPIYA motifs. Results: cagA was detected in 94.9 % of Chilean and 64.7 % of Cuban isolates (P &lt; 0.001) and was significantly associated with duodenal ulcer (DU) in Cuba (P &lt; 0.01) but not in Chile. The presence of cagA with multiple EPIYA-C motifs was 18.2 % higher in Chile than in Cuba (P &lt; 0.05). Also, an association was observed between GU (P ≤ 0.05) and premalignant lesions (P &lt; 0.001) with the multiple EPIYA-C motif status of the strains in Chile, but not in Cuba. The prevalence of vacA s2m2 genotype was predominant in Chile (66.7 %), while in Cuba was prevalent the s1m1 genotype (56.8 %); and the last one was significantly associated with the presence of DU in Cuban patients.</p> <p><strong>Conclusions</strong>: The cagA status and the EPIYA pattern found in Chilean and Cuban H. pylori clinical isolates partially explain the differences in disease prevalence between both countries. The high proportion of vacA s2m2 genotype in Chile was an unexpected result, needing further studies.</p> <p>Bangladesh Journal of Medical Science Vol.18(3) 2019 p.577-585</p> Ileana González, Lidice González, Armando Rojas, Boris L Rodríguez, Jacqueline Romero, Orlando Reyes, Erik Morales, Jordis Alonso, Ramón Perez Castro, Carlos A Sabatier, Eliana Valdés, Lino E Torres, Cecilia Cofre ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 https://www.banglajol.info/index.php/BJMS/article/view/41629 Thu, 30 May 2019 00:00:00 +0000 Effect of low-intensity laser radiation on hemostasis in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease https://www.banglajol.info/index.php/BJMS/article/view/41633 <p><strong><em>Objective</em></strong>. The study presents results of the low-intensity intravenous (IV) laser radiation effect on some indicators of the hemostasis system and respiratory function of 83 patients with a chronic lung disease (COPD), stable phase, II-III (after GOLD scale), including 51 men and 32 women. The average COPD duration was 9.6±4.4 years.</p> <p><strong><em>Materials and methods</em></strong>. All patients with COPD were randomly divided into 2 groups - comparison (30 people) and main (53 people). The control group consisted of 20 practically healthy people, matched by sex and age. Patients in the control group received only standard drug therapy with IGCC/DBA combination (budesonide/formoterol, salmeterol/fluticasone propionate inhalation at a therapeutic dose corresponding to the COPD clinical symptoms severity).</p> <p><strong><em>Result and Discussion</em></strong>. In addition to the basic treatment, the main group received a course of intravenous lowintensity laser radiation. As established before the treatment initiation, patients with COPD experienced a decrease in FEV1, Tiffno index, SaO2.</p> <p><strong><em>Conclusion</em></strong>. The respiratory function disruption was accompanied by a significant activation of plasma hemostasis ( prothrombin time shortening, thrombin time, activated partial thromboplastin time) and a significant increase in platelet aggregation (increase in the aggregation degree, aggregation rate, decrease in the aggregation time). At the same time, in patients with COPD, a significant decrease in anticoagulant activity was observed before treatment, particularly antithrombin III decrease when compared with the control group (p &lt;0.05) and CRP (main group: 0.86±0.02; control group: 0.85±0.02). The introduction of low-intensity laser radiation into the patients complex with COPD led to the these parameters normalization.</p> <p>Bangladesh Journal of Medical Science Vol.18(3) 2019 p.586-592</p> Natalya M Balabina, Alexey N Kalyagin, Tatyana M Maksikova, Vadim A Dulskiy, Valentina A Haptanova, Olga V Zhigalova, Larisa S Andreeva ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 https://www.banglajol.info/index.php/BJMS/article/view/41633 Thu, 30 May 2019 00:00:00 +0000 Prematurity: A Major Cause of Early Neonatal Mortality in Ad-din Medical College Hospital https://www.banglajol.info/index.php/BJMS/article/view/41634 <p><strong><em>Objective: </em></strong>Early neonatal mortality within the fi rst 24 hours contributes substantially to overall neonatal mortality rates. Reliable cause- specific mortality data are limited; thus the estimated proportion of prematurity-related deaths nationally remains questionable. The objective was to determine the presumed causes of neonatal death within the fi rst 24 hours in Ad-din Medical College Hospital.</p> <p><strong><em>Methods: </em></strong>This is a retrospective study initiated in January of 2016 to December 2016, conducted in the delivery room and adjacent neonatal area at Ad-din Medical College Hospital. Research assistants were trained to observe and record events related to labor, neonatal resuscitation, and 24-hour postnatal course. Perinatal asphyxia (PNA) was defined as failure to initiate spontaneous respirations and/or 5-minute Apgar score &lt;7, prematurity as gestational age &lt;37 weeks, and low birth weight (LBW) as birth weight (BW) &lt; 2500gm. Data were analyzed with using the SPSS version (Chi-Square test).</p> <p><strong><em>Results: </em></strong>Over 1 year, 14316 neonates were born and evaluated. Of these, 1867 were admitted to the neonatal area. Twenty seven neonates died secondary to Prematurity (55.56%), PNA (37.03%) and Meconium aspiration syndrome (7.41%).</p> <p><strong><em>Conclusions: </em></strong>Most cases of early neonatal mortality were related to Prematurity and its related complications and Perinatal asphyxia are additional important considerations. Reducing Perinatal mortality requires a multifaceted approach with attention to issues related to potential complications of Prematurity and its related complications and PNA.</p> <p>Bangladesh Journal of Medical Science Vol.18(3) 2019 p.593-597</p> Nasim Jahan, Md Abdul Mannan, Shirin Akter, Farhana Afroz, Tashmin Farhana, Mahmuda Nasrin, Zenifer Islam, Nandita Nazma ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 https://www.banglajol.info/index.php/BJMS/article/view/41634 Thu, 30 May 2019 00:00:00 +0000 Experimental research of Harmine hydrochloride effect on internal organs https://www.banglajol.info/index.php/BJMS/article/view/41635 <p><strong><em>Objective</em></strong>. The purpose of thisstudy was to determine the chronic toxicity of the drug “Harmine hydrochloride, capsules” for preclinical evaluation of its safety.</p> <p><strong><em>Materials and methods.</em></strong>The experiment was performed on 48 CD-1 rats. Harmine hydrochloride was injectedto the animals intragastrically at doses of 2.5 mg / kg/per day, 5 mg / kg/per day, 9 mg / kg/per day, 10 mg / kg/per day for 3 months. After 3 months, the animals were withdrew from the experiment, internal organs (brain, heart, spleen, adrenals) were weighed and set in 10% neutral formalin. Histological specimenswere mounted in accordance with standard procedures.</p> <p><strong><em>Results and Discussion. </em></strong>All morphological, histopathological changes, in addition to mortality and bodyweight changes were recorded.Microtome cuts, 5 micrometers thick, were stained with hematoxylin and eosin.</p> <p><strong><em>Conclusion</em></strong>. As a result of the morphological study, there was no toxic effect of harmine hydrochloride at doses of 2.5 mg / kg, 5 mg / kg, 9 mg / kg and 10 mg / kg on the brain, at doses of 2.5 mg / kg and 5 mg / kg on the structure of the heart, spleen and adrenal glands. At doses of 9 mg / kg and 10 mg / kg, there is an initial toxic dose-dependent effect on the heart, spleen and adrenal glands.</p> <p>Bangladesh Journal of Medical Science Vol.18(3) 2019 p.598-606</p> Galina U Zhanaidarova, Roza Zh Yessimova, Kulash T Nurseitova, Roza B Seidakhmetova, Leila I Arystan, Sergazy M Adekenov, Nurlan N Nauryzov, Bakhyt Kh Berikbaeva ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 https://www.banglajol.info/index.php/BJMS/article/view/41635 Thu, 30 May 2019 00:00:00 +0000 Measuring Health related Quality of life and its determinants among physically disabled adults in Bangladesh https://www.banglajol.info/index.php/BJMS/article/view/41636 <p>The prime purpose of the study was to assess the quality of life of physically disabled adults attending at rehabilitation center in Dhaka city, Bangladesh and to determine the relationship of the type of disability, educational level and relationship with the family with quality of life.Participants were 500 adults with physical disabilities. Thestructured questionnaire consist of WHOQOL-BREF were used as research instruments. When dividing the participants into three groups according to the level of total QOL score, in physical domain majority (96.2%) had fair level QOL score. In psychological domain veryfew(5.4%) had poor level and more than half (53.2%) had fair level QOL score and rest of them had good QOL score (41.4%). more than one third (37.2%) and nearly half(47.0%) had fair and good level respectively whereas rest of them (15.8%) had poor level of QOL in Social domain. In environmental domain a minimum number(3.8%) had poor QOL score but almost half (43.6%) and more than half (52.6%) had fair and good level of QOL score. The Cronbach’s alpha coefficient of WHOQOL-BREF was adequate (0.914) for all 26 questions and for each domain the values are: Physical health domain (0.812), Psychological health domain (0.831), Social relationship domain (0.68) and Environmental health domain (0.78). Statistically significant correlations present between all domains. Mean and percentage of satisfaction rating in DOM1, DOM2 and DOM3 and DOM4 was higher in males than females. There were significant differences found in WHOQOL-BREF score between different education level group, different marital statusgroup,different employment statusgroup, differentincome level group, relationship with family, utilization of primary rehabilitation in four domains and total of WHOQOL-BREF (P &lt; 0.05). multiple linear regression observed that education level and utilization of primary rehabilitation center is most important factor that affects QOL of study population in total and four domains of WHOQOL.The findings from this study confirm that the WHOQOL-BREF questionnaire is a reliable instrument to measure quality of life in disable adults. From the data, it appears that Bangladeshi disable adults have WHOQOL-BREF scores that might be considered to indicate a fair level of quality of life.</p> <p>Bangladesh Journal of Medical Science Vol.18(3) 2019 p.607-614</p> Sumaiya Zabin Eusufzai, Sardar Mahmud Hossain, Nafij Bin Jamayet, Mohammad Khursheed Alam ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 https://www.banglajol.info/index.php/BJMS/article/view/41636 Thu, 30 May 2019 00:00:00 +0000 Juvenile depression treatment with antidepressants from the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors group https://www.banglajol.info/index.php/BJMS/article/view/41637 <p><strong><em>Objective</em></strong>. The article presents the juvenile depression treatment effectiveness with antidepressants of the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors group (SSRIs).</p> <p><strong><em>Materials and methods.</em></strong>182 patients were examined, including 114 men (62.6%) and 68 women (37.4%), age range 16 to 25 years, on treatment in a psycho-neurological dispensary in the city of Korolev (Russia, Moscow region) from 2014 to 2018.</p> <p><strong><em>Results and Discussion.</em></strong>Main characteristics comparison of SSRIs antidepressants therapeutic effect in young men and adults of mature age revealed statistically significant age differences concerning the onset rate and these drugs antidepressant effect characteristics, as well as the adverse events nature.</p> <p><strong><em>Conclusion</em></strong>. The SSRIs antidepressants clinical action regularities for depression treatment in adolescence, their therapeutic effect features and dynamics allow us to state adequate indications for the these drugs administration in adolescence, considering their age specificity.</p> <p>Bangladesh Journal of Medical Science Vol.18(3) 2019 p.615-623</p> Ramil F Suleymanov, Roman V Gorenkov, Natalya P Chernus, Sergey A Orlov, Irina F Kalinina ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 https://www.banglajol.info/index.php/BJMS/article/view/41637 Thu, 30 May 2019 00:00:00 +0000 Status of Vitamin D by measuring 25 - Hydroxyvitamin D level in Dhaka City https://www.banglajol.info/index.php/BJMS/article/view/41638 <p><strong><em>Background and aims: </em></strong>Vitamin D deficiency is associated with skeletal as well as extraskeletal diseases. Aim of this study was to find out the status of Vitamin D level in a densely populated area like Dhaka.</p> <p><strong><em>Method: </em></strong>This descriptive cross sectional study was conducted in Ibn Sina Medical College Hospital in Kallyanpur, Dhanmondi Ibn Sina Hospital and Ibn Dina Diagnostic Laboratory in Dhanmondi. Total 500 subjects who went for vitamin D assay were included in this study. Serum Vitamin D (25 - Hydroxyvitamin D<strong>) </strong>levels were measured by chemiluminescence immunoassay method. The respondents were divided in 4 age groups: ( 0-20) years, (21-40) years, (41-60) years and (61-rest) years. Data were presented by frequency distribution tables &amp; graphs.</p> <p><strong><em>Result: </em></strong>Out of the 500 respondents, 10.6% were in 0-20 age group, 30.8% were in 21-40 age group, 41.2% were in 41-60 age group and 17.4% were in 61-rest age group respectively. Mean age of total study subjects was 43.7 years. Male and female ratio was 33.2:66.8. Of the total 218(43.8%) participants had deficient level, 187(37.2%) had insufficient level, 90(18%) had sufficient level and only 5(1%) had toxic level of vitamin D.</p> <p><strong><em>Conclusion: </em></strong>High prevalence of vitamin D deficiency was observed in 41 to 60 years age group people and female are more suffered than male. That’s why vitamin D status screening in this age group should be a routine test.</p> <p>Bangladesh Journal of Medical Science Vol.18(3) 2019 p.624-627</p> Syeda Fahmida Afrin, Md Hasanur Rahman, Kaniz Fatima Bari, Abu Kholdun Al Mahmood ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 https://www.banglajol.info/index.php/BJMS/article/view/41638 Thu, 30 May 2019 00:00:00 +0000 Rural and urban prevalence of sexual assault against women in an African population https://www.banglajol.info/index.php/BJMS/article/view/41639 <p><strong><em>Background</em></strong><em>: </em>Sexual assault is about the most dehumanizing form of gender based violence against women worldwide. Nigeria and many other countries in Africa do not have National data on women sexual assault. This survey is aimed at generating data on sexual assault against women in Osun state, Nigeria.</p> <p><strong><em>Objective: </em></strong>To determine the patterns of sexual assault against women in Urban and Rural areas of Osun State in South western Nigeria.</p> <p><strong><em>Methodology: </em></strong>A cross section survey using interviewer administered questionnaire was carried out among selected 1,200 women aged 15 years and above in urban and rural areas, between August and December 2014. The questionnaire was patterned after WHO Multi-country study on women’s health and domestic violence data instrument. The data were analyzed using SPSS version 17.0.</p> <p><strong><em>Results: </em></strong>Mean age of the respondents was 23.75 ±(13.22) years in rural area, in the urban area it was 27.69 ±(10.23) years. 46 % and 54 % were married in urban and rural areas respectively. The prevalence of completed rape was 10.0 % in urban and 9.2 % in rural, while that of attempted rape was 31.4 % and 20.0 % in the urban and rural area respectively. Women in the rural areas experienced repeat sexual assault and suffered non-genital injuries more the in urban area. Having partner and living in urban area were associated with female sexual assault.</p> <p><strong><em>Conclusions: </em></strong>Sexual assault against women constitutes public health issue in Osun state with rural women incurring greater negative health consequences. Primary prevention strategies should focus at young men and women in both rural and urban areas of the state.</p> <p>Bangladesh Journal of Medical Science Vol.18(3) 2019 p.628-635</p> Adeleke NA, Adebimpe WO, Farinloye EO, Olowookere AS ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 https://www.banglajol.info/index.php/BJMS/article/view/41639 Thu, 30 May 2019 00:00:00 +0000 Efficacy of Postpartum Furosemide Therapy on Blood Pressure Recovery in Patients with Severe Preeclampsia: A Randomized Clinical Trial https://www.banglajol.info/index.php/BJMS/article/view/41640 <p><strong><em>Background</em></strong><em>: </em>Hypertensive disorders are an important cause of maternal mortality and morbidity, and severe preeclampsia is the most common cause [Baha M. Sibia, AJOG (2012)]. The blood pressure rises progressively during the first 5 days after delivery, and it is due to mobilization of 6-8 liters of liquid, and 950 meq of accumulated sodium,from interstitial and extravascular space to intravascular space[Davison JM and Dunlop W, Seminars in Nephrology,4:198–207 (1984)].Severe rising of blood pressure may lead to complications, such as renal failure, pulmonary edema, eclampsia, intracranial hemorrhage, stroke, coma and death [Baha M. Sibia, AJOG (2012)].Therefore, postpartum anti-hypertensive therapy can prevent these complications and diminishes maternal mortality and morbidity rate.</p> <p><strong><em>Objective</em></strong>: This investigation was done to evaluate whether a short course of postpartum furosemide therapy in patients with severe preeclampsia accelerates blood pressure recovery, reduces antihypertensive drugs usage, prevents complications such as eclampsia and finally diminishes hospitalization.</p> <p><strong><em>Study design</em></strong>: In a randomized clinical trial, 90 patients with severe preeclampsia participated. After spontaneous onset of diuresis and discontinuation of sulfate magnesium, patients were randomly allocated to receive either no therapy or 20 mg oral furosemide daily for five days with oral potassium supplementation. Postpartum blood pressure, the need for antihypertensive therapy, rate of complications and duration of hospitalization between treatment and control groups were compared.</p> <p><strong><em>Results</em></strong>: Mean systolic blood pressure on the third day after delivery was not different significantly between treatment and control groups(127.9±10.2 compared with 130 ± 11.5 mm-Hg, P=0.36). Mean diastolic blood pressure on the third day after delivery was not different between two groups. Patients in treatment group required less antihypertensive therapy during hospitalization (26.7% compared with 33.3%, P=0.64) but the difference was not significant. Eclampsia occurred in two patients in control group and not occurred in treatment group. Duration of hospitalization was not affected by the intervention.</p> <p><strong><em>Conclusion</em></strong><em>: </em>Brief postpartum furosemide therapy in patients with severe preeclampsia may not be effective in postpartum blood pressure recovery and reducing the need for antihypertensive therapy. It may be useful to prevent complications such as eclampsia. Duration of hospitalization was not affected by the intervention.</p> <p>Bangladesh Journal of Medical Science Vol.18(3) 2019 p.636-640</p> Talat Dabaghi, Mona Shariati, Fatemeh Laluha, Farideh Movahhed, Ameneh Barikani ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 https://www.banglajol.info/index.php/BJMS/article/view/41640 Thu, 30 May 2019 00:00:00 +0000 Retropharyngeal foreign body in a Down Syndrome girl https://www.banglajol.info/index.php/BJMS/article/view/41641 <p>Pharyngeal foreign bodies are quite common. The diagnosis is usually clinical. The risk of complications including retropharyngeal abscess and mediastinitis are very low depending on the nature of foreign body and the duration taken for intervention. We share a challenging case of retropharyngeal abscess secondary to embedded foreign body in a Down syndrome patient, who presented with the sole presentation of torticollis. Surgical intervention with difficulties was performed with favourable outcome.</p> <p>Bangladesh Journal of Medical Science Vol.18(3) 2019 p.641-645</p> Nurul Atikah Hamat, Afiza Izura Mohammad Sofi, Zulkiflee Salahuddin, Irfan Mohamad ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 https://www.banglajol.info/index.php/BJMS/article/view/41641 Thu, 30 May 2019 00:00:00 +0000 Clinical case of Carpenter syndrome (autoimmune-polygundularsyndrome 2) in the practice of an endocrinologist https://www.banglajol.info/index.php/BJMS/article/view/41642 <p><strong><em>Presentation of case: </em></strong>patient 36 years old, appealed to complaints about changing the color of the skin, reducing body weight by 10 kg in 2 months, expressed general weakness, lowering blood pressure, reducing sexual desire<em>.</em></p> <p><strong><em>Discussion</em></strong><strong>: </strong>prescribed treatment: insulin therapy (aspart, degludec) day dose 42 OD, levothyroxine 100 mcgr/day, vitamin E, selenium 100 mcgr, chorionic gonadotrophin 1500 OD intramuscularly once per week, monthly courses with the same break. After the therapy, the patient’s condition improved. Repeatedly the patient appeared on the review 6 months after treatment. Hyperpigmentation of the skin and natural areas of pigmentation are reduced, there is a stabilization of blood pressure at a level of 120 / 70-110 / 70 mm Hg, reduction of clinical symptoms, achieved target level of glycemia and hormonal blood parameters the target glycemia level was reached (4.6-5.1 mmol / L), glycosylated hemoglobin (8.1%) and hormonal blood parameters (TTG 3.4 mmol / L) cortisol serum 1.7 μg / dl (norm 6.2-19.4 μg / dl), testosterone free 3.4 pg / ml (N 1.7-8.2), total testosterone - 12.28 (N 8.64 - 29 nmol / l), sex steroid binding globulin (CHD) (67 nmol / l, at the rate of 13-71 nmol / l, ), testosterone free 8.9 pg / ml (N 8.8 - 42.5 pg / ml).</p> <p><strong><em>Conclusions: </em></strong>Decomposition of adrenal insufficiency (decrease in glucocorticoids as contrinsular hormone) can lead to untypical cours of diabetes with steaolyhipoglicemia in autumne-summer period and normalizabionglycemia glycemia in winter-autumne period. Presents of 2-3 decompensate, endocrine diseases in the same moment suppresses pronounced typical symptomatics each of them precedes with erased or disguised picture.</p> <p>Bangladesh Journal of Medical Science Vol.18(3) 2019 p.646-650</p> Pasiechko Nadiya, Naumova Lyudmyla, Pankiv Ivan, Krytskyy Taras, Khomitska Alla ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 https://www.banglajol.info/index.php/BJMS/article/view/41642 Thu, 30 May 2019 00:00:00 +0000 Sinonasal Glomangiopericytoma: A Case Report and Literature Review https://www.banglajol.info/index.php/BJMS/article/view/41644 <p>Glomangiopericytoma is a rare vascular tumor arising from the pericytes surrounding capillaries, and accounts for less than 0.5% of all sinonasal tumors. The aim of this study is to describe our recent experience of sinonasal glomangiopericytoma and thoroughly review our collected data on the basis of age/sex, location, associated diseases, clinical symptoms, endoscopic findings, image findings, pathology, and treatment. We found 21 articles (19 case reports and 2 review articles) relevant to our search since 2005. The mean age was 58.05 years, ranging from 19 years to 86 years with a female to male ratio of 3:1 (15:5). The most frequent site of origin was the nasal septum followed by the paranasal sinuses. The most common symptom was nasal obstruction, followed by epistaxis, headache, facial pain or pressure, and anosmia in decreasing order. Computed tomography was the most common imaging technique used to evaluate sinonasal glomangiopericytoma which the most common mentioned CT finding was soft tissue density mass with enhancement. The most common treatment modality was complete surgical excision through transnasal endoscopic surgery.</p> <p>Bangladesh Journal of Medical Science Vol.18(3) 2019 p.651-655</p> Hyun Jin Min, Kyung Soo Kim ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 https://www.banglajol.info/index.php/BJMS/article/view/41644 Thu, 30 May 2019 00:00:00 +0000 Waldenstroms Macroglobulinemia- Diagnostic difficulties- a rare case report https://www.banglajol.info/index.php/BJMS/article/view/41645 <p>Waldenstrom’s macroglobulinemia(WM) is a B-cell neoplasm characterized by infiltration of the bone marrow by a lymphoplasmacytic infiltrate and an IgM monoclonal gammopathy. We report a rare case of a 72 year-old male who presented with fever, shortness of breath for one month. Examination revealed cervical and axillary lymphadenopathy with mild hepatomegaly. On evaluation, peripheral smear show significant rouleaux formation &amp; bone marrow aspiration showed lymphoplasmacytic infiltration. Flow cytometry on bone marrow apirate suggestive of B cell neoplasm and serum protein electophoresis &amp; Immunofixation study confirms diagnosis of waldenstroms macroglobulinemia. We report this case to emphasize diagnostic difficulties in diagnosis of waldenstorms macroglobulinemia and application of flow cytometry and immunofixation study for further confirmation and treatment.</p> <p>Bangladesh Journal of Medical Science Vol.18(3) 2019 p.656-659</p> Majed Momin, Anamika Aluri ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 https://www.banglajol.info/index.php/BJMS/article/view/41645 Thu, 30 May 2019 00:00:00 +0000 Endoscopic excision of nasal septal schwannoma:case report and review of literature https://www.banglajol.info/index.php/BJMS/article/view/41646 <p>Schwannomas are benign tumors arising from Schwann cells of myelinated nerve sheath. Schwannomas of the nasal cavity and paranasal sinuses are rare, with only 4% occurrence. We report a case of a 48-year-old lady who presented with 1-year history of progressively worsening left nasal blockage. Rigid nasoendoscopy showed a smooth, globular mass occupying the left nasal cavity. The mass arose from the left nasal septum and impinged on the anterior part of the middle turbinate posteriorly and inferior turbinate anteriorly. Computed tomography of the paranasal sinuses showed a 3.8 × 1.8 x 3.7- cm enhancing soft tissue density in the left nostril. The mass obliterated the left nasal cavity and caused deviation of the septum to the right. The patient underwent an endoscopic excision and histopathologic examination confirmed the diagnosis of Schwannoma. Postoperative recovery was uneventful and no recurrence was seen in the follow-up period.</p> <p>Bangladesh Journal of Medical Science Vol.18(3) 2019 p.660-662</p> Norsyamira Aida Mohamad Umbaik, Rosdi Ramli, Baharudin Abdullah ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 https://www.banglajol.info/index.php/BJMS/article/view/41646 Thu, 30 May 2019 00:00:00 +0000 Anterior Urethral Polyp – A Rare Cause of Urethrorrhagia https://www.banglajol.info/index.php/BJMS/article/view/41647 <p>Urethrorrhagia is a benign self limited condition. Most of the cases of urethrorrhagia are idiopathic. Anterior urethral polyp (AUP) is a rare cause of it. AUP most commonly affect infants. Endoscopic modality is the best way to detect as well as manage the polyps. Fibroepithelial polyps are benign in nature with no propensity of recurrence with complete excision.</p> <p>Bangladesh Journal of Medical Science Vol.18(3) 2019 p.663-664</p> Souvik Chatterjee, Pramod Kumar Sharma, Kanishka Samanta, Soumendra Nath Mandal, Dilip Karmakar ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 https://www.banglajol.info/index.php/BJMS/article/view/41647 Thu, 30 May 2019 00:00:00 +0000 Psychoacoustic and cognitive effects of brain oscillations during listening to Fatihah Chapter https://www.banglajol.info/index.php/BJMS/article/view/41648 <p>Abstract not available</p> <p>Bangladesh Journal of Medical Science Vol.18(3) 2019 p.665-667</p> Ismail Samhani, Tahamina Begum, Zamzuri Idris, Hafizan Juahir, Jafri Malin Abdullah, Mohammed Faruque Reza ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 https://www.banglajol.info/index.php/BJMS/article/view/41648 Thu, 30 May 2019 00:00:00 +0000