Bangladesh Journal of Medical Science https://www.banglajol.info/index.php/BJMS <p>A journal sponsored by the Ibn Sina Trust. Full text articles available.<br>NLM ID=101563859</p> <p>Bangladesh Journal of Medical Sciences is included on <a title="DOAJ" href="https://doaj.org/toc/2076-0299?source=%7B%22query%22%3A%7B%22filtered%22%3A%7B%22filter%22%3A%7B%22bool%22%3A%7B%22must%22%3A%5B%7B%22term%22%3A%7B%22index.issn.exact%22%3A%222076-0299%22%7D%7D%2C%7B%22term%22%3A%7B%22_type%22%3A%22article%22%7D%7D%5D%7D%7D%2C%22query%22%3A%7B%22match_all%22%3A%7B%7D%7D%7D%7D%2C%22from%22%3A0%2C%22size%22%3A100%7D" target="_blank" rel="noopener">DOAJ</a>.</p> <p><strong>Journal Metrics</strong><br><a href="https://www.scopus.com/sourceid/19900192321" target="_blank" rel="noopener">CiteScore Tracker 2017</a>: Updated on April 30, 2018</p> <p><img 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" alt=""></p> <p><a href="https://www.researchgate.net/journal/2223-4721_Bangladesh_Journal_of_Medical_Science" target="_blank" rel="noopener">ResearchGate Journal Impact</a>&nbsp;(2013): 0.62</p> <p><a href="https://www.scimagojr.com/journalsearch.php?q=19900192321&amp;tip=sid" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Scimago Journal Rank</a> (2019): 0.22</p> <p><img src="/public/site/images/admin/unnamed.png" width="162" height="121"></p> Ibn Sina Medical College en-US Bangladesh Journal of Medical Science 2223-4721 <p>Authors who publish in the Bangladesh Journal of Medical Science agree to the following terms that:</p><ol type="1" start="1"><li>Authors retain copyright and grant Bangladesh Journal of Medical Science the right of first publication of the work.<br /><br /></li><li><a href="http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/" rel="license"><img style="border-width: 0;" src="https://i.creativecommons.org/l/by/4.0/88x31.png" alt="Creative Commons Licence" /></a><br />Articles in Bangladesh Journal of Medical Science are licensed under a <a href="http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/" rel="license">Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License</a> CC BY-4.0.This license permits use, distribution and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.</li><li>Authors are able to enter into separate, additional contractual arrangements for the distribution of the journal's published version of the work (e.g., post it to an institutional repository or publish it in a book), with an acknowledgement of its initial publication in this journal.</li><li>Authors are permitted to post their work online (e.g., in institutional repositories or on their website) as it can lead to productive exchanges, as well as greater citation of published work.</li></ol> Biosimilars are becoming indispensable in the management of multiple diseases although concerns still exist https://www.banglajol.info/index.php/BJMS/article/view/50338 <p>Abstract Not Available</p> <p>Bangladesh Journal of Medical Science Vol.20(1) 2021 p.5-10</p> Brian Godman ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2021-01-01 2021-01-01 20 1 5 10 10.3329/bjms.v20i1.50338 Oral bleeding in dengue fever - Our perspective https://www.banglajol.info/index.php/BJMS/article/view/50339 <p>Dengue fever is one of the major public health problem in the tropical and subtropical countriesacross the globe with around 50-100 million cases occurring annually<strong>. </strong>It is a mosquito bornedisease caused by dengue virus of Flaviviridae family. There are four known serotypes ofdengue virus found worldwide. Aedesaegypti mosquito is the principal vector of transfer ofdengue virus in humans. Dengue clinically presents with high grade fever, chills, head-ache,retro orbital and severe back ache and sometimes with hemorrhagic manifestations whichcan occur without plasma leakage and also with plasma leakage as dengue hemorrhagic fever(DHF) and Dengue shock syndrome (DSS). Oral bleeding is one of the important hemorrhagicmanifestations of dengue clinically manifesting as petechiaes, ecchymosis, gingival bleedingand hematomas .The dentist is sometimes the first person who encounters these types of cases.Therefore, timely diagnosis and prompt referral can prevent morbidity and mortality. This paperdiscusses about the clinical and diagnostic perspectives which a dentist should know in order todiagnose a case of dengue fever presenting with oral bleeding.</p> <p>Bangladesh Journal of Medical Science Vol.20(1) 2021 p.11-16</p> Saif Khan Rahman SZ ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2021-01-01 2021-01-01 20 1 11 16 10.3329/bjms.v20i1.50339 “Review on Forensic Odonto-Stomatology” https://www.banglajol.info/index.php/BJMS/article/view/50340 <p>Forensic Odontology has become an integral part of forensic medicine over the past decadesthat utilize dental tissue findings to serve the judicial system. Dental tissues remains can be usedfor identification as using them are cost effective, reliable and fast. Forensic odontology is abranch of dentistry that analyzes dental evidence to overlap the dental and legal profession. Thetooth has been used as weapons and under certain circumstances, may leave information aboutthe identity of the biter, age estimation and gender determination. Dentists have a major role toplay in keeping accurate dental records and providing all necessary information so that legalauthorities may recognize mal practice, negligence, fraud or abuse, and identity of unknownindividuals. This paper will try to summarize the various roles of dental experts in forensicmedicine.</p> <p>Bangladesh Journal of Medical Science Vol.20(1) 2021 p.17-23</p> Vidya Kadashetti Shivakumar KM ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2021-01-01 2021-01-01 20 1 17 23 10.3329/bjms.v20i1.50340 The Application of Necessity in Medical Treatment: An Islamic Biomedical Perspective https://www.banglajol.info/index.php/BJMS/article/view/50341 <p>This research paper examines the concept of ‘necessity,’ which derives its origin both in Islamicand common law and transcended progressively into medical law. Many aspects of medicaland civil law remained closely related to each other, like ‘the concept of duress’, ‘self-defense’and other aspects of human activities are embedded in both the systems. Likewise, the commonlaw generally allows almost all forms of treatment, whereas Islamic law permits it, when itessentially saves one’s life. All forms of medical treatments are freely and readily available toovercome sterility dilemmas in western countries, whereas in Islamic law some of the moderninterventional techniques and genetic engineering are disregarded as per Shariahinjections.Whereas, Islam does approve necessary measures to sustain sound and good health, since it isconsidered a part of one’s obligations. Hence, its sustenance senses the subjects to avoid fromundue pains and sufferings. For this purpose, medications and medical treatment is considered arecognized mode in Islamic law. Therefore, on one hand, this research paper presents argumentsin favor of medical treatment, while, on the other hand, it will argue the evidences given byclassical and contemporary scholars in favor of medical treatment within the framework ofShariah. This may attract the essence of Shariahdoctrine of necessity.</p> <p>Bangladesh Journal of Medical Science Vol.20(1) 2021 p.24-32</p> Fazli Dayan Mian Muhammad Sheraz Abu Kholdun Al Mahmood Sharmin Islam ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2021-01-01 2021-01-01 20 1 24 32 10.3329/bjms.v20i1.50341 A Study of Happiness-inducing Factors in Nursing and Midwifery Students at the Islamic Azad University of Jahrom https://www.banglajol.info/index.php/BJMS/article/view/50342 <p><strong>Introduction</strong><strong>: </strong>In psychology, happiness is defined as a positive emotion which lasts longer than atemporary good feeling; it is a steady condition among one’s positive emotions and understanding oflife. Happiness is beneficial to the whole society, but the effects of happiness on university students,as the new blood and future makers of nations, have been of greater interest to researchers. Thepresent study aims to explore the factors that induce happiness in nursing and midwifery students.</p> <p><strong>Methods</strong>: The present study is a descriptive-comparative work of research conducted in 2017 on 200nursing and midwifery students at the Islamic Azad University of Jahrom in the south of Iran. Thesubjects were selected based on the census sampling method. To determine the degree of happinessin the subjects, the researchers used the Oxford Happiness Questionnaire developed by Argyle et al.in 1979. The questionnaire consists of 29 multiple-choice items scored on the Likert scale between0 and 3. The reliability and validity of the questionnaire have been tested and confirmed in severalstudies. The collected data were analyzed using SPSS v. 15.</p> <p><strong>Findings: </strong>Of the 200 students studied,81% (171) were female and 65.4% (138) were single. The mean happiness score of the subjects wasfound to be 40.1±9.1. On the happiness scale, the students’ happiness level was medium. 21.9% ofthe students had low happiness levels (a score of 0 to 28), 71.5% had acceptable happiness levels (ascore of 29 to 57), and 6.6% had high happiness levels (a score of 58 to 87). An analysis of the datashowed that there was not a significant relationship between the subjects’ levels of happiness and anyof their demographic characteristics except their term of study (p=0.05).</p> <p><strong>Conclusion: </strong>The findingsof the present study show that the degree of happiness among nursing and midwifery universitystudents is medium. Since nursing and midwifery university students are potential labor force in thehealthcare systems of societies, it is essential that they maintain acceptable levels of happiness whichis a criterion of psychological health. Accordingly, it is recommended that organized measures betaken to improve the psychological health of students and keep it at satisfactory levels throughoutthe duration of their education.</p> <p>Bangladesh Journal of Medical Science Vol.20(1) 2021 p.33-38</p> Afieh Rahmanian Koshkaki Marzieh Kargar Jahromi Ali Rahmanian Koshkaki Aliyar Pirouzi Zinab Sadat moosavifard ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2021-01-01 2021-01-01 20 1 33 38 10.3329/bjms.v20i1.50342 A Profile of Heart Failure with Preserved Ejection Fraction in a Teaching Hospital https://www.banglajol.info/index.php/BJMS/article/view/50343 <p><strong>Objective</strong>: Heart failure with preserved ejection fraction (HFPEF) is fast becoming animportant public health issue. Nearly fifty percent of all heart failure cases are due to HFPEF.There are many associated comorbidities has been associated with this condition which maybe pathophysiologically related. There is no specific treatment yet. The focus remains onsymptomatic treatment of heart failure along with carefully managing the associated conditions.The present study was aimed at analyzing the comorbidities in HFPEF in a tertiary care centre.</p> <p><strong>Method: </strong>Patient diagnosed with heart failure wereechocardiographically analyzed. Thoseshowing diastolic dysfunction on tissue Doppler imaging were diagnosed as HFPEF. Patientswith chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, valvular heart disease, constrictive pericarditis,restrictive/ hypertrophic cardiomyopathy and sepsis related diastolic dysfunction were excluded.One hundred such patients fulfilling the inclusion and exclusion criteria were enrolled. Plasma Btype natriuretic peptide(BNP) level was assayed in all participants. Institutional Ethics Committeeapproval was taken beforehand. Written informed consent was taken from each patient.</p> <p><strong>Result: </strong>The mean age of the patients in the study group was 63.06yrs. HFPEF was more commonin females(62%). The common comorbidities observed were hypertension(82%), high bodymass index (80%),anaemia (76%), hyperlipidemia (30%) diabetes mellitus(28%). The plasmaBNP was elevated in all except 2 patients. The BNP level was higher in those with higherleft atrial size and those showing more severe diastolic dysfunction on tissue doppler imaging.Conclusion- HFPEF can be diagnosed clinically with the help of echocardiography. Plasma BNPlevel assay may be done when diagnosis is in doubt. The patients with HfpEf are heterogeneousand treatment need to be individualized depending on the associated comorbidities. Furtherstudies with larger sample size are required to define the profile of this disease.</p> <p>Bangladesh Journal of Medical Science Vol.20(1) 2021 p.39-44</p> Bimal K Agrawal Gaurav Aggarwal Robin Gahlawat Suvarna Prasad Amit Saini Barinder Kaur Usha Agrawal ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2021-01-01 2021-01-01 20 1 39 44 10.3329/bjms.v20i1.50343 Elevated Plasma and Liver tissue Uric Acid Levels in Alloxan Diabetic Rats https://www.banglajol.info/index.php/BJMS/article/view/50344 <p><strong>Background</strong><strong>: </strong>Abnormal levels of serum uric acid (UA) causes major health problem due to itspivotal role in the etiology of many systemic diseases. Many research works in recent past haveshown elevated uric acid levels in diabetic subjects. Some reports indicate that uric acid elevationis related to diabetic complications, whereas a few claimed that uric acid elevation is also seen inpre-diabetic condition.The reason for this elevation of uric acid and a possible role of insulin inthis regard is obscure. Hence a study has been undertaken to assess the uric acid status in alloxandiabetic rats with an attempt to establish the possible cause for uric acid elevation.</p> <p><strong>Methods</strong><strong>:</strong>The studies were carried out on healthy male Wistar rats with a body weight of 150-180g. Therats were divided into two groups,normal group (Group-1) and alloxan diabetic group (Group-2)with six animals in each group. Induction of diabetes was done by administering a singleintraperitoneal injection of freshly prepared aqueous solution of Alloxan Monohydrate (150mg/Kg body weight) prepared in normal saline, to the overnight fasted rats. After the stipulatedperiod of 30 days, the animals (Group-1 and Group-2) were anesthetized using Isoflurane andsacrificed. They were dissected immediately and liver tissue was procured, blotted to removeblood stains, and placed in cold phosphate buffer saline (pH7.4). Blood samples were collectedusing heparin as anticoagulant.The uric acid levels in plasma, erythrocytes and in liver tissueas well as the levels of ADA in plasma and liver tissue were estimated.</p> <p><strong>Results</strong><strong>: </strong>A significant(p&lt;0.001) rise in uric acid levels in plasma, erythrocytes and liver tissue as well as increasedlevels of ADA in plasma and liver tissue was observed in alloxan diabetic rats compared to normal control.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion</strong><strong>: </strong>The increased uric acid levels noticed in alloxan diabetic rats maybe due to increased catabolism of purines as evidenced by increased activity of ADA.</p> <p>Bangladesh Journal of Medical Science Vol.20(1) 2021 p.45-49</p> CV Yogaraje Gowda S Senthilkumar RT Kashinath ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2021-01-01 2021-01-01 20 1 45 49 10.3329/bjms.v20i1.50344 Investigating antemortem, perimortem and postmortem injuries: forensic implication https://www.banglajol.info/index.php/BJMS/article/view/50345 <p><strong>Context:</strong>Skeletal injuries discovered from human remains are classified into antemortem,perimortem and postmortem. Studies that documents injuries of various skeletal elementsis of vital importance to forensic anthropologist.</p> <p><strong>Aim: </strong>This study investigated antemortem,perimortem, postmortem and other injuries caused by various instruments among skeletal elements.</p> <p><strong>Methodology: </strong>A total of 200 bones of unknown age and gender were studied.Injuries were interpreted based on basic features specific to them and each was described andphotographed. Chisquare test was used to show association between skeletal elements andtime of injuries. Statistical evaluation was done using SPSS 20 Software Version. Significance was accepted at p&lt;0.05.</p> <p><strong>Result: </strong>The bones from this study showed 17.50% antemortem, 24%perimortemand 57% postmortem. Findings showed that 49.50% of the bones had blunt forceinjury, 30.50% had sharp force while 20.00% had ballistic injuries. Basic features of antemorteminjuries were smooth and round fractured edges within bones. Sharp, smooth fractured edgeswere observed among perimortem bones in contrast to irregular, blunt fractured edges anduneven discoloration in postmortem bones .Straight line incisions were seen in bones withsharp force injuries,presence of an entrance wound in ballistic injuries while an impact area wasdiscovered in most bones with blunt force injury.Findings showed that there exist a significantassociation between ante, peri and postmortem injuries in the ulnar,radius and femur bones(X<sup>2</sup>=25.32;13.35;10.11. p=0.000;0.001,0.006)</p> <p><strong>Conclusion: </strong>Bones from this study showed morepost mortem blunt force injury.</p> <p>Bangladesh Journal of Medical Science Vol.20(1) 2021 p.50-57</p> Jaiyeoba Ojigho Jennifer Efe Odokuma Emmanuel Igho Umukoro Joysour Mamuyovwi ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2021-01-01 2021-01-01 20 1 50 57 10.3329/bjms.v20i1.50345 The ability to rational relaxation of the muscles in children who are engaged in football taking into account their nervous system https://www.banglajol.info/index.php/BJMS/article/view/50346 <p><strong>Introduction: </strong>If the football lessons with children take into account their strength of thenervous system in the process of excitation, the effectiveness of such activities will be higher.</p> <p><strong>Objective: </strong>Study of the effect of the nervous system of players on the ability to rationally relax their muscles.</p> <p><strong>Method: </strong>44 athlete’s aged 13-14 years took part in the pedagogical experiment.22 young footballers were engaged in the experimental methodic, which is based on the useof different components of the load, for players with a strong nervous system (11 people) theload was intense, and for players with a weak nervous system (11 people) - volume. Other 22athletes were in the control group.</p> <p><strong>Results: </strong>After 7 months of research, we saw a significantimprovement in the ability to relax the muscles in children aged 13-14 years, who trainedaccording to our methodic. Children who have a strong nervous system, improved performancein the test “juggling the ball” from 4.1±0.8 times to 6.5±1.1 times (P&lt;0.05), and players with aweak nervous system – from 3.8±1.3 times to 5.4±1.4 times (P&lt;0.05). In the control group, thechanges were positive but unreliable (P&gt; 0.05).</p> <p><strong>Conclusion: </strong>If the lessons with children use adifferentiated method, which is based on the typology of the nervous system, the performanceof children will improve significantly. The use of this method will improve the technicalperformance of athletes and improve the quality of the training process.</p> <p>Bangladesh Journal of Medical Science Vol.20(1) 2021 p.58-61</p> Polevoy GG ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2021-01-01 2021-01-01 20 1 58 61 10.3329/bjms.v20i1.50346 Anatomical variations of the middle Turbinate among adult Sudanese Population -A Computed Tomographic Study https://www.banglajol.info/index.php/BJMS/article/view/50347 <p><strong>Objectives</strong><strong>: </strong>This study aimed to determine the prevalence of the anatomical variations of themiddle turbinate among adult Sudanese population which include Concha Bullosa (CB) andParadoxical middle turbinate (PMT) and their relationship with age and sex.</p> <p><strong>Methods: </strong>The studypopulation involved 29 males (47.5%) and 32 females (52.5 %) with a mean age of 37 years.Exploration was done in the radio-diagnostic department of Ribat University Teaching Hospital,Khartoum- Sudan in the period from January to September 2018. Patients were scanned on slicecollimation of 1mm thickness with a slice thickness of 4 mm. Computed Tomography (CT) scanswere retrospectively reviewed for the presence of CB and PMT coronal planes, bony windowsand reported the results in the datasheet. Statistical analysis was performed using SPSS andcompared with previous results on similar studies.</p> <p><strong>Result: </strong>In the current study, the prevalence ofthe CB was 22.9%, observed bilaterally in 6 cases (9.8%), unilaterally in 8 (13.1%). PMT waspresent only in 3 cases (4.9%) all of them were unilateral.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion: </strong>Computed Tomography(CT) may easily identify such uncommon anatomic variations of the osteomeatal region,determination of these variations aids in providing a better surgical orientation and avoiding orminimizing the possible complications.</p> <p>Bangladesh Journal of Medical Science Vol.20(1) 2021 p.62-67</p> Gisma Ahmed Madani Kamal Eldin Badawi Helen Suban Mohammed Gouse Suban Mohammed Gouse ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2021-01-01 2021-01-01 20 1 62 67 10.3329/bjms.v20i1.50347 The effect of Mmoringaoleifera leaf extract on mean platelet volume and neutrophil to lymphocyte ratio in lupus https://www.banglajol.info/index.php/BJMS/article/view/50348 <p><strong>Introduction</strong><strong>: </strong>No definitive treatment is available for Lupus. Moringaoleiferais one of promisingnovel treatments in Lupus trough anti inflammation and immunosupresion. Mean platelet volume andneutrophil to lymphocyte ratio used to measure degree of lupus activities.</p> <p><strong>Objective: </strong>Our study wasaimed to identify the effect of Moringaoleiferaextract on the Mean platelet volume and neutrophil to lymphocyte ratio in lupus.</p> <p><strong>Methods: </strong>This experimental study was conducted in 30 lupus patients,located in the rheumatology clinic at Moewardi General Hospital in January-March 2019. The studygroup was divided into two groups: the treatment research group received 2 grams of moringa extractper day and the placebo group. The study was conducted for 4 weeks and was evaluated when thestudy was completed. MPV and NLR examination using a hemocytometer. Statistical analysis wasperformed using paired T test, independent T-test. The p value was considered significant when the p &lt; 0.05.</p> <p><strong>Results: </strong>The results showed a decrease in MPV (delta MPV = 4.141; r 0.656; p-0.02) anda decrease in Neurophil to lymfocyte ratio (delta NLR = 4.1391; r 0.489; p-0.04)</p> <p><strong>Conclusion: </strong>Thestudy demonstrated the effect of Moringaoleiferaleaf extract on reduced Mean platelet volume andneutrophil to lymphocyte ratio in lupus</p> <p>Bangladesh Journal of Medical Science Vol.20(1) 2021 p.68-73</p> Arief Nurudhin Retno Widyastuti Nurhasan Agung Prabowo Zainal Arifin Adnan Yulyani Werdiningsih ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2021-01-01 2021-01-01 20 1 68 73 10.3329/bjms.v20i1.50348 Does the Job Category Affect Employments’ Organizational Citizenship Behavior In Hospitals? https://www.banglajol.info/index.php/BJMS/article/view/50349 <p><strong>Background and Objective: </strong>Organizational citizenship behavior (OCB) is one of facilitatingfactors in improving the quality of service in healthcare section. This study aimed at investigatingthe possible relationship between the job category and employees’ organizational citizenshipbehavior in some selected hospitals located in Northern Iran.</p> <p><strong>Material and Methods: </strong>Thisapplied research was a descriptive-analytical cross-sectional survey conducted in 2016 amongtherapeutic and non-therapeutic/administrative employees working in 5 selected hospitals locatedin Golestan province, Iran. 320 employees were selected randomly by using Cochran samplingformula. The Persian version of Podsakoff’s standard scale for measuring the organizationalcitizenship behavior was used for data collection. The gathered data were analyzed by usingSPSS 18 and applying independent t-test and regression analysis.</p> <p><strong>Results: </strong>The mean rate of nontherapeuticemployees’ organizational citizenship behavior (94.38±7.57) was higher than that oftherapeutic ones (93.98±9.36). The component altruism with 20.78±2.75 among therapeutic staffand the component conscientiousness with 20.87±2.09 among non-therapeutic staff were in thehighest rate. The mean differences of the components of the organizational citizenship behaviorwere not significant, The lowest rate belonged to the component civic virtue (14.28±2.03), butin altruism in which the difference was significantly positive (p= .039).</p> <p><strong>Conclusion: </strong>Althoughthe job category has a low effect on the organizational citizenship behavior, the managersof healthcare centers can improve their employees’ organizational citizenship behavior byimproving organizational culture, work motivation and job satisfaction among the staff.</p> <p>Bangladesh Journal of Medical Science Vol.20(1) 2021 p.74-80</p> Mohammad Ali jahani Fatemeh Hoseini Rostami Hakimeh Mehdizadeh Shahrbanoo Mahmoudjanloo Hossein Ali Nikbakht Ghahraman Mahmoudi ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2021-01-01 2021-01-01 20 1 74 80 10.3329/bjms.v20i1.50349 Dynamics of biochemical markers of the connective tissue metabolism in the blood of rats after insertion of steel implants with diamond-like carbon coating into the femur https://www.banglajol.info/index.php/BJMS/article/view/50350 <p><strong>Objective: </strong>It is known that the regeneration of bone tissue after implantation of any structuresdepends on the coating of their surface. Therefore, the research of the influence of steelimplants with diamond-like carbon coating on regeneration of bone tissue in the dynamics afterimplantation is a topical issue.</p> <p><strong>Material and Methods: </strong>The study was conducted on 61 male rats,5 of them were intact animals. There were also 2 groups of rats with 28 animals in each group(the 1<sup>st</sup> group was the control one where implants were without diamond-like carbon coating,the 2<sup>nd</sup> group was experimental where the implants were without coating). We determined thecontent of glycoproteins, chondroitin sulfates, alkaline phosphatase, total calcium, oxyprolineand osteocalcin in the blood of rats on the 7<sup>th</sup>, 14<sup>th</sup>, 30<sup>th</sup> and 90<sup>th</sup> days after implantation.</p> <p><strong>Resultsand Discussion: </strong>Group 2 rats had a faster osteointegration compared with the group 1 rats, whichwas manifested by the normalization of biochemical markers of bone metabolism (glycoproteins,chondroitinsulfats, oxyproline and osteocalcin) on the 90<sup>th</sup> day of an experiment.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong>Using steel implants with diamond-like carbon coatings showed that the content of glycoproteinsand chondroitin sulfates increased only on the 7<sup>th</sup> day; oxyproline and osteocalcin increasedon the 7<sup>th</sup>, 14<sup>th</sup> and 30<sup>th</sup> days after implantation; on the 90<sup>th</sup> day the rates of these biochemicalmarkers reached the norm, indicating a high efficiency of osteointegration.</p> <p>Bangladesh Journal of Medical Science Vol.20(1) 2021 p.81-85</p> Vasyl Makarov Dmytro Morozenko Kateryna Gliebova Svitlana Danylchenko ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2021-01-01 2021-01-01 20 1 81 85 10.3329/bjms.v20i1.50350 Analysis of Employed and Unemployed Mother’s Perspectives towards Story Narration in Typically Developing Children https://www.banglajol.info/index.php/BJMS/article/view/50351 <p><strong>Introduction:</strong>Early shared reading experiences positively predict outcomes in language andliteracy development of children who experience rich communicative and affective interactionsby parents during story narration. However, research is yet to be systematically exploremother’s practices and perceptions towards story narration and how employment of mothermay influence their perspectives and practices</p> <p><strong>Aim:</strong>Toanalyse the perspectives of employedand unemployed mothers of typically developing children between 2 to 5 years towards story narration.</p> <p><strong>Materials and Methods: </strong>The study followed a cross sectional design. A total of 60participants were selected in three age groups (Group I, II &amp; III) of employed and unemployedmothers. A questionnaire was developed to analyse perceptions and practices of mother oftypically developing children between 2 to 5 years towards story narration. The responses werescored and analysed using SPSS Software, where a Chi-Square Test was performed to checkthe association.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong>Chi-square analysis revealed no significant association of employmentin maternal perceptions towards story narration activities.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong>The study revealed thatemployment does not influence maternal perceptions towards story narration. The increase inmean score with age indicated a positive change in mother’s perception. This finding is animportant contributing factor to understand the role of mothers in children’s developing languageand early literacy skills. The study emphasises and highlights the lacuna in early interaction ofmothers in pre-literacy based activities, which can contribute to better academic performancein later stages.</p> <p>Bangladesh Journal of Medical Science Vol.20(1) 2021 p.86-94</p> Malavika Anakkthil Anil S Bindu Jayashree S Bhat ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2021-01-01 2021-01-01 20 1 86 94 10.3329/bjms.v20i1.50351 Cholinesterase in different types of the muscle tissue during the early postmortem period for diagnosis of death coming https://www.banglajol.info/index.php/BJMS/article/view/50352 <p><strong>The purpose of the research: </strong>consisted in study of postmortem regularities in the content of cholinesterasein different types of muscle tissue (MT) for improving accuracy of determination of the prescriptionof death coming PDC.</p> <p><strong>Materials and methods: </strong>The activity/level of cholinesterase was determinedin homogenates of the myocardial (MMH), oesophageal (OMH), diaphragm (DMH) and intercostalmuscles (IMH)within the early PMP (3-13 hours after the coming of death) on 30 human corpses. MTwas sampled in conditions of postmortem biopsy with use of special instruments; MT homogenateswere prepared following the standard technique with subsequent determination of cholinesterase content in MT homogenates.</p> <p><strong>Results and discussion: </strong>The analysis of postmortem changes in the content ofcholinesterase in MT depending upon PDC revealed that after 3 hours from the moment of death comingits highest content was in muscles of the oesophagus, the least one being in MT of the intercostal muscles(respectively, (2,717.1±37.1) and (883.5±6.2) U/g, р&lt;0.001). Levels of cholinesterase content in MT ofthe myocardium and diaphragm were rather close, though they differed (respectively, (1,213.8±8.8) and(1,512.8±11.5) U/g, р&lt;0.05), and occupied an intermediate place between the corresponding values of MTof the intercostal muscles and oesophagus.A common pattern for the content of cholinesterase in differenttypes of MT was characterized by a decrease of this content with an increase in PDC terms; besides, thedynamic lines of its changes, that we obtained, became basic ones for substantiating quantitative timedependencies and construction of relevant nomograms for forensic diagnosis of PDC by cholinesterase content in MT.</p> <p><strong>Conclusions: </strong>It was proved that the content of cholinesterase in all MT homogenates,which we studied, changed regularly (and nonlinearly), but the initial and final levels of cholinesterasecontent differed depending upon the type of MT. Besides, the dynamics in changes of the content ofcholinesterase within the time period of 3÷13 hours from the moment of death coming differed uponthe type of MT too. Advantages of the technique consist in theintegrity of biochemical examinationof different types of MT and simplicity in interpretation of findings. The application of the nomogramtechnique for assessing PDC by cholinesterase content in MT makes it possible to improve the accuracyof diagnosis for terms of the coming of death up to 60 minutes.</p> <p>Bangladesh Journal of Medical Science Vol.20(1) 2021 p.95-100</p> Lidiya Cherkashyna Anton Shklyar Roman Sukhonosov Olha Miroshnikova Lyudmyla Naguta Vasyl Olkhovskiy Nadiia Demikhova Larysa Kuts Ganna Barchan Ganna Sukhomlyn Ludmila Kyptenko ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2021-01-01 2021-01-01 20 1 95 100 10.3329/bjms.v20i1.50352 Comparison of dengue and other febrile illnesses in patients admitted to Teaching Hospital- Peradeniya https://www.banglajol.info/index.php/BJMS/article/view/50353 <p><strong>Background: </strong>Dengue is a severe and notifiable infection in Sri Lanka and other tropical countries.There are other febrile illnesses,which have the same symptoms as dengue. Identifying early changingmarkers in blood and their changing patterns in dengue and other febrile illnesses will help to differentiatedengue patients from other febrile illnesses.It is important for the early recovery and management of the dengue patients.</p> <p><strong>Methods: </strong>Dengue suspected 288 patients were selected from adult medical wards inTeaching hospital-Peradeniya, after initial screening process. Out of whole population, 56% were RTPCRpositive for dengue and RT-PCR negative population (44%) was named as other febrile illnesses.Results of variations in liver enzymes, full blood count (FBC), demographic and hospitalization detailsin both groups were obtained from hospital records.</p> <p><strong>Results: </strong>Male predominance and highly affectedyoung population were detected in both groups. Number of days from onset of fever to admission tothe hospital is lower and hospitalization period is higher in dengue than other febrile illnesses. Onadmission, higher level of aspartate transaminase, significant lymphopenia and higher mean cell volume(MCV) were noticed in dengue patients. On discharge, lower total white blood cell count, lower absolutelymphocyte count, lower platelet count and increased levels of transaminases were detected in denguecompared with other febrile illnesses.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion: </strong>From dengue suspected admissions, 44% was due toother febrile illnesses which was very difficult to distinguish by symptoms of dengue. Young patients withmale predominance is common in dengue as well as in other febrile illnesses. Recovery of cytopenia inFBC and normalization of liver transaminases were lower in dengue.</p> <p>Bangladesh Journal of Medical Science Vol.20(1) 2021 p.101-106</p> Chamila Kumari Nandasena Sathya Charuni Abeysinghe Senanayake Abeysinghe Mudiyanselage Kula Rathnayake Mudiyanselage Manel Rathnayak Udaya Ralapanawa Jayantha Rajapakse Jayasekara Mudiyanselage Kithsiri Bandar ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2021-01-01 2021-01-01 20 1 101 106 10.3329/bjms.v20i1.50353 Relationship between the Metaphor Perception and School Climate on the Profession of Nursing Students https://www.banglajol.info/index.php/BJMS/article/view/50354 <p><strong>Aim</strong>: The aim of this study was to determine the effects of the school climate on nursing seniorstudents on the perception of metaphor for nursing.</p> <p><strong>Method: </strong>Sample of the study was formedwith volunteer students (n = 130) to participate in the study on the date of the data collection.In the evaluation of quantitative data, frequency, percentage, mean, independent sample t-test,and in the evaluation of qualitative data content analysis methods were used. The categories inwhich including the positive and negative metaphors in the study are constructed in five differentways (vital, object, struggle, abstraction, productivity). The primary metaphors are being beenthe mother, the angel, the medicine and the robot.When the metaphors were examined, a vitalexpression of vast majority has been seen as the nursing perception.</p> <p><strong>Result: </strong>When the students’metaphor perceptions were compared with school climate scores, it was found that there was asignificant relationship between them (t=2.259, p=.026). Metaphors have provided an indicationof the produced individual perception on the nursing profession.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong>Metaphors can beused as a powerful research tool to reveal to what extent students’ school climate influencesthese metaphors.</p> <p>Bangladesh Journal of Medical Science Vol.20(1) 2021 p.107-114</p> Özge Karakaya Suzan Sinem Yalnızoğlu Çaka Sümeyra Topal Nesrin Akıncı Çötok Nursan Çınar ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2021-01-01 2021-01-01 20 1 107 114 10.3329/bjms.v20i1.50354 “Concept mapping – an innovative approach to learning” https://www.banglajol.info/index.php/BJMS/article/view/50355 <p><strong>Background:</strong>For a medical student to blossom into a competent doctor with critical thinkingand decision-making skills, appropriate learning techniques that will enhance his learning anddevelop higher-order thinking skills are needed. Concept mapping is a learning technique thatcreates a mind map. It serves to represent information in a structured format with appropriate linkage and sequencing.</p> <p><strong>Objective</strong><strong>:</strong>This article describes a concept mapping workshop that wasorganized in our institution, our pre- and post-test results and the feedback we received.</p> <p><strong>Materialsand methods:</strong>An innovative workshop on “Learning by concept mapping” was organized forfirst year MBBS students. Twelve facilitators and 150 students participated. The workshopbegan with an introductory talk on concept mapping. Then, a demonstration on how to createconcept maps was given. This was followed by a hands – on session where the students createdtheir own concept maps under the guidance of facilitators. Pre- and post-tests were administeredand feedback on the workshop was taken.</p> <p><strong>Results and Discussion:</strong>Statistical analysis showedsignificant improvement betweenpre- and post-test scores. Participants appreciated the workshopand felt that concept mapping was an innovative way of learning and could help in assimilatingcomplicated subject matter.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion</strong><strong>:</strong>Concept mapping, asa learning technique, can lead toa meaningful learning experience. Such innovative approaches to learning are welcomed bystudents.</p> <p>Bangladesh Journal of Medical Science Vol.20(1) 2021 p.115-121</p> Preetha Paul Rajarajan Easuraj Sasikumar Arumugam Jamunarani Srirangaramasamy ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2021-01-01 2021-01-01 20 1 115 121 10.3329/bjms.v20i1.50355 Tualang Honey prevents neuronal damage in medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) through enhancement of cholinergic system in male rats following exposure to normobaric hypoxia https://www.banglajol.info/index.php/BJMS/article/view/50356 <p><strong>Background: </strong>Medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) is considered to be involved in human cognition to mPFCin terms of learning and memory. Hypoxia is one of the crucial factors causing secondary damage incerebral hemorrhage and traumatic brain injury. However, the underlying mechanisms and possibletherapeutic approach to prevent neuronal damage has not been attempted yet. Therefore, the present studyaimed to investigate the role of Tualang honey on medial prefrontal cortical neuronal morphology andcholinergic markers such as acetylcholine (ACh) and acetylcholinesterase (AChE) following exposure to normobaric hypoxia in rats.</p> <p><strong>Material and methods: </strong>Adult male Sprague-Dawley rats were dividedinto four groups: (i) sucrose treated non-hypoxia, (ii) sucrose treated hypoxia, (iii) Tualang honeytreated non-hypoxia and (iv)Tualang honey treated hypoxia. Rats received sucrose (1 mL of 7.9%) andTualang honey (0.2 g/kg), respectively, for 2 weeks prior to hypoxia exposure. Morphological study wasperformed by using Nissl staining and cholinergic markers were estimated by ELISA technique.</p> <p><strong>Resultsand discussion: </strong>Sucrose treated hypoxia group showed significantly lower mean ACh and higher meanAChE concentrations (P&lt;0.05) compared to sucrose and honey treated non-hypoxia groups. Interestingly,mean ACh concentration was significantly increased and mean AChE concentration was significantlydecreased in Tualang honey treated hypoxic rats compared to sucrose treated hypoxic rats. Morphologicaldata showed that hypoxia caused neuronal damage in mPFC in sucrose treated hypoxia group whereasTualang honey treated hypoxia group significantly prevent neuronal damage.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion: </strong>Tualang honeyprotects hypoxia-induced mPFC neuronal damage through improvement of the brain cholinergic markersin male rats exposed to normobaric hypoxia.</p> <p>Bangladesh Journal of Medical Science Vol.20(1) 2021 p.122-129</p> Entesar Yaseen Abdo Qaid Rahimah Zakaria Nurul Aiman Mohd Yusof Shaida Fariza Sulaiman Nazlahshaniza Shafin Asma Hayati Ahmad Zahiruddin Othman Badryia Al Rahbi Sangu Muthuraju ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2021-01-01 2021-01-01 20 1 122 129 10.3329/bjms.v20i1.50356 Estimation of serum ferritin and TSH levels in thalassemia patients undergoing iron chelation therapy https://www.banglajol.info/index.php/BJMS/article/view/50357 <p><strong>Objectives &amp; introduction</strong>: Thalassemia, heterogenous group of disorders of haemoglobin,characterised by reduced or absent production of one or more of globin chains.Regular redcell transfusion with chelation therapy for iron overload are cornerstones of therapy for ßthalassemia major. Serum ferritin assay is widely available, relatively inexpensive methodfor assessing body iron burden and monitoring response to chelation process which in turnalso improves TSH levels in thalassemic subjects .The objective of this study was to assessprechelation and postchelation levels of serum ferritin and TSH and correlating post chelationlevels of serum ferritin and TSH in thalassemic patients &gt;6yrs undergoing chelation therapy.</p> <p><strong>Materials &amp; methods</strong>: Serum TSH measured by Enzyme linked fluorescent assay and serumferritin measured by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay.</p> <p><strong>Results</strong>: Amongst 500 participants,47% were males &amp; 53% females. Mean age was 9.04 yrs ;prechelation ferritin and TSH levelswere 2995.78ng/ml with SD of 802.53 and 5.07 μU/ml with SD of 2.52. The postchelationferritin and TSH levels were 2168.80 ng/ml with SD of 1335.89 and 4.51μU/ml with SD of4.76. Paired t test with respect to pre and postchelation ferritin and TSH levels showed 2 tailed pas 0.000 and t&gt;3, both of which considered significant. While correlating post chelation ferritinwith TSH levels; they showed a linear correlation ( Pearson coefficient of .836).</p> <p><strong>Conclusion</strong>:Serum ferritin and TSH estimation in prechelation and postchelation periods give an estimateof iron overload with effect of chelation on it. Both levels decrease post chelation presenting alinear correlation between the two.</p> <p>Bangladesh Journal of Medical Science Vol.20(1) 2021 p.130-135</p> Soma Ghosh Dwaipayan Chakrabarti ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2021-01-01 2021-01-01 20 1 130 135 10.3329/bjms.v20i1.50357 Effects of Medical Diagnostic X-rays Delivered at 0.01 or 0.05 mGy on Human Blood Cells https://www.banglajol.info/index.php/BJMS/article/view/50358 <p><strong>Background: </strong>Low-dose X-rays are commonly used in medical imaging to help in the diagnosis ofdiseases. However, the deleterious effects of exposure to medical diagnostic low-dose X-rays remaina highly debated topic. The objective was to study the effects of medical diagnostic X-rays on humanblood cells.</p> <p><strong>Materials and Methods</strong><strong>: </strong>We studied the effects of medical diagnostic low-dose X-rays (80kVp), i.e.,0.01 or 0.05 mGy, after the in vitro exposure of human red blood cells (RBCs) and peripheralblood mononucleated cells (PBMCs).Cells with no irradiation served as the control group. The biologicalendpoints that were used to determine the effects of medical diagnostic low-dose X-rays were hemolysisfor RBCs and mitochondrial membrane potential, lysosomes, and the cell cycle for PBMCs.</p> <p><strong>Results</strong><strong>: </strong>Ourresults showed no changes in the hemolysis of RBCs and mitochondrial membrane potential, lysosome, orcell cycle in cells exposed to these low doses of X-rays when compared to the corresponding nonirradiatedcells at all harvest timepoints.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion</strong><strong>: </strong>These results suggested that there were no deleterious effectsof diagnostic low-dose X-rays when human RBCs and PBMCs were exposed in vitro.</p> <p>Bangladesh Journal of Medical Science Vol.20(1) 2021 p.136-144</p> Benjamaporn Supawat Jongchai Tinlapat Rusleena Wongmahamad Chuleekorn Silpmuang Suchart Kothan Montree Tungjai ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2021-01-01 2021-01-01 20 1 136 144 10.3329/bjms.v20i1.50358 Adherence to Home-based Neuro-rehabilitation Exercise program in Stroke survivors https://www.banglajol.info/index.php/BJMS/article/view/50361 <p><strong>Background:</strong>Post discharge, Home-based exercise program (HEP), prescribed by physiotherapistis an integral part, to plan effective stroke rehabilitation, with the intended goal of maintainingfunctional motor performance and enhancing functional progress.Earlier studies have shown thatmany factors attribute to adherence and barriers for structured group based exercise program.</p> <p><strong>Objective</strong>: This study was designed to identify the factors in stroke subjects, which mayinfluence the adherence and barriers to individually tailored HEP post-discharge, in strokesubjects.</p> <p><strong>Method</strong>: An analytical cross-sectional study, with non-random sampling, consistingof first onset stroke subjects who had received acute stroke rehabilitation from tertiary carehospitals. Post-discharge, seventy-four participants were followed up and their responses relatedto adherence and barriers to the prescribed HEP by administering a self-reported adherence to home exercise questionnaire.</p> <p><strong>Results: </strong>63.5% were adherent and 36.5% were non-adherent toHEP, among 74 subjects. The adherent group had performed exercises for at least 5-6 times in aweek, for 31-45 minutes each day. Intrinsic factors related to self-efficacy and perceived level ofanticipated recovery had found an association with adherent and non-adherent groups.The mostcommon barriers for adherence to HEP were fear of fall or injury and fatigue for both adherent and non-adherent subjects.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion: </strong>This present study helped to put an insight, onto sociodemographicand intrinsic factors, with the level of adherence and to identify the barriers foradherence to individually tailored HEP.</p> <p>Bangladesh Journal of Medical Science Vol.20(1) 2021 p.145-153</p> Priyanka Babbar K Vijaya Kumar PT Abraham Joshua M Chakrapani ZK Misri ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2021-01-01 2021-01-01 20 1 145 153 10.3329/bjms.v20i1.50361 Assessment of 2D:4D ratio for the early diagnosis of caries and malocclusion in 7-15-year-old children https://www.banglajol.info/index.php/BJMS/article/view/50362 <p><strong>Background: </strong>The ratio between 2<sup>nd</sup> and 4<sup>th</sup> digit length is termed as hormonal fingerprintand is used as an indirect marker in many medical diseases.Dental studies pertaining to theimportance of hormonal fingerprint on oral health are very sparse.</p> <p><strong>Aim and objectives: </strong>Tostudy the correlation of dental caries and malocclusion with hormonal fingerprints.</p> <p><strong>Materialsand Methods: </strong>A total of 100 children of age group 7-15 years and both genders were randomlyselected and included in the present study. The hormonal fingerprint (2D:4D ratio) wasdone bymeasuring the length ratio of the index and ring finger with the help of digital vernier caliper.Caries assessment wascarried out using standard mouth mirrors and Community PeriodontalIndex probes. WHO assessment form (1997) was followed for assessment of dentitionstatus and treatment need.Occlusal characteristics evaluated were molar relation, anteriorand posterior crossbite, open bite, deep bite and lower anterior crowding. The subjects weredivided into high 2D:4D, equal 2D:4D digit ratio and low 2D:4D. All the measurements weredone by two investigators. The data collected were tabulated and statistically analyzed usingChi-square and ANOVA test.</p> <p><strong>Results: </strong>Out of 100 children, 34% were males and 66% werefemales. Most of the participants were 7-8 years old (12 males and 15 females). Majority of theparticipants (87% for the right hand and 80% for left hand) had low 2D:4D ratio, only 6% forright and 11% for the left hand had high 2D:4D ratio and the remaining had equal 2D:4D ratio.Statistically insignificantcorrelation between 2D:4D ratio and deft/DMFT score and occlusalstatus of an individualwere found.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong>The insignificant results of 2D:4D ratio with allthe parameters assessed validates that hormonal fingerprints could not be employed as an earlypredictor of caries and malocclusion in an individual.</p> <p>Bangladesh Journal of Medical Science Vol.20(1) 2021 p.154-158</p> Rakhi Issrani Fahad Aljohani Namdeo Prabhu Mohammad Khursheed Alam ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2021-01-01 2021-01-01 20 1 154 158 10.3329/bjms.v20i1.50362 Cytochrome c adsorption in a continuous flow system by using Cu(II)-chelated magnetic affinity particles https://www.banglajol.info/index.php/BJMS/article/view/50363 <p><strong>Background and methodology</strong>: In the current study magnetic poly(ethylene glycoldimethacrylate-N-methacryloyl-(L)-histidine methyl ester) poly(Egdma–Mah)) was used as ametal chelated affinity particles. Cu2+ ions loaded directly to MAH ligand of magnetic particlesfor the adsorption of cytochrome c (Cyt c) in a continuous flow system.</p> <p><strong>Results</strong>: The maximumCyt c adsorption capacity on the magnetic particles and Cu2+-chelated magnetic particles were42 mg/g and 197 mg/g in phosphate buffer (pH 8.0), respectively. Cu2+ loading increased theCyt c adsorption capacity, significantly. Cyt c adsorption capacity decreased with increasedtemperature and with increasing magnetic field. According to reusability studies Cyt c moleculescould be reversibly adsorbed and desorbed five times. The binding isotherm was determined byscatchard analysis followed by application of Hill equation to the data obtained, then bindingconstant and nH Hill coefficient were calculated.</p> <p>Bangladesh Journal of Medical Science Vol.20(1) 2021 p.159-163</p> Recep AKKAYA Birnur AKKAYA ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2021-01-01 2021-01-01 20 1 159 163 10.3329/bjms.v20i1.50363 The Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA-Ina) versus the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE-Ina) For Detecting Mild Cognitive Impairment among The Elderly https://www.banglajol.info/index.php/BJMS/article/view/50364 <p><strong>Background</strong>: There are many neuropsychological instruments are used for screening cognitivefunctions in adults, with or without health problems such asthe MMSE-Ina and MoCA-Ina.</p> <p><strong>Objectives:</strong>This study was designed to test the correlations and differences between MMSE-Inaand MoCA-Ina for early detection of decreasing cognitive function in the elderly.</p> <p><strong>Methods: </strong>Total278 subjects were randomly selected from the 17 sub dictricts of Surakarta Municipality, CentralJava, Indonesia. Data collection was carried out in December 2018 and January 2019, withallsubjects individually interviewed using two cognitive tests (which lasted 30 – 45 minutes) alongwith physical and neurological examinations. The MMSE-Ina and MoCA-Ina scores of eachparticipant were correlated using the non-parametric Spearman rank test. Both scores werecompared based on level of education and gender.</p> <p><strong>Results: </strong>The MoCa-Ina detected using MCIwas 215 (77.3%) while MMSE-Ina was 189 (68%), with 176 (63.3%) in severe 10 (3.5%).This study also showed a strong correlation between the MMSE-Ina and MoCA-Ina scores (r= 0.633 p &lt; 0.000). The cut pointin this study were 23/24 for the MMSE-Ina and 25/26 for theMoCA-Ina which was less than 23 and 25,indicated cognitive impairment.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion: </strong>TheMoCA-Ina is usedto screen cognitive impairment in the elderly.</p> <p>Bangladesh Journal of Medical Science Vol.20(1) 2021 p.164-169</p> Ida Untari Achmad Arman Subijanto Diah Kurnia Mirawati Rossi Sanusi ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2021-01-01 2021-01-01 20 1 164 169 10.3329/bjms.v20i1.50364 Measuring the Capacity of Urine in the Post Mortem Human Urinary Bladder in a Selected Medical College https://www.banglajol.info/index.php/BJMS/article/view/50365 <p><strong>Background: </strong>Urinary bladder diseases are one of the clinical problems encountered in our daily practice.The incidence of these diseases rises with advanced age. These diseases are diagnosed clinically andconfirmed by various non invasive as well as invasive procedures and wall abnormalities are themost important indicator to diagnose such diseases. All these conditions require medical and surgicalintervention. Thereby knowledge regarding normal capacity of urinary bladder is essential to determinethe physiologic variation of this organ. Therefore, full knowledge about gross and histological features ofthe urinary bladder has hard &amp; fast implication for the investigation, diagnosis and further management.With this background the present study has been designed to evaluate the capacity of urine in postmortemhuman urinary bladder.</p> <p><strong>Objectives</strong><strong>: </strong>To identify the socio-demographic determinants and to determine thecapacity of urine in post mortem human urinary bladder.</p> <p><strong>Materials and Methods</strong><strong>: </strong>This was a descriptivetype of longitudinal study. Sample size was estimated by reviewing literatures and by expert opinion and70 human postmortem urinary bladders fulfilling the inclusion and exclusion criteria were selected in thisstudy. This study was conducted in the Department of Anatomy, Sylhet MAG Osmani Medical College,Sylhet in collaboration with the Department of Forensic Medicine, Sylhet MAG Osmani Medical College,Sylhet from 1st January 2015 to 31st December 2015.</p> <p><strong>Results</strong>: The age of the cadaver ranged from 10 to65 years with the mean age of 32.20 (SD ± 14.38) years; 15 (21.40%) cadavers were in the age group of10-20 years, 36 (51.4%) cadavers were in the age group of 21-40 years and 19 (27.1%) cadavers werein the age group 41-65 years. There were 52 (74.3%) male and 18 (25.7%) female with a ratio of maleto female was 2.89:1. The mean capacity was 35.23 (SD ± 7.48) ml. The mean capacity of the urinarybladder was 31.20 ml (SD ± 7.28); 37.92 ml (SD ± 7.31) and 33.32 ml (SD ± 6.13) in the age group of A,B and C respectively. The difference between group A and B was highly significant (p=0.004); betweengroup B and C was significant (p=0.023); but not significant between group A and C (p=0.364). The meancapacity of urinary bladder of male and female did not differ significantly in age group A (p=0.117),group B (p=0.145) and group C (p=0.241).</p> <p><strong>Conclusion: </strong>The gross capacity of urinary bladder was foundincreased with age up to certain limit then slightly decreased in the late age. But the capacity did not differsignificantly between male and female.</p> <p>Bangladesh Journal of Medical Science Vol.20(1) 2021 p.170-176</p> Mahmuda Khatoon Meherunnessa Begum Mohammad Kamruzzaman Mazumder Qazi Salim Yazdi Farzana Mansura Mahmuda Sultana Zakia sultana ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2021-01-01 2021-01-01 20 1 170 176 10.3329/bjms.v20i1.50365 Splenic Epidermoid Cyst - A Rare Case Managed in a private medical college hospital of Bangladesh https://www.banglajol.info/index.php/BJMS/article/view/50366 <p>Splenic cysts are rarely detected, and clinically diagnosed commonly as spleenomegaly . Thenature of the cyst could not be diagnosed pre-operatively because of its’ anatomical location andonly be confirmed by the histopathological assessments. These cysts are found as a sequel ofsplenic infarct followed by the abscess formation. This is a very rare condition of a minor boy ofonly 10 years’ old who presented with a hugely enlarged spleen. The common investigation(s)did not prove that it was in the haematological conditions. Ultrasonogram (USG) investigationshows spleenomegaly due to the cystic lesion. CT scan of the abdomen showed large andwell defined cystic mass which was 13.4cmX7.9cmX15.3cm in size, multi-loculated, septated,sharply demarcated as such well delineated cyst. After necessary preparation like vaccination,blood grouping, cross matching and other fitness, laparotomy and total spleenectomy was doneas the cyst occupied most of the Splenic tissue. The post operative recovery was uneventful andthe final diagnosis was confirmed by histopatholgical examinations as epidermoid cyst of thespleen. The patient was followed up for two consecutive months and not a single complicationwas noticed.</p> <p>Bangladesh Journal of Medical Science Vol.20(1) 2021 p.177-180</p> Md Jahangir Hossain Bhuiyan Md Mohibul Aziz Md Omar Faruk Md Mahbub Hasan ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2021-01-01 2021-01-01 20 1 177 180 10.3329/bjms.v20i1.50366 Primary Non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma originating from the masseter muscle https://www.banglajol.info/index.php/BJMS/article/view/50367 <p>Recently, as we experienced a case of extranodal NHL originating from the masseter musclecompletely cured by chemotherapy with radiotherapy, we present the clinical, US, CT, andMR imaging findings in additional one case of biopsy-proved extranodal NHL (NK/T celllymphoma) involving predominantly the masseter muscle also review thoroughly our collectedcases of primary non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma involving the muscles of mastication and facialexpression. On the basis of our comprehensive review, we suggest two conclusions. First, primarymuscle lymphoma particularly originating from muscles of mastication and facial expression isextremely rare, but primary muscle lymphoma should be considered in the differential diagnosisof muscular masses. Second, primary muscle lymphoma particularly originating from muscles ofmastication and facial expression has similar clinical and radiological characteristics to primaryskeletal muscle lymphoma involving other sites. However, the prognosis is more favorablein primary muscle lymphoma originating from muscles of mastication and facial expressioncompared to primary skeletal muscle lymphoma involving other sites.</p> <p>Bangladesh Journal of Medical Science Vol.20(1) 2021 p.181-186</p> Hyun Jin Min Kyung Soo Kim ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2021-01-01 2021-01-01 20 1 181 186 10.3329/bjms.v20i1.50367 An asymptomatic case report with Prolonged Viral Clearance: an issue to ponder COVID-19 control and containment https://www.banglajol.info/index.php/BJMS/article/view/50368 <p>A 58-year-old man was tested positive for COVID-19 with mild clinical symptoms. Although symptoms resolved within 2 days, the patient was tested positive again on day 29 post-illness after a negative test. It took more than 40 days to become a negative carrier of SARS-CoV-2. Such asymptomatic cases raise questions on the recommended isolation period. If not contained, these asymptomatic carriers could create challenges for disease control by allowing infection back to the community. A lengthened isolation of patients with COVID-19 for 6 weeks postillness could be a safeguard for the community.</p> <p>Bangladesh Journal of Medical Science Vol.20(1) 2021 p.187-189&nbsp;</p> Shahnaz Sultana Avirup Saha Shakila Nargis Khan Muhammad Manjurul Karim ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2021-01-01 2021-01-01 20 1 187 189 10.3329/bjms.v20i1.50368 Ectopic carcinoma ex-pleomorphic adenoma in the lower neck: a rare entity at a rare location https://www.banglajol.info/index.php/BJMS/article/view/50369 <p>Ectopic salivary gland tissue (ESGT) is salivary tissue located outside the major, minorand accessory salivary glands. Neoplasms rarely arise from ESGT, let alone carcinoma expleomorphicadenoma (CEPA) which is a malignant tumour that arises from the epithelialcomponent of pleomorphic adenoma. It usually occurs in the parotid gland and in lesserinstances, from submandibular gland or minor salivary glands. Herein, we report a rare caseof CEPA in right supraclavicular ESGT of a 67-year-old lady.She underwent complete surgicalexcision of the mass and is free from any recurrence to date. Brief review of pathogenesis,clinical features and treatment of ectopic CEPA are discussed. A thorough review of the Englishliterature reveals that our patient may be the second case of ectopic CEPA in the neck regionever reported to date.</p> <p>Bangladesh Journal of Medical Science Vol.20(1) 2021 p.190-193</p> Kuganathan Ramasamy Yatiee Swany Lahuri Norhaslinda Abdul Gani Noor Hasni Shamsudin ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2021-01-01 2021-01-01 20 1 190 193 10.3329/bjms.v20i1.50369 “Snow storm” testis https://www.banglajol.info/index.php/BJMS/article/view/50370 <p>Testicular microlithiasis is an asymptomatic condition associated with calcification within theseminiferous tubule, natural history of which is not clearly known.Association with varioustesticular malignancies warrant regular follow up in patients with microlithiasis.</p> <p>Bangladesh Journal of Medical Science Vol.20(1) 2021 p.194-196</p> AV Raveendran Syed Mohammed Ismail KG Sajeeth Kumar ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2021-01-01 2021-01-01 20 1 194 196 10.3329/bjms.v20i1.50370 Atypical lipomatous tumor with osteoid metaplasia – a rare occurrence https://www.banglajol.info/index.php/BJMS/article/view/50371 <p>The presence of metaplastic ossification within a atypical lipomatous tumour /well differentiated Liposarcoma (ALT/WDLPS) is a rare occurrence. We report a case ALT/WDLPS with unusual extensive metaplastic bone formation in a 30 years female who complained of swelling in the right shoulder for the past one and a half years.</p> <p>Bangladesh Journal of Medical Science Vol.20(1) 2021 p.197-199</p> Jain Manjula Sehgal Shivali OP Pathania ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2021-01-01 2021-01-01 20 1 197 199 10.3329/bjms.v20i1.50371 An uncommon case of gouty arthritis in a teenage boy https://www.banglajol.info/index.php/BJMS/article/view/50372 <p>Joint pain is a common complaint in the paediatric age group with overuse and traumatic injury being the common causes. However, joint pain involving multiple sites, persistent or recurrent, and severe may suggest other diagnoses. One of the possible groups of diagnosis is rheumatology in nature, which is often difficult to diagnose, especially in paediatric patients. Gouty arthritis is a rather uncommon rheumatology problem in children and the diagnosis is often missed at the initial presentation. We report a 16-year-old boy who repeatedly presented with debilitating and alternating polyarthritis, diagnosed and treated as juvenile gouty arthritis after thorough clinical assessment and basic laboratory investigations in a resource-limited primary care clinic.</p> <p>Bangladesh Journal of Medical Science Vol.20(1) 2021 p.200-203</p> Ain Farah Abdul Rhahman Nurul Izaa Mohamad Soo Huat Teoh ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2021-01-01 2021-01-01 20 1 200 203 10.3329/bjms.v20i1.50372 Intussusception in Adult due to Lipomatous Polyp - An Uncommon Case Report https://www.banglajol.info/index.php/BJMS/article/view/50373 <p>Intussusception, invagination of a segment of the gut into an adjacent one, is a relatively common cause of the intestinal obstruction in children but a very rare and uncommon clinical entity in the adults accounting to 1% and near about 65% of these are caused by malignant lead point. The Lipomatous polyp accounts for 4% of all benign tumors of the gut. In most of the cases, these are seen particularly in large intestine, usually sub mucosal and around ileocecal valve. These are mostly and very often asymptomatic. Mrs. Rahima Begum aged 65 years, previously was a healthy Bangladeshi housewife, with the history of recurrent abdominal colic of moderate intensity for the last 6 months, associated with the appearance of mass in the right lower quadrant with features of sub-acute intestinal obstruction got admitted into the Ibn Sina Medical College Hospital, Kallyanpur, Dhaka, Bangladesh. The required and most relevant investigations revealed the Ileocolic intussusception and underwent the right hemicolectomy. Postoperative recovery of the patient was uneventful excepting the hypertension only. Histopathology investigations revealed lipomatous polyp arising from the Ileocecal junction. This study reports intussuception in the adult due to lipomatous polyp, a very rare case presenting with sub acute intestinal obstruction.</p> <p>Bangladesh Journal of Medical Science Vol.20(1) 2021 p.204-207</p> Md Omar Faruk Md Jahangir Hossain Bhuiyan Maksuda Parvin Md Abdul Jalil Md Emdadul Hasan Mohammad Mohibul Aziz MN Ahmed ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2021-01-01 2021-01-01 20 1 204 207 10.3329/bjms.v20i1.50373 A child with suppurative lung disease by missed foreign body aspiration: a case report https://www.banglajol.info/index.php/BJMS/article/view/50374 <p>Airway foreign body aspiration (FBA)is a frequent problem that affects young children, present with acute respiratory distress and cough followed by sudden chocking. Prompt identification and early treatment can save the child from a life-threatening emergency.Delayed diagnosis due to lack of history and clinical suspicion may lead to permanent lung damage, which may be a curse for a lifetime.We share an experience of a 4½-year-old boy who presented with suppurative lung disease was associated with neglected FBA. Early diagnosis and intervention canprevent,and ultimately reduce long-term morbidity and mortality, along with improving the better outcome regarding FBA.</p> <p>Bangladesh Journal of Medical Science Vol.20(1) 2021 p.208-211</p> Md Abu Talha Abid Hossain Mollah Tasnima Ahmed Munadi Al Islam ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2021-01-01 2021-01-01 20 1 208 211 10.3329/bjms.v20i1.50374 Orthodontic Management of Bilaterally Impacted Maxillary Canines https://www.banglajol.info/index.php/BJMS/article/view/50375 <p><strong>Background: </strong>Proper diagnosis and treatment planning are the first steps in management of bilateral impacted maxillary canines (BIMC).</p> <p><strong>Case Presentation: </strong>A 14 years old Saudi female patient with Class II subdivision right molar relationship and BIMC managed by comprehensive orthodontic treatment.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion: </strong>A well-balanced occlusion by orthodontic management of the case has been done.</p> <p>Bangladesh Journal of Medical Science Vol.20(1) 2021 p.212-215</p> Ahmed Ali Alfawzan Mohammad Khursheed Alam ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2021-01-01 2021-01-01 20 1 212 215 10.3329/bjms.v20i1.50375 Insulinoma of Pancreatic Head Localized by Intra-Arterial Calcium Stimulation with Hepatic Venous Sampling https://www.banglajol.info/index.php/BJMS/article/view/50376 <p>Hypoglycemia is a common medical emergency. Insulinoma, a rare pancreatic endocrine tumour is the most common cause of hypoglycemia in patients without systemic illness. Most insulinomas are small, solitary and benign, which can be treated effectively by surgical removal of the tumour. Diagnosis is based on clinical features, laboratory tests and radiological investigation to localize the tumour. However, small size of this tumour leads to difficulty in localization of the disease, especially in occult insulinoma. Intra-arterial calcium stimulation with hepatic venous sampling can be utilised for preoperative localization of the tumour. We hereby present a case of a 33-year-old woman presenting with history of recurrent hypoglycemic symptoms and morbid obesity. A thorough history, clinical examination and laboratory investigation including prolonged fasting test were conducted and diagnosis of insulinoma was made. Intra-arterial calcium stimulation with hepatic venous sampling was carried out and revealed localization of insulinoma at pancreatic head.</p> <p>Bangladesh Journal of Medical Science Vol.20(1) 2021 p.216-219</p> Siong Hu Wong Julia Omar Noor Azlin Azraini Che Soh Yusof ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2021-01-01 2021-01-01 20 1 216 219 10.3329/bjms.v20i1.50376