https://www.banglajol.info/index.php/BJMS/issue/feed Bangladesh Journal of Medical Science 2019-12-12T13:37:50+00:00 Dr Abu Kholdun Al-Mahmood kholdun@hotmail.com Open Journal Systems <p>A journal sponsored by the Ibn Sina Trust. Full text articles available.<br>NLM ID=101563859</p> <p>Bangladesh Journal of Medical Sciences is included on <a title="DOAJ" href="https://doaj.org/toc/2076-0299?source=%7B%22query%22%3A%7B%22filtered%22%3A%7B%22filter%22%3A%7B%22bool%22%3A%7B%22must%22%3A%5B%7B%22term%22%3A%7B%22index.issn.exact%22%3A%222076-0299%22%7D%7D%2C%7B%22term%22%3A%7B%22_type%22%3A%22article%22%7D%7D%5D%7D%7D%2C%22query%22%3A%7B%22match_all%22%3A%7B%7D%7D%7D%7D%2C%22from%22%3A0%2C%22size%22%3A100%7D" target="_blank" rel="noopener">DOAJ</a>.</p> <p><strong>Journal Metrics</strong><br><a href="https://www.scopus.com/sourceid/19900192321" target="_blank" rel="noopener">CiteScore Tracker 2017</a>: Updated on April 30, 2018</p> <p><img 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" alt=""></p> <p><a href="https://www.researchgate.net/journal/2223-4721_Bangladesh_Journal_of_Medical_Science" target="_blank" rel="noopener">ResearchGate Journal Impact</a>&nbsp;(2013): 0.62</p> <p><a href="https://www.scimagojr.com/journalsearch.php?q=19900192321&amp;tip=sid" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Scimago Journal Rank</a> (2017): 0.17</p> <p><img src="data:image/png;base64,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" alt="" width="152" height="114"></p> https://www.banglajol.info/index.php/BJMS/article/view/43868 Mobile Colistin Resistance (MCR) Gene, Antimicrobial Resistance: A Global Public Health Threat 2019-12-12T13:37:50+00:00 Tanzina Nusrat tanzina.nusrat@gmail.com Mainul Haque runurono@gmail.com <p>Abstract not available</p> <p>Bangladesh Journal of Medical Science Vol.19(1) 2020 p.5-10</p> 2019-11-03T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## https://www.banglajol.info/index.php/BJMS/article/view/43869 Ethico-legal aspects of CRISPR Cas-9 genome editing: A balanced approach 2019-12-12T13:37:47+00:00 Fazli Dayan fazli.dayan@iiu.edu.pk <p>Notably, reproductive technology and its applications in human subject are not only debatable ethically but also religiously, where objections are raised by the contemporary scholars and specialists of the field on CRISPR Cas-9 due to its potential application for the genome editing. This does however generated a dialogue both in religion and modern ethico-legal world regime. Some contemporary bioethicists are of the view that this technology is one of those issues which have the most complex ethical concerns, fearing that this technology could transforms with the expectations and ambitions about human control over the biological world. Consequently, this is an area of anxiety not only for the bioethicists but also for the theologians. Thus it needs proper investigation, as it is not solely a scientific innovation, but in fact an ethical, legal and biomedical issue.</p> <p>Bangladesh Journal of Medical Science Vol.19(1) 2020 p.11-16</p> 2019-11-03T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## https://www.banglajol.info/index.php/BJMS/article/view/43870 A narrative review of the literature on the reproductive health of female sex workers having age below twenty years 2019-12-12T13:37:44+00:00 Tasnuva Wahed tasnuva.wahed@gmail.com Shakila Zaman tasnuva.wahed@gmail.com Fauzia Akther Huda tasnuva.wahed@gmail.com Li Jiayu tasnuva.wahed@gmail.com Salima Sultana tasnuva.wahed@gmail.com Anadil Alam tasnuva.wahed@gmail.com Alessio Panza tasnuva.wahed@gmail.com Ratana Somrongthong tasnuva.wahed@gmail.com <p><strong>Objective: </strong>Female sex workers (FSWs) under 20 years of age range from 1,000 to 575,000 in different cities and countries across the globe. There is only a handful of information on the reproductive health (RH) issues of these younger FSWs in the perspective of service utilization and healthcare system. We reviewed existing literature with a view to describe the reproductive health problems, service utilization, and service availability as well as information sources among the FSWs ages &lt;20 years.</p> <p><strong>Materials and methods: </strong>A web-based search using Google, Google Scholar, MEDLINE/ PubMed/ PubMed Central, HINARI and JSTOR was performed in English Language. The prevalence of a health issue and percentage of service utilization had been shown using ranges of minimum and maximum value which were calculated by different studies.</p> <p><strong>Results: </strong>Findings identified the following RH problems: unintended pregnancies (52% - 95%), induced abortion (51% - 53%), repeated or multiple abortions (13% - 43%), childbirth experiences, sexually transmitted infections (74%-84%), HIV (1% - 60.6%), violence (beaten, robbed, not paid, forced or coerced sex, rape) and mental disorders (depression, suicidal thoughts). The consistent use of condom (26%-55%) was not satisfactory. Overall 64% of under 20 years FSWs reported little or no access to healthcare in the previous year and access to RH information sources was also poor.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion: </strong>This review has potentially meant to bring forward the RH issues of younger FSWs to the policy makers and programme planners to implement targeted reproductive health interventions for the FSWs ages &lt;20 years.</p> <p>Bangladesh Journal of Medical Science Vol.19(1) 2020 p.17-31</p> 2019-11-03T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## https://www.banglajol.info/index.php/BJMS/article/view/43871 Prospects and Challenges of Precision Medicine in Lower- and Middle-Income Countries: A Brief Overview 2019-12-12T13:37:41+00:00 Mainul Haque runurono@gmail.com Tariqul Islam drtariqul@gmail.com Massimo Sartelli massimosartelli@infectionsinsurgery.org Adnan Abdullah dradnanabdullah@yahoo.com Sameer Dhingra sameer.dhingra@sta.uwi.edu <p>The trend of NCDs in most LMIC countries is slowly but gradually follows that of in the developed countries. There are four significant diseases reported by WHO, which are equally common, such as CVDs, diabetes, cancer, and chronic respiratory disease that causes widespread early death &amp; morbidity. Indeed, it incurs an overwhelming financial burden to most countries in the world. The rise of drug-resistant microbes is another major problem. To overcome this issue, precision medicine (PM) comes into play whereby individual variability in genes, environment, lifestyle, and nutrition of each person is considered for disease treatment &amp; prevention. PM provides a personalized approach, the right treatment to the right people at the right time. Many wealthy countries in the West have started adopting PM though the initial cost is high, ultimately, in the long run, will reduce the healthcare cost by getting rid of the ineffective treatment strategies. However, the PM in LMICs is still at an early stage due to issues such as lack of populationspecific data, competency, expertise, and poor financial support.</p> <p>Bangladesh Journal of Medical Science Vol.19(1) 2020 p.32-47</p> 2019-11-03T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## https://www.banglajol.info/index.php/BJMS/article/view/43872 The Effect of Religious Relaxation Therapy on Improving Sleep Quality of Patients Chronic Kidney Failure: A Pilot Study in Surabaya 2019-12-12T13:37:38+00:00 Rini Purwanti rini.purwanti81@gmail.com Ah Yusuf ah-yusuf@fkp.unair.ac.id Hanik Endang Nihayati azzam_psik@yahoo.com Siti Nur Qomariah snurq18@gmail.com Abu Bakar abu.bakar@fkp.unair.ac.id <p><strong>Objective: </strong>It is discovered that approximately 80% patients with chronic kidney failure undergoing haemodialysis treatment experience a difficulty to sleep. Such issue could decrease the patients’ living quality. The relaxation therapy using spiritual approach based on the patients’ religion to improve sleep quality has not been scientifically proven yet. This study aims to analyze the effect of religious relaxation therapy on patients with chronic kidney failure undergoing haemodialysis treatment.</p> <p><strong>Materials and methods</strong>: The research was quasy experiment with prepost test control group design. The subjects of the research are the entire patients with chronic kidney failure who undergo haemodialysis treatment in the Islamic Hospital. The samples are taken from sixty clients recruited by random sampling allocation technique. Those clients aged 20-65 years old, Moslem and no complications. Patients’ sleeping quality is determined by The Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI). Meanwhile, the data is analyzed by using Wilcoxon sign rank statistic test and Mann Whitney U test.</p> <p><strong>Results and Discussion</strong>: The research showed that the religious relaxation therapy is proven to have a more improved good sleep quality (73.3 %) while the control group tends to be stagnant. The religious therapy is proven to have a positive effect on sleep quality by p = 0.000</p> <p><strong>Conclusion: </strong>The religious relaxation therapy gives positive effects in improving the sleep quality for patients with chronic kidney failure who undergo haemodialysis treatment.</p> <p>Bangladesh Journal of Medical Science Vol.19(1) 2020 p.48-52</p> 2019-11-03T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## https://www.banglajol.info/index.php/BJMS/article/view/43873 Four Layer Cylindrical Model of Mucus Transport in the Lung: Effect of Prolonged Cough 2019-12-12T13:37:34+00:00 Arti Saxena artisaxena.fet@mriu.edu.in Vijay Kumar artisaxena.fet@mriu.edu.in JB Shukla artisaxena.fet@mriu.edu.in <p><strong>Background</strong>: In this paper, a four layer model of the simultaneous and coaxial flow of moist air, mucus, mixture of mucin and periciliary liquid and serous fluid (assumed to be incompressible and Newtonian fluids) in a circular tube under time dependent pressure gradient representing prolonged cough is analyzed to study the mucus transport in an airway in the presence of prolonged cough. It is assumed that air and mucus flow under quasi steady state turbulent conditions while the mixture of mucin and periciliary liquid and serous layer surrounding mixture layer flows under unsteady laminar condition in presence of immotile cilia carpet.</p> <p><strong>Result: </strong>It is shown that the mucus transport increases as the viscosity of serous fluid decreases. Also the mixture and serous fluid flow rates increase as the viscosity of serous fluid decreases. It is also observed that the effect of resistance to flow by serous fluid in the cilia bed is to decrease flow rates. The flow rates of mucus and mixture of mucin and periciliary fluid increase as the viscosity of mixture decreases also air and mixture of mucus and periciliary fluid flow rates increase as the thickness of mixture increases.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion: </strong>As the thickness of mucus increases its flow rate increases on the other hand the mixture flow rate, mucus and serous fluid flow rate decreases with the increase of the mixture thickness.</p> <p>Bangladesh Journal of Medical Science Vol.19(1) 2020 p.53-63</p> 2019-11-03T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## https://www.banglajol.info/index.php/BJMS/article/view/43874 Coping with Disease in Multiple Sclerosis Patients : A Concept Analysis 2019-12-12T13:37:31+00:00 Ali Dehghani ali.dehghani2000@gmail.com <p><strong>Background and Objective: </strong>Coping with disease can lead to disease recovery and improve quality of life in people living with multiple sclerosis; therefore, correct definition of this concept is essential. Different dimensions of coping have been emphasized in various studies. This study was aimed to define, clarify and analyzing its concept in people with multiple sclerosis.</p> <p><strong>Materials and methods: </strong>In this study, analysis was conducted using the hybrid model in three phases. In the theoretical phase, literature on coping with MS was reviewed until 2016. In the field work phase, in-depth interviews were conducted with 11 people with MS. The conventional content analysis was used in two theoretical and field work phases using Graneheim and Lundman stages. Then, the results of two phases were combined in the final analysis phase.</p> <p><strong>Results and Discussion: </strong>The literature review in the theoretical phase revealed five features of coping: accepting the current situation, Self-regulation, Self-efficacy, Multi-dimensional, complex and dynamic nature and Maintenance of effect balance. In the field work phase, maintenance and development of human interactions were added to the features of the concept.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion: </strong>Considering these characteristics is necessary in planning to improve coping and quality of life for people living with MS.</p> <p>Bangladesh Journal of Medical Science Vol.19(1) 2020 p.64-72</p> 2019-11-03T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## https://www.banglajol.info/index.php/BJMS/article/view/43875 Treatment adherence, knowledge, attitude and quality of life of adolescents with asthma in northeastern Malaysia 2019-12-12T13:37:28+00:00 Amirul Hisham Zainol norsaadah@usm.my Ahmad Filza Ismail norsaadah@usm.my Fahisham Taib norsaadah@usm.my Bachok Norsa’adah norsaadah@usm.my <p><strong>Introduction: </strong>Asthma is a chronic inflammatory condition that affect physically, emotionally and psychologically. In adolescent, various factors contributed to poor asthma control. This study aims to identify treatment adherence, quality of life, knowledge and attitude in adolescents with asthma.</p> <p><strong>Method: </strong>This cross-sectional study randomly selected 14 schools in two districts of a state in North-eastern of Malaysia. Complete information was obtained from 262 adolescents aged 13 to 18 years old, who were diagnosed with bronchial asthma in the last six months or having recurrent wheeze for the past 12 months. The tools used include Asthma control test; Asthma treatment adherence; Knowledge on asthma; Attitude on asthma; Paediatric asthma quality of life questionnaires have undergone various process of translation, face validation and assessment of the reliability and validity to achieve a standardized Malay language version.</p> <p><strong>Results: </strong>There were about 30% of the adolescent who have not taking their medicine regularly with 50% non-compliant once symptom control was achieved. 22.5% of the participants felt embarrass when using inhaler in front of their friends. Our study showed a higher adherenceto medication of more than 70% compared to other studies. However, more than 50% of of the participants have minimal understanding on the disease natural history. Approximately 20-30% of them admitted of experiencing overall poor quality of life at the time of the study.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion: </strong>Most participants reported having good asthma treatment adherence; but in our study, half of the adolescent have poor knowledge of asthma and negative attitude towards medication which influenced the quality of life.</p> <p>Bangladesh Journal of Medical Science Vol.19(1) 2020 p.73-82</p> 2019-11-03T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## https://www.banglajol.info/index.php/BJMS/article/view/43876 Moderate to high ethanol and acetaldehyde administration decreases c-fos protein expression in the hippocampus of Aldh2-knockout and C57BL/6N mice 2019-12-12T13:37:25+00:00 Mostofa Jamal jamal@med.kagawa-u.ac.jp Ayako Ito jamal@med.kagawa-u.ac.jp Naoko Tanaka jamal@med.kagawa-u.ac.jp Kiyoshi Ameno jamal@med.kagawa-u.ac.jp Takanori Miki jamal@med.kagawa-u.ac.jp Hiroshi Kinoshita jamal@med.kagawa-u.ac.jp <p><strong>Background: </strong>Ethanol (EtOH) and acetaldehyde (AcH) have long been associated with many adverse effects in the central nervous system. c-fos has been used as an indirect index of neural activity.</p> <p><strong>Method</strong>: Here, we investigated the effects of systemic administration of EtOH and AcH on the expression of c-fos protein in the hippocampus of Aldh2-knockout (Aldh2-KO) mice. The animals received an intraperitoneal injection of saline (control), EtOH (1.0, 2.0 and 4.0 g/kg) or AcH (50, 100 and 200 mg/kg), and the expression of c-fos protein was measured by Western blotting.</p> <p><strong>Result: </strong>We found that EtOH at doses of 2.0 and 4.0 g/kg decreased c-fos in wild-type (WT) mice, whereas EtOH at all three doses tested (1.0-4.0 g/kg) decreased c-fos in Aldh 2-KO mice. Likewise, AcH at doses of 100 and 200 mg/kg had a significant effect in lowering c-fos protein in both WT and Aldh2-KO mice.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion: </strong>Our observations suggest that moderate to high EtOH and AcH can decrease the expression of c-fos protein in the mouse hippocampus. This effect may support, at least in part, the link between c-fos and spatial memory deficits following EtOH and AcH exposure as we have observed in our previous study.</p> <p>Bangladesh Journal of Medical Science Vol.19(1) 2020 p.83-89</p> 2019-11-03T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## https://www.banglajol.info/index.php/BJMS/article/view/43877 The attempt of graphodiagnostics of health state of the last hetman of Ukraine Kyrylo Rozumovskyi using samples of his handwriting 2019-12-12T13:37:22+00:00 Degtyarev Sergey starsergo@bigmir.net Loboda Andrii fafik1313@gmail.com <p><strong>Background: </strong>The article makes an attempt to define health state and probable illnesses of the last hetman of Ukraine Kyrylo Rozumovskyi in the last years of his life.</p> <p><strong>Methods: </strong>The study is based on using and analyzing of the memoirs and biography books, containing records and detailed description of health state of K. Rozumovskyi, and documentary archive materials with the samples of his handwriting. To analyze the handwriting of K. Rozumovskyi, the special graphological test developed by Polish physicians of National Health Institute in cooperation with psychologists and graphologists was used.</p> <p><strong>Results: </strong>According to the authors’ conclusions, K. Rozumovskyi suffered from diabetes mellitus, gout, and ischemic heart disease. He was vulnerable to common cold also. It is assumed that these diseases contributed to the myocardial infarction which caused his death in 1803.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion: </strong>Considering the lack of the system of professional medicine in XVII, XVIII, early XIX century, using graphological method for determining the health of well-known people of these times, is effective.</p> <p>Bangladesh Journal of Medical Science Vol.19(1) 2020 p.90-93</p> 2019-11-03T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## https://www.banglajol.info/index.php/BJMS/article/view/43878 Mucocutaneous Histoplasmosis in immunocompetent adult patients 2019-12-12T13:37:19+00:00 Mallika Sengupta manideepa.sengupta2305@gmail.com Anita Mitra Nandi manideepa.sengupta2305@gmail.com Himansu Roy manideepa.sengupta2305@gmail.com Soma Sarkar manideepa.sengupta2305@gmail.com Manideepa Sengupta manideepa.sengupta2305@gmail.com <p><strong>Introduction</strong>: Histoplasmosis is a fungal infection caused by the agent Histoplasma capsulatum,a dimorphic fungus. The spectrum of illness ranges from subclinical infection to progressive disseminated disease. The major bulk of histoplasma infections are asymptomatic or pulmonary histoplasmosis. In immune compromised patients it can cause disseminated infections involving different organs of the body. In immune competent individuals it may cause isolated adrenal histoplasmosis.</p> <p><strong>Material and methods</strong>: A retrospective study was done to look for mucocutaneous histoplasmosis. The excised tissue samples were cultured and only culture confirmed cases were included in the study.</p> <p><strong>Result</strong>: Here, we present five cases of primary mucocutaneous histoplasmosis in immune competent individuals in a tertiary care centre in India. These patients had no other co-morbidities and had only isolated lesions in oral cavity or penis.The tissue on excision was cultured and showed growth of Histoplasma capsulatum. All the patients improved with treatment. There are limited cases of mucocutaneous ulcerated lesions caused by Histoplasma capsulatum in immune competent people in published literature.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion</strong>: This study emphasizes the necessity of a vigilant look out and clinical suspicion of fungal causes like histoplasma in chronic non healing ulcers which should be confirmed by the laboratory investigations. Accurate diagnosis helps in specific management of these cases.</p> <p>Bangladesh Journal of Medical Science Vol.19(1) 2020 p.94-97</p> 2019-11-03T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## https://www.banglajol.info/index.php/BJMS/article/view/43879 Carbapenem resistant Acinetobacter Species infection in intensive care unit: The outcome and risk factors of mortality 2019-12-12T13:37:16+00:00 Wan Mohd Nazaruddin Wan Hassan nazarudin@usm.my Mohd Samsul Puzizer nazarudin@usm.my Zakuan Zaini Deris nazarudin@usm.my Rhendra Hardy Mohamed Zaini nazarudin@usm.my <p><strong>Objective: </strong>Acinetobacter spp. infection is a challenging problem in intensive care unit (ICU) because of its multi-drug resistant (MDR) in nature to antibiotic therapy including broadspectrum carbapenem group. The aims of the study were to determine the risk factors of mortality and the outcome of carbapenem-resistant Acinetobacter spp. (CRAs) infection in our ICU.</p> <p><strong>Materials and Method: </strong>This is a retrospective, cross-sectional study, done in 2 years from January 2008 to December 2009. The list of the patients was obtained from hospital nosocomial infection surveillance unit and ICU infection record. The data of the patients were subsequently reviewed from their respective medical records after approval from university ethics committee and hospital medical record unit.</p> <p><strong>Results and Discussion: </strong>A total of 92 patients were reviewed and only 54 were included and analyzed. The prevalence of CRAs over 24 months was 7.3%. Mortality was 50% among the reviewed patients and this contributed 13.6 % of the total ICU mortality. Age was significantly different between survival and non-survival groups; 43.07 (21.09) vs. 57.04 ± 14.33 year old (p = 0.006). Age was also the only significant independent risk factor associated with mortality in CRAs (adjusted OR = 1.045, 95% CI: 1.010, 1.081, p = 0.011). There were no other significant risk factors. The length of ICU stay was 17.00 (13.58) days whereas length of hospital stay was 41.37 (27.66) days in survival group.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion: </strong>CRAs caused 13.6% of total ICU mortality and older age group was the independent risk factor for mortality.</p> <p>Bangladesh Journal of Medical Science Vol.19(1) 2020 p.98-104</p> 2019-11-03T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## https://www.banglajol.info/index.php/BJMS/article/view/43881 Limberg Flap Reconstruction in Treating Sacrococcygeal Pilonidal Sinus 2019-12-12T13:37:13+00:00 Md Omar Faruk dr.omar1976@gmail.com Md Shahadot Hossain Sheikh dr.omar1976@gmail.com Mst Maksuda Parvin dr.omar1976@gmail.com Muhammad Ali Siddiquee dr.omar1976@gmail.com Md Jahangir Hossain Bhuiyan dr.omar1976@gmail.com Mohammad Mohibul Aziz dr.omar1976@gmail.com <p><strong>Background</strong><strong>: </strong>Pilonidal sinus is the relatively common condition affecting men almost twice as often as the women we experienced. The estimated incidence is 0.26 per thousand populations in general. The management of pilonidal sinus disease remains controversial, and gold standard treatment modality has yet to be established. Limberg procedure is a safe and reliable technique in the treatment of the sacrococcygeal pilonidal sinus disease, with a low complication and recurrence rates if performed according to the appropriate surgical principles.</p> <p><strong>Methods: </strong>This is a Prospective study on 24 patients between the period from July 2014 to Dec 2018 in the Department of Surgery in Bangabandhu Sheikh Mujib Medical University (BSMMU) as well as other different hospitals in Dhaka, Bangladesh. The patients having primary or recurrent pilonidal sinus disease underwent the foresaid surgical treatment.</p> <p><strong>Results: </strong>Twenty four patients underwent this operation. Among them, the picture was that 20(83.3%) were males and 4(16.7%) were female. The mean age was 31, (Range: 17-45 years). 6(25%) patients were presented with recurrent sinus and 5 of them had one or more occasion previous surgery. Twenty one patients (87.5%) had full primary healing without any complication. But 1(4.2%) patient had minimal seroma, 1(4.2%) patient had superficial infection and the remaining other 1(4.2%) had partial flap necrosis. However, all three healed completely with conservative treatment. The mean length of hospital stay was 2.45 (Range: 1-5) days and the most patients returned to their work within 3 weeks.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion: </strong>Limberg flap is very effective for sacrococcygeal pilonidal sinus disease with low complication rates, shorter hospital stay, low recurrence rates, earlier healing and reduced off-work period. The surgery can be easily mastered. We recommend Limberg flap as preferred surgery in the cases of Sacrococcygeal Pilonidal sinus.</p> <p>Bangladesh Journal of Medical Science Vol.19(1) 2020 p.105-109</p> 2019-11-03T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## https://www.banglajol.info/index.php/BJMS/article/view/43882 Effect of Total Hemoglobin level on HbA1c value in Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus patients 2019-12-12T13:37:10+00:00 Sreedev Narayanan sreedev222@gmail.com Prakruti Dash dashdrprakruti@gmail.com Preetam Mahajan preetam3879@gmail.com <p><strong>Background &amp; objectives: </strong>Glycated hemoglobin level (HbA1c) is widely used for the diagnosis, prognosis and monitoring of therapy in diabetes mellitus patients. The hemoglobin molecule is a part of the non- enzymatic glycation reaction, so it is assumed that the total hemoglobin concentration may have an effect on the HbA1c value along with blood glucose concentrations. Hence this study was done to evaluate the effect of total hemoglobin level on HbA1c value in type 2 diabetes mellitus patients and to find out whether reduced total hemoglobin level is reflected on the HbA1c level giving an erroneous impression on the glycaemic status of the patient.</p> <p><strong>Methods: </strong>100 diagnosed Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus patients were evaluated for their Fasting Blood Sugar (FBS), Total Hemoglobin level and HbA1c level and assessed for any effect of reduced total hemoglobin level on the HbA1c value.</p> <p><strong>Results: </strong>It was observed that HbA1c value correlated significantly only with FBS level and total Hemoglobin level was not found to have any effect on the HbA1c value in Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus patients.</p> <p><strong>Interpretation : </strong>The factor significantly affecting the HbA1c value is Fasting Blood Sugar level. Hemoglobin level doesn’t seem to be affecting the HbA1c indicating that Hemoglobin is not a significant predictor of HbA1c.</p> <p><strong>Conclusions: </strong>This study documented a significant positive relationship between FBS and HbA1c level only. No correlation was found between total Hemoglobin level and HbA1c.Patients with mild to moderate anemia still revealed a high HbA1c value correlating only with the blood sugar status.</p> <p>Bangladesh Journal of Medical Science Vol.19(1) 2020 p.110-113</p> 2019-11-03T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## https://www.banglajol.info/index.php/BJMS/article/view/43883 The Low umbilical cord Zinc levels Lead to Atopic Allergic Infants : a Cohort study during 0-4 months of Age 2019-12-12T13:37:06+00:00 Sri Priyantini sripriyantini@gmail.com - Suprihati sripriyantini@gmail.com Nyoman Suci Widyastiti sripriyantini@gmail.com - Soemantri sripriyantini@gmail.com <p><strong>Background: </strong>The research on association between differentiation of Th1 and Th2 were previously conducted on experimental animals. The study on association between umbilical cord zinc and the risk of allergy symptoms during early stage of life has not been conducted in Indonesia. Studies on zinc and allergies are commonly investigated during adulthood and the results are still contradictive.</p> <p><strong>Objective</strong>: The aim of the study is to determine the extent of zinc’s role in the emergence of atopic allergy symptoms during the first 4 months age</p> <p><strong>Methods</strong>: This prospective cohort study includes consecutive 80 healthy newborns followed up for 4 months after birth at Semarang Sultan Agung Islamic Hospital and Bangetayu Primary Health Care. Hypothesis testing were analyzed with unpaired t-test , chi-square test or fisher’s test</p> <p><strong>Results: </strong>The mean value of cord blood zinc in allergic infants were significantly lower when compared with non atopic allergy (74.1 ± 17.3 μg / dL vs 91.5 ± 22.6 μg / dL, p=0.029). Very early formula feeding were 4.4 times more at risk of suffering from allergies(p=0.023).</p> <p><strong>Conclusion: </strong>Umbilical cord zinc levels are associated with atopic allergy symptoms for the first 4 months of life. Formula feeding before 1 month of age was associated with atopic allergic infants</p> <p>Bangladesh Journal of Medical Science Vol.19(1) 2020 p.114-121</p> 2019-11-03T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## https://www.banglajol.info/index.php/BJMS/article/view/43884 Developing Information media as Dehydration Prevention Strategy In Indonesia Recreational Futsal Players 2019-12-12T13:37:03+00:00 Muhammad Ikhwan Zein dr.ichwanz@gmail.com Saryono Saryono dr.ichwanz@gmail.com EndangRini Sukamti dr.ichwanz@gmail.com RumpisAgus Sudarko dr.ichwanz@gmail.com Ukhti Jamil Rustiasari dr.ichwanz@gmail.com Syaefudin Ali Akhmad dr.ichwanz@gmail.com Alvin Wiharja dr.ichwanz@gmail.com Anita Suryani dr.ichwanz@gmail.com <p><strong>Background: </strong>Futsal as leisure time sport is very popular in Indonesia. However, this sport is characterized by high intensity which tends to cause dehydration.</p> <p><strong>Aim: </strong>The aim of this study was to identify pre-exercise hydration status of recreational futsal players and develop information media to prevent dehydration in Indonesia recreational futsal players.</p> <p><strong>Method: </strong>Descriptive cross-sectional study was implemented as part of preliminary study to get the picture of pre-exercise hydration status of recreational futsal players. Twenty seven male participants were recruited in this study (age 22 + 3.19 years old., weight 65.85 + 13.54 kg, height 1.69 + 0.08 m, BMI 22.73 + 3.08 kg/m2). Hydration status was checked by using urine strip test before they played futsal. Participants filled out short questionnaires to find out the information source of dehydration. Information media was created based on the result of this preliminary study to prevent dehydration. Additionally, media expert and sports medicine doctor also assessed the development of information media.</p> <p><strong>Result</strong>: The preliminary study showed that 77.7% (n = 21) of the subjects suffered from dehydration before playing futsal. The short questionnaires result showed that most of the subjects received information about dehydration from television (52%) and internet (43%). The content and design of developed information media was considered valid by the experts.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion: </strong>Our findings conclude that incidence of pre-exercise dehydration among recreational futsal players in Indonesia was high. Further study to evaluate the use of developed information media is needed to prevent the risk of dehydration during high intensity exercise.</p> <p>Bangladesh Journal of Medical Science Vol.19(1) 2020 p.122-128</p> 2019-11-03T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## https://www.banglajol.info/index.php/BJMS/article/view/43885 Clinical Profile of Non-Malignant submandibular swellings in MMIMSR institute of medical sciences. 2019-12-12T13:36:59+00:00 Ginni Datta mksaint9@gmail.com Saima Tabassum drsaima.sajid786@gmail.com LN Garg dr.lngarg@gmail.com Sajid Iqbal drsajid.iqbal82@gmail.com <p>Abstract not available</p> <p>Bangladesh Journal of Medical Science Vol.19(1) 2020 p.129-132</p> 2019-11-03T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## https://www.banglajol.info/index.php/BJMS/article/view/43886 Risk Factors and Complications of Newborns with Birth Defect: A Hospital based Case-Control Study 2019-12-12T13:36:56+00:00 Sharmin Afroze mumu.sharmin8@gmail.com MA Mannan drmannan64@gmail.com Sanjoy Kumer Dey skdey19@gmail.com Sadeka Choudhury Moni sadeka.moni.08@gmail.com Mohammad Kamrul Hassan Shabuj shabuj619@yahoo.com Ismat Jahan ismatjahandr@gmail.com Mohammod Shahidullah shahidullahdr@gmail.com <p><strong>Background: </strong>Birth defect is one of the most important causes of neonatal mortality worldwide. In a developing country like Bangladesh many possible factors for birth defects are present which should be identified. This study was performed to determine those risk factors of birth defect and complications associated with it.</p> <p><strong>Materials and Methods: </strong>A hospital based matched case-control study was conducted from August 2015 to July 2016 in department of Neonatology along with Obstetrics and Gynecology at BSMMU. A total of 98 mother-infant pair (49 babies with birth defect as cases and 49 healthy babies without any birth defects as controls) was included in the study. For each case, a gestational age, sex and post-natal age matched control was taken. Data was collected by face to face interview. Univariate and multivariate conditional logistic regression models were computed to examine the effect of independent variables on outcome variable using SPSS 23.0. Variables with p-value &lt;0.05 were considered statistically significant.</p> <p><strong>Results: </strong>The mean (± SD) birth weight for cases and controls were 2718.37 (±756.9) grams, and 2617.14 (±978.8) grams respectively. Cardiovascular system was the predominant system (21%) involved in birth defects. Maternal age between 20-29 years (AOR: 4.69; 95% CI 1.078, 20.448), less than four antenatal care visits (AOR: 10.07; 95% CI 2.816, 36.0), no multivitamin intake (AOR: 7.38; 95% CI 1.791, 30.365) and presence of maternal diabetes (AOR: 0.194; 95% CI 0.047, 0.799) were significantly associated with birth defects among newborns. Sepsis, asphyxia, hypoglycemia and dyselectrolytemia were the most prevalent problems among these babies. The need of intravenous fluid, thermal care, antibiotics and mechanical ventilation was also high among the cases.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion: </strong>Birth defect is an upcoming issue in current newborn health situation which need to be prioritized. Significant risk factors should be addressed timely for early diagnosis and proper management of these babies can help in reduction of mortality.</p> <p>Bangladesh Journal of Medical Science Vol.19(1) 2020 p.133-140</p> 2019-11-03T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## https://www.banglajol.info/index.php/BJMS/article/view/43887 Antiglaucoma medication utilization and therapeutic outcome among Nigerian older persons with primary open angle glaucoma 2019-12-12T13:36:53+00:00 SA Saka sulsak01@yahoo.com BO Onyeukwu ifyeze3000@gmail.com UIH Eze ifyeze3000@gmail.com <p><strong>Background: </strong>Primary open angle glaucoma (POAG) is associated with older age. Antiglaucoma medications (AGM) are the cornerstones in the management of POAG. However, the relationship between AGM utilization, patients’ medication adherence (MA) and the therapeutic outcome remains largely unexplored among older persons.</p> <p><strong>Objective: </strong>This study aimed to evaluate AGM utilization patterns, patients’ MA and intraocular pressure (IOP) reduction among older persons.</p> <p><strong>Methods: </strong>This study was a 5-year retrospective review of medical records of consecutively selected older persons diagnosed of POAG at a University teaching hospital, in southwest Nigeria. Older persons were included if (1) aged 65 years and above, (2) had attended the outpatient ophthalmic clinics of the hospital between January 2010 and December 2015 (3) had at least 1-year clinic attendance during the period. The relationship between AGM utilization, patients’ self-reported MA and physicians’ comments on IOP was evaluated. A bivariate analysis was carried out to determine associations between variables and MA. Factors associated with IOP reduction were determined using a logistic regression. p&lt;0.05 was considered statistically significant.</p> <p><strong>Results: </strong>The carbonic anhydrase inhibitors comprised (66/191; 34.6%) of the total 191 AGM prescriptions. Majority of the participants (36/60; 60.0%) had reduced IOP with AGM alone, of which (13/36;36.1%) were on triple AGM. The participants’ MA (p=0.01) and number of AGM (p=0.04) were significantly associated with IOP reduction among the participants in a logistic regression.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion: </strong>The number of AGM prescribed and the patients’ medication adherence can influence IOP reduction among older persons with POAG.</p> <p>Bangladesh Journal of Medical Science Vol.19(1) 2020 p.141-147</p> 2019-11-03T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## https://www.banglajol.info/index.php/BJMS/article/view/43888 Study of adverse reactions due to fresh frozen plasma transfusion among hemophilia patients 2019-12-12T13:36:50+00:00 Md Rafiqul Haque drrafiqulhaquefiroz@gmail.com Dannish Arefin Biswas dr.dannish.arefin@gmail.com Razia Akhter razia.akter@hotmail.com Farhana Jaya Chowdhury farhanajayachowdhury@gmail.com Zia Uddin Ahmed drzuahmed@gmail.com <p><strong>Background: </strong>Almost all hemophilia patients are treated with fresh frozen plasma and other alternatives. As they are on multiple transfusion of FFP, majority of the patient experience adverse reaction to FFP transfusion. There are various types of adverse events occur that are documented in national and international data. My research activity targeted to explore commonly encountered adverse events among Bangladeshi population. This helps the physician to plan a management protocol.</p> <p><strong>Objective: </strong>The objective of the study was to evaluate the adverse events of FFP transfusion who are receiving FFP for long time.</p> <p><strong>Materials and Method: </strong>It was a prospective type of observational study. The study was carried out in the Department of Transfusion Medicine, BSMMU, Dhaka, Bangladesh. This study was conducted from July 2011 to June 2012 for a period of one (1) year. 60 patients with hemophilia were selected from patients attending at day care unit of Transfusion Medicine dept. of BSMMU.</p> <p><strong>Results: </strong>Among 60 patients, 53.33% patients develop itching 36.67% patients developed urticaria, 6.67% patients develops fever and rigor and 3.33 patients developed nausea.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion: </strong>In this study it was found that majority of the patients developed itching following transfusion of FFP. Adverese events like urticaria, fever and nausea ranked as 2nd, 3rd and 4th position respectively.</p> <p>Bangladesh Journal of Medical Science Vol.19(1) 2020 p.148-151</p> 2019-11-03T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## https://www.banglajol.info/index.php/BJMS/article/view/43889 Coenzyme Q10 supplementation effects on lipid ratios in women with type 2 diabetes mellitus: A randomized, double-blind clinical trial study 2019-12-12T13:36:47+00:00 Parvin Zarei a.khosrowbeygi@arakmu.ac.ir Mohammad Reza Rezvanfar a.khosrowbeygi@arakmu.ac.ir Ali Khosrowbeygi a.khosrowbeygi@arakmu.ac.ir <p><strong>Objective: </strong>This study had been designed to evaluate the effects of Coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10) supplementation on the lipid ratios in women with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM).</p> <p><strong>Materials and Methods: </strong>Sixty-eight women with T2DM were enrolled and randomly divided into two groups. While one group received 100 mg/day of CoQ10 supplement for 12 weeks (n=34) the other was given placebo for the same time duration (n=34). Lipid profile including triglyceride (TG), total cholesterol (TC), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) were evaluated at the beginning and at the end of the intervention and lipid ratios were calculated.</p> <p><strong>Results and Discussion: </strong>After the intervention, values of non-HDL-C (p=0.001), TG/HDL-C (p=0.03) and LDL-C/HDL-C (p=0.001) were significantly decreased in CoQ10 group. Values of HDL ratio (p=0.002) were increased significantly in CoQ10 group.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion: </strong>This study showed that daily supplementation with 100 mg of CoQ10 in women with T2DM could improve some atherogenic lipid ratios that might be useful in preventing cardiovascular diseases in them.</p> <p>Bangladesh Journal of Medical Science Vol.19(1) 2020 p.152-158</p> 2019-11-03T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## https://www.banglajol.info/index.php/BJMS/article/view/43890 Mutagenic properties of modified hydrothermal nanotitania extract 2019-12-12T13:36:44+00:00 Ahmad Mukifza Harun mukifza@ums.edu.my Noor Baizura Ab Ghani mukifza@ums.edu.my Nor Farid Mohd Noor mukifza@ums.edu.my Razif Abas mukifza@ums.edu.my Mohammad Khursheed Alam mukifza@ums.edu.my <p><strong>Backgrounds</strong><strong>: </strong>The mutagenic properties of modified hydrothermal nanotitania extract were carried out using the Ames test (genotoxicity).</p> <p><strong>Materials and methods</strong><strong>: </strong>The Ames test was performed on Salmonella strains (TA98, TA100, TA1535, TA1537 and TA 102) which contain mutations in several genes with and without S9 metabolic activation from rat liver using the standard assay. The materials were extracted in distilled water and the serial dilutions of concentration ranging from 313 to 5000 μg/mLwere used after the incubation period of 24 h at 37° C.</p> <p><strong>Results: </strong>These results suggested that all tested concentrations of the material extracts did not produce mutagenic effect in all the strains tested.</p> <p><strong>Conclusions: </strong>Findings from this study showed that the modified hydrothermal nanotitania extract was non-mutagenic under present conditions.</p> <p>Bangladesh Journal of Medical Science Vol.19(1) 2020 p.159-162</p> 2019-11-03T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## https://www.banglajol.info/index.php/BJMS/article/view/43891 Standardadization and skin irritation potential of herbal analgesic cream containing Nigella sativa seed oil 2019-12-12T13:36:40+00:00 Tehmina Sohail dr_hinaimran@yahoo.com Shazia Yasmeen dr_hinaimran@yahoo.com Hina Imran dr_hinaimran@yahoo.com Sadia Ferheen dr_hinaimran@yahoo.com Atiq U Rehman dr_hinaimran@yahoo.com Rashid Ali Khan dr_hinaimran@yahoo.com <p><strong>Background &amp; Objective</strong><strong>: </strong>The aim of present study was to evaluate herbal analgesic cream containing Nigella sativa oil as an active ingredient, standardization of Nigella sativa oil and evaluation of irritation/sensitization potential of formulation.</p> <p><strong>Material &amp; Method</strong>: For this, HPLC analysis of oil, skin irritation test on rabbits and patch testing on human skin was conducted. HPLC analysis using C-18 column, using an isocratic mobile phase of water: methanol (10:90) at flow rate of 1 ml/inactive ingredient: thymoquinone purified from the oil was found to be 1.42g (28.4 %). Safety assessment of analgesic cream was based on Primary Dermal Irritation Index (PDII) by Draize method.</p> <p><strong>Result: </strong>According to Draize standard scoring system of reactions PDII was found 0.04 which comes under the category of non irritant. Patch testing on human volunteers revealed that none of volunteers showed any sign of skin reactions.</p> <p>Bangladesh Journal of Medical Science Vol.19(1) 2020 p.163-168</p> 2019-11-03T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## https://www.banglajol.info/index.php/BJMS/article/view/43892 Management of bilateral impacted maxillary canines (BIMC): open surgical exposure and orthodontic traction. 2019-12-12T13:36:37+00:00 Mohammad Khursheed Alam mkalam@ju.edu.sa <p><strong>Background: </strong>Patients presenting with BIMC are relatively rare and the aim of the Orthodontist is to create a dentition that is functionally and aesthetically acceptable. The BIMC may result in altered facial appearance with malocclusion and psychological distress in some individuals.</p> <p><strong>Case presentation: </strong>The present case report describes a 17-year-old female patient with nonsyndromic, BIMC. Clinical and CBCT examinations revealed BIMC. Following open surgical exposure treatment planning, the patient was treated with orthodontic fixed mechanotherapy to correct BIMC and other problems. Slow force mechanics with passive self-ligating MBT 0.022 orthodontic braces were used.</p> <p><strong>Results: </strong>Open surgical exposure and active orthodontic treatment was completed in 18 months. The management of BIMC requires multidisciplinary approach to achieve better aesthetics and improved occlusal function.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion: </strong>A combined Open Surgical Exposure-Orthodontic Traction-Orthodontic treatment would help achieve desired aesthetics and functioning occlusion.</p> <p>Bangladesh Journal of Medical Science Vol.19(1) 2020 p.169-173</p> 2019-11-03T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## https://www.banglajol.info/index.php/BJMS/article/view/43893 Response to ‘Learner perception regarding the lecture and the small group discussion as Teaching/ Learning methods in Physiology’ 2019-12-12T13:36:34+00:00 Urban John Arnold D’Souza dsouza@ums.edu.my Fairrul bin Masnah Kadir dsouza@ums.edu.my Nagesh Chodankar dsouza@ums.edu.my Firdaus Hayati dsouza@ums.edu.my Mohammad Saffree Bin Jeffree dsouza@ums.edu.my <p>Abstract not available</p> <p>Bangladesh Journal of Medical Science Vol.19(1) 2020 p.174-175</p> 2019-11-03T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## https://www.banglajol.info/index.php/BJMS/article/view/43894 Investigation of efficacy of an herbal product (Habb-E-Munish) in the treatment of ED Using IIEF-5 scores and its effect on liver and renal functions 2019-12-12T13:36:31+00:00 Md Anwar Hussain anwarbd64@yahoo.com Mohd Nurul Alam anwarbd64@yahoo.com Nafisa Ahmed anwarbd64@yahoo.com Hasan Said anwarbd64@yahoo.com Syeda Fahmida Afrin anwarbd64@yahoo.com Zahid Hassan anwarbd64@yahoo.com Abdullah Al Mamun anwarbd64@yahoo.com Abu Kholdun Al Mahmood anwarbd64@yahoo.com <p><strong>Background and Rationale</strong>: Incidence of erectile dysfunction is rising in both developing and developed countries including Bangladesh. Even in this 21st century people attracted to the herbal and/alternative medicine. The present study was aimed to evaluate the effect of Haab-e-Munish in the treatment using the International Index of Erectile Function-5 (IIEF-5) questionnaire.</p> <p><strong>Material and Methods</strong>: A total 33 married male subjects participated in this study. The study was approved by the Research and Ethics Committee of the Ibn Sina Medical College &amp; Hospital. Informed written consent was obtained from each participant. Data were expressed as mean±SD and were managed by SPSS for Windows Version 17. P&lt;0.05 was considered significant.</p> <p><strong>Results</strong>: Mean (SD) age of the participants was 36.8±7.7. Basic data like pulse, blood pressure, serum creatinine, urea and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) were unchanged compared to the baseline. IIEF Score of all five functional domain demonstrated significant improvement from the baseline.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion</strong>: Herbal preparation Haab-e-Munish has positive effect in improving erectile dysfunctions and is safe for liver and kidney function on short term basis.</p> <p>Bangladesh Journal of Medical Science Vol.19(1) 2020 p.176-179</p> 2019-11-03T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement##