https://www.banglajol.info/index.php/BJMS/issue/feed Bangladesh Journal of Medical Science 2018-12-16T13:14:13+00:00 Dr Abu Kholdun Al-Mahmood kholdun@hotmail.com Open Journal Systems <p>A journal sponsored by the Ibn Sina Trust. Full text articles available.<br />NLM ID=101563859</p><p>Bangladesh Journal of Medical Sciences is included on <a title="DOAJ" href="https://doaj.org/toc/2076-0299?source=%7B%22query%22%3A%7B%22filtered%22%3A%7B%22filter%22%3A%7B%22bool%22%3A%7B%22must%22%3A%5B%7B%22term%22%3A%7B%22index.issn.exact%22%3A%222076-0299%22%7D%7D%2C%7B%22term%22%3A%7B%22_type%22%3A%22article%22%7D%7D%5D%7D%7D%2C%22query%22%3A%7B%22match_all%22%3A%7B%7D%7D%7D%7D%2C%22from%22%3A0%2C%22size%22%3A100%7D" target="_blank">DOAJ</a>.</p><p><strong>Journal Metrics</strong><br /><a href="https://www.scopus.com/sourceid/19900192321" target="_blank">CiteScore Tracker 2017</a>: Updated on April 30, 2018</p><p><img 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" alt="" /></p><p><a href="https://www.researchgate.net/journal/2223-4721_Bangladesh_Journal_of_Medical_Science" target="_blank">ResearchGate Journal Impact</a> (2013): 0.62</p><p><a href="https://www.scimagojr.com/journalsearch.php?q=19900192321&amp;tip=sid" target="_blank">Scimago Journal Rank</a> (2017): 0.17</p><p><img src="data:image/png;base64,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" alt="" width="152" height="114" /></p> https://www.banglajol.info/index.php/BJMS/article/view/38306 Bangladesh Pharmaceutical Industry: Perspective and the Prospects 2018-12-16T13:14:13+00:00 Sharmin Islam sharmin320@hotmail.com Aminur Rahman rahman55aminur@gmail.com Abu Kholdun Al Mahmood sharmin320@hotmail.com <p>Abstract not available</p><p>Bangladesh Journal of Medical Science Vol.17(4) 2018 p.519-525</p> 2018-09-19T05:17:06+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## https://www.banglajol.info/index.php/BJMS/article/view/38307 Review on diverse approaches used for epileptic seizure detection using EEG signals 2018-12-16T13:14:10+00:00 K Baskar baskarresearch17@gmail.com C Karthikeyan baskarresearch17@gmail.com <p>Epileptic seizure detection is a common diagnosis practiced by the expert clinicians through direct visual observation from the electroencephalography (EEG) signal. This detection by the expert clinicians is considered sensitive to bias and time consuming. Further, it suffers from various problems like unsustainability in larger dataset processing and low power detection. Hence, many computerized detection approaches are highly preferred to eliminate the aforementioned problems and to expedite the research in epilepsy seizure detection for aiding the medical professionals. Many such automated epilepsy diagnosis framework has been designed by various researches, which is made to operate in a single or in a combined manner with other domains. This study reviews different approaches, which is been designed to aid the human diagnosis using new avenues that explains the causes of epilepsy and seizures. Further, this study summarizes various methods used previously to analyze the epilepsy and seizures based on its state of art approach. Also, investigations are carried out in terms of performance evaluation to find the best suitable epileptic seizure detection technique in the application of Neuro-informatics.</p><p>Bangladesh Journal of Medical Science Vol.17(4) 2018 p.526-531</p> 2018-09-19T05:17:10+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## https://www.banglajol.info/index.php/BJMS/article/view/38312 Haemostatic functions and metabolic profile of subclinical hypothyroid and hypothyroid patients. 2018-12-16T13:14:08+00:00 Aarti Sood Mahajan aartis_mahajan@yahoo.co.in R Mahaur aartis_mahajan@yahoo.co.in T Singh aartis_mahajan@yahoo.co.in AK Jain aartis_mahajan@yahoo.co.in DK Dhanwal aartis_mahajan@yahoo.co.in M Gupta aartis_mahajan@yahoo.co.in <p><strong>Objectives: </strong>Both hypercoagulable and hypocoagulable states have been proposed for hypothyroidism, whether in overt or subclinical spectrum. The status of haemostatic functions, metabolic profile and their relationship in hypothyroid disorders need to be evaluated.</p><p><strong>Methods and Material</strong>: This prospective case control study was undertaken in 30- 50 years old female subclinical and hypothyroid patients. Haemostatic functions like bleeding time (BT), clotting time (CT), prothrombin time (PT), activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT), platelet count and metabolic parameters like plasma glucose and lipid levels and clinical variables like blood pressure and body mass index were noted and compared. In addition the strength of correlation of TSH, T<sub>4</sub>, T<sub>3</sub>, lipid profile with the haemostatic functions was evaluated.</p><p><strong>Results</strong>: Both groups of patients were obese, normotensive with normal haemostatic parameters. The platelet count correlated with TSH in subclinical hypothyroid patients and with T4 levels in hypothyroid patients. Although within normal range, total cholesterol and LDL cholesterol levels were higher and postprandial plasma glucose (PPPG) levels lower in hypothyroid patients compared to subclinical hypothyroid patients. A positive correlation was seen between TSH and LDL, PPPG levels, between fT<sub>3</sub> and BMI, and also of antiTPO with total cholesterol, LDL, Fasting plasma glucose (FPG) in hypothyroid patients. The BMI was negatively associated with fT<sub>3</sub> levels in subclinical hypothyroid patients.</p><p><strong>Conclusion: </strong>This study found normal haemostatic and metabolic functions in both subclinical and hypothyroid patients. Although within normal range, hypothyroid patients had higher total and LDL cholesterol. TSH and antiTPO levels correlated with LDL levels in these patients. Correlation of platelet count with TSH in subclinical hypothyroid and T4 levels in hypothyroid patients advocate a difference in mechanism involved. Therefore it can be connoted that thyroid status influences metabolic profile, and platelet count.</p><p>Bangladesh Journal of Medical Science Vol.17(4) 2018 p.532-536</p> 2018-09-19T05:17:24+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## https://www.banglajol.info/index.php/BJMS/article/view/38313 Knowledge, Attitudes and Practice of Burns Prevention and First Aid among Medical Students of King Khalid University, Saudi Arabia 2018-12-16T13:14:05+00:00 Aesha Farheen Siddiqui ashfarheen_zsh@yahoo.com Saad Qaddah Al Qahtani ashfarheen_zsh@yahoo.com Abulelah Mesfer Al Qahtani ashfarheen_zsh@yahoo.com Shahad Abdullah Barkout ashfarheen_zsh@yahoo.com Abdul Khaliq Ali AlAamri ashfarheen_zsh@yahoo.com <p><strong>Background</strong>: Burn prevention and first aid knowledge amongst medical students is a neglected subject.</p><p><strong>Objectives</strong>: 1.Assess the knowledge, attitudes and practices of medical students regarding burn prevention and first aid 2. Identify their sources of knowledge.</p><p><strong>Materials and Methods</strong>: This cross-sectional survey of KKU medical students documented their sociodemographic data, knowledge, attitudes and practices of burn prevention and first aid, and their sources of information. Data was analysed using SPSS 17. Descriptive information was presented as frequency and percentages, while Chi square test was used to find association of knowledge with sociodemographic factors.</p><p><strong>Results</strong>: A total of 273 students, from preclinical and clinical level were enrolled in the study. With an average of 9.3 correct responses, the median score of knowledge regarding burn prevention and first aid was 56.2 %. About half of the respondents (50.9%) achieved a fair knowledge score i.e. between 50-75%.College curriculum emerged as the major source of information for burn prevention (34.06%) and first aid (25.27%). About 42 % students suggested that inclusion in college curriculum would be the best way to increase awareness. YouTube emerged as the most common extra-curricular learning method (67.7%). Students in clinical years of medical education demonstrated significantly higher knowledge than those in pre-clinical years (p=0.01, COR=1.82). Fire prevention practices were not widely in place; however students revealed a positive attitude towards the same.</p><p><strong>Conclusion</strong>: Medical students have a fair knowledge in burn prevention and first aid and carry a positive attitude towards training. Incorporating social media for health awareness shows promise.</p><p>Bangladesh Journal of Medical Science Vol.17(4) 2018 p.537-544</p> 2018-09-19T05:17:43+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## https://www.banglajol.info/index.php/BJMS/article/view/38314 The association between voucher scheme and maternal healthcare services among the rural women in Bangladesh: a cross sectional study 2018-12-16T13:14:02+00:00 Akkur Chandra Das akkurdas@gmail.com Manik Nag nag_manik@yahoo.com.au <p><strong><em>Background: </em></strong>Maternal health voucher scheme, providing financial support to poor women, is popularly known as subsidies in maternity care services including antenatal, delivery and postnatal care and also economic barriers while seeking treatment from qualified service providers. The aim of this study is to evaluate the association of voucher scheme on receiving maternal healthcare services among the rural women in Bangladesh.</p><p><strong><em>Methods: </em></strong>This is a cross sectional study where total sample size was (n=500) rural women who were selected by using convenience sampling method. Among them, 250 women were voucher scheme receivers and other 250 women were non-voucher scheme receivers. A structured questionnaire was adopted for data collection between November and December 2015. In the final analysis, cross tabular analysis and logistic regression model were used, and adjusted odds ratios (ORs) were reported.</p><p><strong><em>Results: </em></strong>The study found a strong relation between voucher scheme and maternal healthcare services among the rural women in Bangladesh where majority (88.4%) voucher scheme receivers received information or treatment of Reproductive Tract Infections (RTIs) and Sexually Transmitted Infections (STIs) while non-voucher scheme receivers received only 10%. Most of the respondents (93%) voucher scheme receivers received at least 3 times of antenatal care visit; but only 28% received non-voucher scheme receivers at least 3 times of antenatal care visit. Voucher scheme receivers received 17.127 times more likelihood to receive skilled birth attendance and 25.344 times more likelihood to receive institutional delivery services and positively significant (5 percent) compared to those who did not receive maternal heath voucher scheme. Moreover, 92.4% voucher receivers received transport cost and 73.2%, received safe home delivery services while 22.8% non-voucher scheme receivers received transport cost and only 20.4% received safe home delivery services. Majority (94%) voucher scheme receivers received long time birth control services while only 19.2% non-voucher scheme receivers received long time birth control services.</p><p><strong><em>Conclusion: </em></strong>Women who did not receive maternal health voucher scheme found the status of lower antenatal, delivery and postnatal care services receiving trends compared to the women who received the maternal health voucher scheme. It is recommended an effective monitoring system and necessary interventions getting overall developed health status in Bangladesh.</p><p>Bangladesh Journal of Medical Science Vol.17(4) 2018 p.545-555</p> 2018-09-19T05:18:01+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## https://www.banglajol.info/index.php/BJMS/article/view/38315 Ethanolic Garlic Extract (Allium sativumL) Increased Viability and Proliferation of Human Gingival Fibroblast In Vitro 2018-12-16T13:13:59+00:00 I Bramanti bramantikg@gmail.com ISR Sudarso bramantikg@gmail.com MSH Wahyuningsih bramantikg@gmail.com T Wibawa bramantikg@gmail.com VM Karina bramantikg@gmail.com B Kusumawardani bramantikg@gmail.com <p><strong>Introduction</strong>: Garlic is a natural herb which can be used to be a good alternative treatment because cheap and safe. Garlic contains allicin which may has act antibacterial and antiinflammatory effect. Moreover, garlic extract has a good biocompatibility and can stimulate cell growth. Does garlic extract biocompatible and can stimulate cell growth that is seen from the proliferation of human gingival fibroblasts and how its work will be studied.</p><p><strong>Objective</strong>: The aim of this study was to analyze the biocompatibility of garlic extract by observing the viability and proliferation of human gingival fibroblasts in vitro.</p><p><strong>Methods</strong>: Biocompatibility test was conducted using serial concentration of garlic extract. Human gingival fibroblasts was seeded into 96 microwell plate with density of 2x10<sup>3</sup> cells, added with the fourteen serial concentration of garlic extract, and incubated in 37<sup>o </sup>C and 5% CO<sub>2</sub>for 24, 48 and 72 hours. MTT assay was used to analyze the viability and proliferation of human gingival fibroblasts. Data were analyzed by the Kruskal Wallis and U Mann-Whitney test.</p><p><strong>Results</strong>: The result showed that in each time of observation, there is no significant difference in viability fibroblast (p&gt;0,05), but there are significant difference between time of observation at 24, 48, and 72 hours (p &lt;0.05).Data showed that all concentration of garlic extract increased the viability and proliferation of human gingival fibroblasts.</p><p><strong>Conclusions</strong>: The ethanolic garlic extract has a good biocompatibility to human gingival fibroblasts culture cell and can stimulate the proliferation of human gingival fibroblast.</p><p>Bangladesh Journal of Medical Science Vol.17(4) 2018 p.556-561</p> 2018-09-19T05:18:15+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## https://www.banglajol.info/index.php/BJMS/article/view/38316 Morphometric analysis of infraorbital foramen in South Indian dry skulls 2018-12-16T13:13:56+00:00 Siddharth Tewari chandnipalimar@gmail.com Chandni Gupta chandnipalimar@gmail.com Vikram Palimar chandnipalimar@gmail.com Sneha Guruprasad Kathur chandnipalimar@gmail.com <p><strong><em>Objective- </em></strong>The infraorbital foramen is located on the maxillary bone 1 cm under the infraorbital margin. Infra orbital nerve blocks are done in children for managing the postoperative pain which can occur after cleft lip operation and endoscopic sinus operation. Infraorbital nerve can also be damaged in cases of zygomatic complex fractures which are one of the most common facial injuries. So, this study was undertaken to analyze the anatomical variations by comparing various morphometric measurements of infraorbital foramen in dry skulls of adult South Indian population.</p><p><strong>Materials and methods</strong>- 60 dry skulls of unknown sex were used for the study. Various measurements and distance from various surgical landmarks were measured to evaluate the location of infraorbital foramen on both sides. Statistical Analysis was done for the above measurements mean and standard deviation, median, range, and mode were calculated.</p><p><strong><em>Results</em></strong>: The mean distance of infraorbital foramen from piriform aperture, lower end of alveolus of maxilla and infraorbital margin was 18.39, 27.88 and 7.09mm on the right and 17.89, 27.31 and 6.95mm on the left side. The mean vertical and horizontal diameter was 3.78 and 3.50mm on the right side and 3.48 and 3.35mm on the left side. In our study, the most common site of IOF in Indian skulls was found to be in line with the second premolar tooth (59.01%), followed by its position between the first and second premolar tooth (27.87%).</p><p><strong><em>Conclusion- </em></strong>These results will be helpful for surgeons while doing maxillofacial surgery and regional block anesthesia.</p><p>Bangladesh Journal of Medical Science Vol.17(4) 2018 p.562-566</p> 2018-09-19T05:18:31+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## https://www.banglajol.info/index.php/BJMS/article/view/38317 Toward for production of Molybdenum-99 by irradiation of MoO3 target in a neutron flux 2018-12-16T13:13:54+00:00 Abdessamad Didi abdessamad.didi1@usmba.ac.ma Ahmed Dadouch abdessamad.didi1@usmba.ac.ma Otman Jai abdessamad.didi1@usmba.ac.ma Fatima zahra Bouhali abdessamad.didi1@usmba.ac.ma <p><strong>Background: </strong>Molybdenum- 99 is a parent isotope of Technetium-99m (<sup>99m</sup>Tc) as intermediate to diagnosis and radiation treatment. This production is made according to irradiation of Molybdenum-98 with thermal neutrons. The cycle comprises a complex of MoO<sub>3</sub> or the percentage of Mo-98 is 24.13%, this compressed mixture in an irradiation capsule of aluminum; the latter is disposed in the central thimble of a nuclear reactor so that the thermal neutron flux is at a maximum in order to generate <sup>98</sup>Mo to <sup>99</sup>Mo by nuclear reaction of (n, γ) where the crosssection of molybdenum is (0.13 ± 0.0013) barn<strong>.</strong></p><p><strong>Method</strong>: The purpose of this study is to validate of MoO<sub>3</sub> target that will be used for the production of Molybdenum-99 in the central thimble irradiation position of the TRIGA Mark II research reactor at CNESTEN (Morocco National Center for Nuclear Energy, Sciences and Techniques), The thermal neutron flux used for activity calculation of Mo-99 used reactor of research TRIGA Mark-II is 3.1 1011 n/cm<sup>²</sup>s at 250 KW, 2.4E+13 n/cm2s at 1.1 MW and 3.01 10<sup>13</sup>n/cm<sup>²</sup>s at 2MW, we are using Fortran-90 code for calculate the activity<strong>.</strong></p><p><strong>Result: </strong>The result’s finding was validated by other studies.</p><p>Bangladesh Journal of Medical Science Vol.17(4) 2018 p.567-572</p> 2018-09-19T05:18:49+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## https://www.banglajol.info/index.php/BJMS/article/view/38318 Study of anemia among hemophilia patients 2018-12-16T13:13:51+00:00 Rafiqul Haque rafiqulhaquefiroz@yahoo.com Dannish Arefin Biswas rafiqulhaquefiroz@yahoo.com Shafiul Alam Quraishi rafiqulhaquefiroz@yahoo.com <p><strong>Background: </strong>Almost all hemophilia patients are treated with fresh frozen plasma and other alternatives regardless of anemic status, so it is important to identify the patients who are chronically anemic and thereby those cases to be treated accordingly. As no previous work and research regarding study of anemia among hemophilia patients were done in our country and abroad as far as I know, so data regarding this study from online source could not be compiled here.</p><p><strong>Objective: </strong>The objective of the study was to evaluate the degree of anemic status among hemophilia patients who were receiving FFP for long time.</p><p><strong>Materials and Method</strong>: It was a prospective type of observational study. The study was carried out in the Department of Transfusion Medicine, BSMMU, Dhaka, Bangladesh. This study was conducted from July 2011 to June 2012 for a period of one (1) year. 60 patients with hemophilia were selected from patients attending at day care unit of Transfusion Medicine dept. of BSMMU.</p><p><strong>Results: </strong>Among 60 patients, according to degree of anemia majority cases are moderately anemic which were 35(58.33%) cases followed by mildly anemic which were 15(25.00%) cases, Severely anemic were 2(3.33%).Non anemic cases were 10(16.67%).</p><p>Bangladesh Journal of Medical Science Vol.17(4) 2018 p.573-575</p> 2018-09-19T05:19:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## https://www.banglajol.info/index.php/BJMS/article/view/38319 Can Awake Thoracoscopy Procedure be Performed with the Help of Thoracic Paravertebral Anesthesia? 2018-12-16T13:13:49+00:00 Fazli Yanik fazliyanik@hotmail.com Yekta Altemur Karamustafaoglu altemurk@hotmail.com Elif Copuruoglu elifcopuroglu@trakya.edu.tr Gonul Sagiroglu gonulsagiroglu@trakya.edu.tr <p><strong>Aim:</strong>The aim of this study was to present our experience with 11 patients who were spontaneously breathing with Awake Video Thoracoscopy (AVATS) procedure with the help of TPB because of rareness in the literature.</p><p><strong>Materials and Methods: </strong>Between December 2015 and December 2017, a total of 125 VATS cases were performed; 11 cases underwent VATS operation with the help of TPB; age, gender, operation performed, duration of operation, time of onset of mobilization-oral intake, duration of hospital stay, Visual Analogue Scale (VAS) scores were evaluated retrospectively.</p><p><strong>Results</strong><strong>: </strong>All cases were treated with uniportal AVATS procedure with the help of TPB. The mean age was 40,3 ± 17,4 years (range 18-64 years ), nine (82%) of the pateints were male and two (18%) were female. Operation procedures included wedge resection in eight (73 %) patients (six of them for pneumothorax, two of them for diagnosis), in three (27%) patients pleural biopsy (one of them used talc pleurodesis).There were no perioperative events. The mean operation time was 27,7 ± 6,4 minutes (range, 20-40 min) and the mean anesthesia time was 25 ± 3,8 minutes (range 20-30 min).The mean time of mobilizitation, oral intake opening time and length of hospital stay was 1,1 ± 0,4 hours (1-2 hours), 3,5 ± 0,5 hours (3-4 hours), 2,6 ± 0,5 days (2-3 days), respectively.</p><p><strong>Conclusion</strong><strong>:</strong>Awake Video Asssited Thoracoscopic Surgery with the help of TPB has less side effects and less complication risks than other awake procedures with the help of other regional anesthesia techniques. We conclude that; although AVATS with the help of TPB has some minor complications, it has advantages such as early discharge, early mobilization and early oral intake, low pain levels in well-selected patient groups.</p><p>Bangladesh Journal of Medical Science Vol.17(4) 2018 p.576-582</p> 2018-09-19T05:19:07+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## https://www.banglajol.info/index.php/BJMS/article/view/38320 Factors associated with maternal anaemia among pregnant women in rural India 2018-12-16T13:13:46+00:00 Neerja Singal drkiranksingal@yahoo.co.in Geetanjali Setia drkiranksingal@yahoo.co.in Bal Krishan Taneja drkiranksingal@yahoo.co.in Kiran Kumar Singal drkiranksingal@yahoo.co.in <p><strong>Background</strong>: Anaemia in pregnancy is one of the most important and common public health problem not only in India but also in most of the South East Asian countries. Anaemia is the most common nutritional deficiency disorder in the world. There is predominance of iron deficiency anaemia (nutritional anaemia). In pregnancy, it is one of the leading causes responsible for maternal and perinatal morbidity and mortality.</p><p><strong>Objective</strong>: To find out the risk factors associated with anaemia in pregnant women at MMIMSR during the study period with special reference to the severity of the disease.</p><p><strong>Methods</strong>: The study was conducted in Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, MMIMSR, Mullana, Ambala. The study was carried out between the period of october 2012 to September 2014.A total of 200 cases of moderate and severe anaemia were included in the study on the basis of simple random sampling method and 200 cases of non anaemic subjects were included to serve as controls for the anaemic group, during the study period. Hb gm/dl was taken as criteria for deciding anaemia cases and also to classify them according to the severity. Cases were classified according to WHO criteria.</p><p><strong>Results</strong>: Out of 200 cases of anaemia, 70% were moderately anaemic (Hb 7 – 9.9gm/dl) and 30% were severly anaemic (Hb &lt; 7gm/dl). Microcytic hypochromic type of anaemia (82.5%) was more prevalent suggesting nutritional inadequacies as cause of anaemia.</p><p><strong>Conclusion</strong>: In the present study maternal illiteracy, low SES, inadequate antenatal care, close birth spacing, poor nutrition were all risk factors for anaemia in pregnancy Microcytic hypochromic type of anaemia (82.5%) was more prevalent suggesting nutritional inadequacies as cause of anaemia.</p><p>Bangladesh Journal of Medical Science Vol.17(4) 2018 p.583-592</p> 2018-09-19T05:19:16+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## https://www.banglajol.info/index.php/BJMS/article/view/38321 Burden of Stroke Caregivers: Evidence from a Qualitative Study in Sarawak, Malaysia 2018-12-16T13:13:44+00:00 Md Mizanur Rahman rmmizanur@unimas.my Norlizabinti Suut rmmizanur@unimas.my Zabidahbinti Putit rmmizanur@unimas.my Mohamad Taha Arif rmmizanur@unimas.my Asri Bin Said rmmizanur@unimas.my Mohd Raili Bin Suhaili rmmizanur@unimas.my Mohd Fadzillah rmmizanur@unimas.my Florence AkBakon rmmizanur@unimas.my Zainab binti Tambi rmmizanur@unimas.my Ling How Kee lhkee@unimas.my <p><strong>Background</strong>: Stroke survivors experience long-term physical, psychosocial and cognitive impairment that are formidable challenges to caregivers because caring for stroke survivors needs explicit knowledge and caregivers have to endure the stressfulness as a result of caring. In addition, little is known about perceived benefits of the stroke care giving experience.</p><p><strong>Objectives: </strong>This study was aimed to determine the caregivers’ burden and challenges as reported by caregivers of stroke survivors.</p><p><strong>Materials and Methods</strong>: This was a cross-sectional study involving 18 stroke caregivers. The data were collected from November 2015 to June 2016 at a conveniently selected community rehabilitation centre in Kuching, Sarawak.</p><p><strong>Results</strong>: The qualitative data analysis revealed that the burden was aggravated by financial problems, multiple responsibilities hold by the caregivers, behavioural changes of the stroke survivors and lack of social support during care giving.</p><p><strong>Conclusion</strong>: This study highlighted the experiences by the caregivers in caring for the stroke survivors that focused on the different needs of the caregivers. Understanding these experiences may help the service providers to provide better support and resources for caregivers in caring for stroke survivors.</p><p>Bangladesh Journal of Medical Science Vol.17(4) 2018 p.593-599</p> 2018-09-19T05:19:24+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## https://www.banglajol.info/index.php/BJMS/article/view/38322 Central and peripheral corneal thickness in Malays and its variation with age 2018-12-16T13:13:41+00:00 Norhani Mohidin norhani.mohidin@gmail.com Lau Chean Ling norhani.mohidin@gmail.com <p><strong>Background</strong>: Corneal thickness (CT) is an important parameter in refractive surgery but available data is scanty on corneal thickness of normal Malays. The purpose of this study is to determine central and peripheral CT in a sample of Malays and find its effect on age.</p><p><strong>Methods</strong>: Seventy–two (72) participants were invited to participate in this study. Their age ranged from 15 to 65 years old. CT was measured using an ultrasonic pachometer (Corneo-Gage TM Plus2) at 5 different locations namely central, superior, temporal, inferior and nasal regions of the cornea. A total of three readings were taken for each location of the cornea and the mean was calculated. CT was presented as total, epithelial and stromal thickness for three age groups, namely &lt;20years, 21-40years and &gt;40 years for comparison.</p><p><strong>Results</strong>: Mean value for central CT for Malays was 597.9 ± 35.2 μm and peripheral CT was significantly thicker than the centre at all locations. There was significant thinning in CT as age advanced at all locations except at the centre. The epithelial layers do not show any changes with respect to location and age which implied that changes in CT at different location and as results of advancing age were mainly due to the stroma.</p><p><strong>Conclusion</strong>: The values of CT in normal Malays was 597.9 ± 35.2 μm and CT was thinnest at the central region. Except at the central region CT decreased with advancing age. These values can be a suitable reference when planning for refractive surgery and penetrating keratoplasty among Malays.</p><p>Bangladesh Journal of Medical Science Vol.17(4) 2018 p.600-605</p> 2018-09-19T05:19:35+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## https://www.banglajol.info/index.php/BJMS/article/view/38323 Neuropharmacological screening of Ficus Carica Linn; Fruit for Anxiolytic and Antidepressant Activity 2018-12-16T13:13:38+00:00 Somia Gul drsomi1983@yahoo.com Sabeen Raza drsomi1983@yahoo.com Zaira Rashid drsomi1983@yahoo.com Maria Ayub drsomi1983@yahoo.com Ghulam Sarwar drsomi1983@yahoo.com <p><strong>Background: </strong>Rutin and polyphenol which are present in ficus carica linn are responsible for anti-depressant and anxiolytics effect.</p><p><strong>Aims</strong><strong>: </strong>We have conducted the study to evaluate the anti depressant and anxiolytic effect of ficuscaricalinn on mice and compare its effect with well known prescribed anti depressant and anxiolytic drug alprazolam.</p><p><strong>Methods</strong><strong>: </strong>Three groups of mice were marked as Control, Reference and Test. Each group comprise of 5 mice. Control group was on normal diet. Reference group was feeded alprazolam at a dose of 0.5mg/60kg while test group were provided two different dilution of ficuscaricalinn, one dilution is 250mg/ kg/100ml of water and second dilution is 500mg/kg/100ml of water. We used Light/dark box method and Elevated plus maze method to evaluate the anxiolytic effect of ficus carica linn. To determine the anti-depressant effect of ficus carica linn.</p><p><strong>Results: </strong>we was used one method that is Head Dip Method. Results were collected and observed readings and data were clearly indicating the great and pronounced anti depressant and anxiolytic effect of ficus carica linn at a dose of 500mg/kg compare with a widely prescribed drug alprazolam for its anti-depressant and anxiolytic effect.Ficus carica is well known for its numerous biological activities also found to be one of excellent distressing agent. Stress provoking several disorders could be limit by the use of ficus carica fruit in doses 250mg/kg and 500mg/kg. Ficus carica linn as a natural product may prove better therapeutic agent if more study is conducted on it.</p><p><strong>Conclusion: </strong>As this study is confined to the mice, there’s much possibilities to have similar effect in humans but require more work on it.</p><p>Bangladesh Journal of Medical Science Vol.17(4) 2018 p.606-611</p> 2018-09-19T05:19:42+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## https://www.banglajol.info/index.php/BJMS/article/view/38324 Gender Influences on Colour processing: An event related potential (ERP) study 2018-12-16T13:13:36+00:00 Rumaisa Abu Hasan tahaminabegum70@hotmail.com Faruque Reza tahaminabegum70@hotmail.com Tahamina Begum tahaminabegum70@hotmail.com <p><strong>Background</strong><strong>: </strong>We assessed cognitive function by using different colours. Colour has been used in different neuropsychology tests for diagnostic and therapeutic purposes.</p><p><strong>Purposes: </strong>As male and female hormones are different, it is important to investigate the effect of different colours on the male and female groups for planning their therapeutic strategy in different diseases.</p><p><strong>Methods: </strong>This prospective study was done between 2012 and 2014. We used the 128-sensor net for an event related potential (ERP) study in male and female groups (n= 22 in each group). Different colours were used as stimuli. Subjects pressed ‘button 1’ when they liked the colour and ‘button 2’ when they disliked it. Reaction time (RT) and differences in like and dislike stimuli were analysed. The values of the mean differences of like and dislike stimuli were calculated using a 10-20 electrode system of 19 electrodes. The amplitudes and latencies of the N200 and P300 ERP components were analysed.</p><p><strong>Results: </strong>No significant differences were found in the mean differences of the amplitudes and latencies of the N200 and P300 ERP components between the male and female groups across 19 electrode sites. RTs were non-significantly longer in the male group. However, colour reflected on the frontal-right occipital area in the female group and the frontal-left occipital area in the male group.</p><p><strong>Conclusion: </strong>There might be a possibility of delayed decision-making due to difficulty assessing emotion in the male group compared with the female group.</p><p>Bangladesh Journal of Medical Science Vol.17(4) 2018 p.612-618</p> 2018-09-19T05:19:52+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## https://www.banglajol.info/index.php/BJMS/article/view/38325 Correlation between Histopathological Findings and Endoscopy in Esophageal Cance: Results in Khorramabad, Iran, Western Iran 2018-12-16T13:13:33+00:00 Koroush Ghanadi khodadadi.b@lums.ac.ir A Khatereh Anbari khodadadi.b@lums.ac.ir Babak Khodadadi khodadadi.b@lums.ac.ir Morteza Sagharjoghi Farahani khodadadi.b@lums.ac.ir <p><strong>Background: </strong>Esophageal cancer is a cancer arising of the esophagus and during the past two decades, the epidemiology and treatment strategies for esophageal cancer have changed markedly in the Western Iran.The aim of this study is to investigate the clinical signs, endoscopy findings, and family history of esophageal cancer in the Khorramabad, Iran.</p><p><strong>Methods: </strong>In this cross-sectional research conducted during 1 year in 2015,96 patients had been diagnosed with esophageal cancer by endoscopy and pathological findings. The data collected through a multipart questionnaire includingage, sex, marital status, education, occupation, address and ethnicity, background as to smoking, alcohol consumption and history of gastric and esophageal cancers. The data were analyzed using chi-square test or Fisher exact test.</p><p><strong>Results: </strong>According to findings of this study, the most common clinical signs in the patients were Anorexia (53.1) and Weight Loss (62.5). The most common anatomical site of tumor in male was in the distal esophagus (41.3%) and middle esophagus in female patients (32%), which was statistically significant (P=0.047).</p><p><strong>Conclusions: </strong>In this study, distal esophageal cancer was more common. Abetter identification of Effective factors on esophageal cancer would result in better control and management of this disease.</p><p>Bangladesh Journal of Medical Science Vol.17(4) 2018 p.619-624</p> 2018-09-19T05:20:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## https://www.banglajol.info/index.php/BJMS/article/view/38326 The frequency of proximal tibiofibular joint types in patients with malleolar fractures 2018-12-16T13:13:31+00:00 Salman Ghaffari mshayestehazar@yahoo.com Masoud Shayesteh Azar mshayestehazar@yahoo.com Mohammad Hossein Kariminasab mshayestehazar@yahoo.com Tahereh Ranjbar mshayestehazar@yahoo.com Bahman Ghaffari mshayestehazar@yahoo.com <p><strong>Background: </strong>Due to the prevalence of ankle malleolar fractures and by considering the influence of proximal tibiofibular joint(PTFJ) on fibula movement during ankle motion and subsequently on ankle injuries, this research was conducted to determine distributed frequency of the PTFJ in adult patients with malleolar fractures.</p><p><strong>Methods: </strong>This survey was conducted on a prospective cross-sectional basis. adult patients with malleolar fractures in two year period enrolled . Information, such as gender, age, mechanisms of fractures, reason of fractures, location of fractures was Collected, classified and reported along with descriptive statistics. Frequency of PTFJ in normal population determined and used for comparison with study group.</p><p><strong>Results: </strong>In the 79 patients could match our criteria in this study. The age of patients was 37±15 with range of 18-80 years. The highest number of ankle fractures were seen in third decade of age and these fractures were more prevalent in men. The most common cause of ankle fractures was traffic accidents (54/43%).the most common injury was lateral malleolar fracture (68/74%) and the most common mechanism of injury was Lauge-Hansen supination – external rotation, Danis-Weber type B . Frequency of PTFJ transverse and oblique types in normal population (80.6/19.4%)and study(71/29%) groups was statistically different (P &lt; 0/05). According to mechanism of injury and location of fibular fracture, there was no significant difference between PTFJ types (P &gt; 0/05).</p><p><strong>Conclusions</strong><strong>: </strong>Frequency of oblique PTFJ in patients with malleolar fracture was more than normal population. There was no correlation between PTFJ type and mechanism of malleolar fracture or location of fibular fracture.<strong></strong></p><p>Bangladesh Journal of Medical Science Vol.17(4) 2018 p.625-630</p> 2018-09-19T05:20:08+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## https://www.banglajol.info/index.php/BJMS/article/view/38328 Educational Game: A Fun and team based learning in psychiatric course and its effects on Learning Indicators 2018-12-16T13:13:28+00:00 Leili Mosalanejad kia151996@live.com Bahareh Razeghi kia151996@live.com Saeed Abdollah Ifard kia151996@live.com <p><strong>Background: </strong>Using traditional and inactive methods in medical education can cause fatigue, lack of attention, frustration, lack of motivation and decrease the level of students’ learning. games in education is one of the interactive, active and fun methods that has its own educational purpose that translates the special features and highlights the special capabilities by deepening the skills . In this article, the effect of the instructional game as a educational puzzles and the effect of this program on students ‘ self-regulation and team learning has been investigated.</p><p><strong>Method</strong>: This research is a pre test – post test semi experimental study. The population of this study was Jahrom University of Medical Sciences students and samples were 39 nursing students which studied psychiatric course. Sample was selected from available class to the teacher. Initially, the content of the course was presented as a presentation of the main content of the lecture. After the completion of the lessons, contents prepared through puzzle and this program was given to small groups in all sessions. The groups, while answering the questions, checked the collection of information and the searched for the answers, and then the correct answer was provided by the teacher. The combination of teamwork with small groups and solving puzzles which contained learned lessons provided an attractive environment in the form of teamwork. Four questionnaires included : self-directed learning readiness scale (SDLRS), Burrfurd’s self-regulatory questionnaire and a Questionnaire for assessing the value of team work and then a questionnaire of self-reflection were used in two stages (before and after) of intervention.</p><p><strong>Results: </strong>The results of the study showed that self-regulatory indicators (p = 0.17) and self-directed (including self-control motivation) and self-management (p=0.15, p=0.0, p=0.001) were meaningful after improving intervention respectively. Other results show that intervention has affected team-based learning scales (including attitudes- team learning and team-learning skills (0.73, 046, 0.62) although it is not significant. Also, the mean increase in all subdomain of selfreflection were significant (p &lt;0.05). Other results indicated that the intervention increased the mean scores of self-regulation and self-directed of students. But it is only in self-management was significant.</p><p><strong>Conclusion:</strong>The results of the study showed that the use of instructional al game can affect the individual and participation learning by creating entertaining and interactive environment. Therefore, it is recommended that the mentioned method be used in medical science education</p><p>Bangladesh Journal of Medical Science Vol.17(4) 2018 p.631-637</p> 2018-09-19T05:20:17+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## https://www.banglajol.info/index.php/BJMS/article/view/38329 Perception of facial appearance and profile among Bangladeshi Laypersons 2018-12-16T13:13:26+00:00 Mohammad Khursheed Alam dralam@gmail.com Shifat A Nowrin dralam@gmail.com <p><strong>Background</strong>: Enlightening facial esthetic is reflecting as one of the main influences in orthodontic treatment during establishing of ideal occlusion.</p><p><strong>Method</strong>: In present study, a determination was made to subsidize to the existing pool of information on the soft-tissue profile and facial awareness. Main aim of the study is to investigate how the Bangladeshi laypersons are aware of their own faces by analyzing the data collected through a structured questionnaire.</p><p><strong>Result</strong>: This study involved total 200 Bangladeshi Individuals age ranged 19 to 23 years old. A validated structured questionnaire was used to assess subjects’ evaluation of their own facial appearance. The mean awareness score for the subjects of Bangladeshi individuals ranged from 1.4 to 2.3 in male and from 1.7 to 1.9 in female for the overall impressions and from 1.3 to 2.1 in male and from 1.2 to 2.3 in female for the facial parts. Satisfaction score for the 9 items out of 24 items differed significantly between Bangladeshi female and male. An average profile of the jaw and lips are desired over more retrusive or protrusive profiles among Bangladeshi laypersons.</p><p><strong>Conclusion</strong>: It can be determined that Bangladeshi laypersons are adept to understand their own faces in the various commands and most of the peoples are worry about their profile in their everyday survives. We must evaluate our existing data to find orthodontic standards that are valid for specific ethnic groups.</p><p>Bangladesh Journal of Medical Science Vol.17(4) 2018 p.638-643</p> 2018-09-19T05:20:27+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## https://www.banglajol.info/index.php/BJMS/article/view/38330 Lipid peroxidation marker in saliva of Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus with oral manifestations – A Clinical and biochemical study. 2018-12-16T13:13:23+00:00 Medhini Madi medhkat@gmail.com Subhas G Babu medhkat@gmail.com Suchetha Kumari medhkat@gmail.com Shishir Ram Shetty medhkat@gmail.com Supriya Bhat medhkat@gmail.com Renita Castelino medhkat@gmail.com <p><strong>Background: </strong>Type 2 Diabetes progresses gradually and in a stepwise order. It commences with insulin resistance and progresses slowly with time until the body fails to maintain glucose homeostasis. These alterations are accompanied with changes in lipid peroxidation. The determination of the oxidative stress requires sometimes invasive techniques. Exploring saliva for oxidative stress has great clinical interest</p><p><strong>Objective: </strong>The present study was undertaken to estimate, compare and correlate the levels of malondialdehyde (MDA) in the serum and saliva of patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus with oral manifestations and healthy controls.</p><p><strong>Materials and Methods: </strong>Serum and salivary Malondialdehyde levels were estimated in 45 healthy subjects (Group I) and 45 patients with Type 2 Diabetes with oral manifestations (Group II). Estimation of Random blood sugar levels were done by GOD-PAP methodology. The data obtained from the present study was analyzed using SPSS software. Independent T test was used to compare the levels in the study and control group. Pearson’s correlation coefficient was used to correlate the changes in serum and saliva. P&lt; 0.05 was considered significant.</p><p><strong>Results:</strong>The mean serum Malondialdehyde levels in Group I was 0.958 μM/l, while the mean serum Malondialdehyde levels of Group II was 2.828 μM/l. The mean salivary Malondialdehyde levels in Group I was 0.217 μM/l, while the mean salivary Malondialdehyde levels of Group II was 0.688μM/l. The mean serum and salivary Malondialdehyde levels were significantly increased in subjects with Type 2 Diabetes with oral manifestations in comparison to the healthy subjects. Fair positive correlation was observed between serum and salivary Malondialdehyde levels in Group I (r = 0.341) and very good positive correlation was observed between serum and salivary Malondialdehyde levels in Group II (r = 0.613).</p><p><strong>Conclusion: </strong>Serum and salivary Malondialdehyde was significantly higher in subjects with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus with oral manifestations when compared to healthy controls. The increase in serum and salivary levels of MDA, shows that free radicals are formed disproportionately in diabetes mellitus by glucose degradation, non-enzymatic glycation of proteins, and the subsequent oxidative degradation, which may play an important role in the development of complications in diabetic patients. Fair positive correlation was found between serum and salivary Malondialdehyde in healthy subjects and very good positive correlation was observed between serum and salivary Malondialdehyde in subjects with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus with oral manifestations. This study highlights that type 2 diabetic patients undergo abnormally high levels of oxidative stress. Hence exploring saliva for oxidative stress is of great importance. Thus saliva could be used as a reliable, non-invasive tool in the assessment of oxidative status.</p><p>Bangladesh Journal of Medical Science Vol.17(4) 2018 p.644-651</p> 2018-09-19T05:20:34+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## https://www.banglajol.info/index.php/BJMS/article/view/38332 Study of Vitamin D levels in patients with Chronic Kidney Disease 2018-12-16T13:13:21+00:00 SP Mittal bimla.spm@gmail.com Harendra Singh Sandhu bimla.spm@gmail.com Bant Singh bimla.spm@gmail.com <p><strong>Introduction: </strong>Apart from classical functions, vitamin D has autocrine function. Autocrine function of vitamin D has a potential impact on the morbidity and mortality in the Chronic Kidney Disease patients. This study is undertaken to observe probable modality, if present, between post Hemodialysis (HD) decrease in vitamin D levels and clinical deterioration in CKD patients.</p><p><strong>Method &amp; Material: </strong>63 patients (32 males and 31 females) of Stage – 5 CKD were studied. There vitamin D was estimated before and after HD on first and subsequent maintenance HDs all patients with or without comorbidities.</p><p><strong>Results: </strong>Pre HD total vitamin D levels were ‘deficient’ (58.73%) and ‘sufficient’ in 38.1%, almost equal in patients of both sexes despite intake of supplement containing Calcium and Calcitriol. Post HD vitamin D levels were detected to be markedly low, seems to be ‘washed out’ during HD, in 85.71% of patients (29 males and 27). Vitamin D ‘wash out’ effect was also observed in subsequent maintenance HDs. Females and elderly patients were more prone to vitamin D ‘wash out’. Conventional therapy with vitamin D supplements can replenish but could not prevent its post HD ‘wash out’.</p><p><strong>Conclusion: </strong>It seems, in CKD the deleterious effects of post HD vitamin D deficiency are due to appreciable autocrine dysfunctions resulting in cardio vascular diseases (CVDs) and comorbidities especially diabetes mellitus add to worsening of CVDs, which are the main causes of high morbidity and mortality in these patients.</p><p>Bangladesh Journal of Medical Science Vol.17(4) 2018 p.652-660</p> 2018-09-19T05:20:46+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## https://www.banglajol.info/index.php/BJMS/article/view/38333 Anti-diabetic effect of Oyster Mushroom mediates through increased AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) and cyclic AMP-response element binding (CREB) protein in Type 2 Diabetic model Rats 2018-12-16T13:13:18+00:00 Manoj Mandal faruque.nft.just@gmail.com - Rakibuzzaman faruque.nft.just@gmail.com Begum Rokeya faruque.nft.just@gmail.com Liaquat Ali faruque.nft.just@gmail.com Zahid Hassan faruque.nft.just@gmail.com Md Omar Faruque faruque.nft.just@gmail.com <p>AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) and c-AMP-response element binding protein (CREB) are found to be important proteins in metabolic system. AMPK has become the focus as a novel therapeutic target for the treatment of metabolic syndromes. Oyster mushroom is traditionally used as remedy of diabetes and hypertension. The present study aims to observe the stimulation of AMPK and CREB in streptozotocin-induced diabetic model rats through Oyster mushroom administration. Long Evan’s rats were used to create type 2 model diabetic rats through intraperitoneal injection of streptozotocin at 90mg/kg body weight of 48hr old pups. Rats were divided into three groups: diabetic control rats, glibenclamide treated diabetic rats (positive control) and mushroom treated diabetic rats (experimental group). Mushroom was administered orally at a dose of 1.25g/kg body weight in semisolid forms. After five weeks rats were sacrificed, serum and tissues were collected for future analysis. Glucose was measured using glucose-oxidase method, lipid profile by enzymaticcolorimetric method. Proteins from different tissues were extracted using RIPA cell lysis buffer, AMPK and CREB were identified using western blot and immuno-precipitation techniques. A significant decreased of fasting glucose was found after 35 days of experiment when it compared with control diabetic rats (M ± SD, mmol/l, Diabetic control group: 8.0±1.1; Mushroom treated diabetic group: 6.4±1.0; p=0.021). Glibenclamide treated diabetic rats have also shown decreased fasting glucose compared to control diabetic rats. In paired ‘t’ test analysis, it has been found that serum fasting glucose level was significantly decreased on 35<sup>th </sup>day compared the 0 day in both mushroom treated group (p=0.027) and in glibenclamide treated group (p=0.005). Serum TG level was decreased on 35th day compared to 0day in mushroom treated diabetic model rats only (M±SD, mg/dl, 0 day: 84±13; 35th day: 61±6, p=0.002). No significant changes of cholesterol, HDL and LDL were noticed in the experimental groups following treatment with mushroom. Western blot analyses have shown increased band intensity of AMPK and p-CREB in mushroom treated diabetic model rats. Therefore, it can be concluded that Anti-hyperglycemic property of Oyster mushroom could be explained through increased expression of AMPK and activation of CREB.<strong><em></em></strong></p><p>Bangladesh Journal of Medical Science Vol.17(4) 2018 p.661-668</p> 2018-09-19T05:20:54+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## https://www.banglajol.info/index.php/BJMS/article/view/38334 NS-1 antigen positive Dengue Infection and molecular characterization of Dengue Viruses in a private Medical College Hospitalin Dhaka, Bangladesh 2018-12-16T13:13:16+00:00 Mahmuda Siddiqua mahmuda99@yahoo.com Ahmed Nawsher Alam mahmuda99@yahoo.com AKM Muraduzzaman mahmuda99@yahoo.com Tahmina Shirin mahmuda99@yahoo.com <p><strong>Introduction</strong><strong>: </strong>Detection of dengue virus infection as soon as possible is critical for management of dengue virus infected patients. Immuno-chromatographic (ICT) tests are easy, cost effective method for dengue virus antigen detection.The sensitivity and specificity of ICT should compare with a gold standard test like RT-PCR. Aim of this study was to compare two test methods (ICT and RT-PCR), observe dengue serotype and seasonal impact on dengue infection.</p><p><strong>Methodology &amp; result</strong><strong>: </strong>The patients of Ibn Sina Medical College Hospital from October 2015 to October 2017 were tested for dengue NS1 antigen by ICT method. Out of 3201 sample tested 32.39% were found positive and 89 of which were re-tested for RT-PCR for comparison. Eighty eight of 89 NS1 positive cases showed positive by RT-PCR method giving an accuracy of 98.87%. Among the RT-PCR positive cases 45 were further analyzed for serotype. DEN-1, DEN-2 or both DEN- 1 and DEN-2 were found in 21, 23 and 1cases respectively. No cases of DEN-3 or DEN-4 were detected.</p><p><strong>Conclusion</strong><strong>: </strong>This study showed that easily available and cost effective dengue NS1 antigen detection method (ICT) is as effective as molecular test (RT-PCR). DEN-1 and DEN-2 serotype were prevalent during last few years in Bangladesh. Continuous monitoring of dengue virus serotype is important for prevention and control of sudden epidemic by other serotype. Alert to be more during post monsoon when the peak of dengue virus infection was observed.</p><p>Bangladesh Journal of Medical Science Vol.17(4) 2018 p.669-673</p> 2018-09-19T05:21:06+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## https://www.banglajol.info/index.php/BJMS/article/view/38335 Unilateral zygomaticomaxillary complex fracture 2018-12-16T13:13:13+00:00 Karthik Shunmugavelu drkarthiks1981@gmail.com <p>Abstract not available</p><p>Bangladesh Journal of Medical Science Vol.17(4) 2018 p.674</p> 2018-09-19T05:21:14+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## https://www.banglajol.info/index.php/BJMS/article/view/38336 A case of juvenile dermatomyositis responding to methotrexate and steroid 2018-12-16T13:13:11+00:00 Prastiya Indra Gunawan prastiya_ig@yahoo.co.id Darto Saharso prastiya_ig@yahoo.co.id <p>A 4-year-old patient presented with skin rash and muscle weakness. She was diagnosed with juvenile dermatomyositis based on Bohan and Peter criteria as well as laboratory testing. She received steroid and combined with methotrexate. The treatment resulted in a good response.</p><p>Bangladesh Journal of Medical Science Vol.17(4) 2018 p.675-677</p> 2018-09-19T05:21:17+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## https://www.banglajol.info/index.php/BJMS/article/view/38337 Facial and ocular presentations of Carbimazole induced agranulocytosis: A case report 2018-12-16T13:13:09+00:00 Teoh Soo Huat ooloioyoaonoaoo@yahoo.com.my Liyana Salleh ooloioyoaonoaoo@yahoo.com.my <p>We report a case of 61-year-old lady who presented with signs and symptoms of acute dacryocystitis, preseptal and facial cellulitis secondary to carbimazole induced agranulocytosis. Her condition was complicated by sepsis whereby she was admitted for intravenous antibiotics, subcutaneous Filgrastim administration and surgical intervention.</p><p>Bangladesh Journal of Medical Science Vol.17(4) 2018 p.678-679</p> 2018-09-19T05:21:22+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## https://www.banglajol.info/index.php/BJMS/article/view/38338 Neglected left intraparotid facial nerve schwannoma causing complete facial nerve palsy: A case report 2018-12-16T13:13:07+00:00 Khim Soon Vong irfankb@usm.my Irfan Mohamad irfankb@usm.my Rohaizam Jaafar irfankb@usm.my <p>Extracranial schwannomas in the head and neck region are relatively rare neoplasms. The tumours are slow growing and often unnoticeable. The nerve of origin is unable to be determined until the time of surgery. Proper preoperative assessment of the disease can be done by imaging studies such as magnetic resonance imaging. The treatment for these tumours is surgical resection with preservation of the neural pathway. We report a case of left intraparotid facial nerve schwannoma in a middle-aged lady causing complete facial nerve paralysis. The clinical features, diagnostic possibilities and management are discussed</p><p>Bangladesh Journal of Medical Science Vol.17(4) 2018 p.680-682</p> 2018-09-19T05:21:26+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## https://www.banglajol.info/index.php/BJMS/article/view/38339 Treatment of Angle class I malocclusion with severe crowding by extraction of four premolars: A case report 2018-12-16T13:13:04+00:00 Mohammad Khursheed Alam dralam@gmail.com Shifat A Nowrin dralam@gmail.com Fazal Shahid dralam@gmail.com Sanjida Haque dralam@gmail.com Anas Imran dralam@gmail.com Nashid Fareen dralam@gmail.com Mamun Khan Sujon dralam@gmail.com Shaila Zaman dralam@gmail.com Rafiqul Islam dralam@gmail.com Shamima Easmin Nishi dralam@gmail.com <p><strong>Aims</strong>: To correct the Angle class I malocclusion with crowding via four premolar extractions.</p><p><strong>Presentation of case</strong>:A 19-year-old Malaysian female presented with the bimaxillary protrusion, crowding, high canines, midline deviation and edge-to-edge anterior bite. Upper lateral incisors were palatalized and in crossbite interactions with the opposite teeth.</p><p><strong>Discussion</strong>: Treatment was initiated using fixed orthodontic appliances followed by four 1st premolar extractions in both arches. Case was finished with good inter cuspation of the upper and lower teeth. Molars were finished in a Class I relationship with canine guidance, and ideal overjet and overbite were obtained.</p><p><strong>Conclusion</strong>: Successful finishing of a case with beautiful smile, obtained proper overjet and overbite, corrected cross bite, midline shifting and the improved soft tissue profile.</p><p>Bangladesh Journal of Medical Science Vol.17(4) 2018 p.683-687</p> 2018-09-19T05:21:32+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## https://www.banglajol.info/index.php/BJMS/article/view/38340 The challenge in diagnosing Crohn’s disease in TB endemic region – A case report with review of literature 2018-12-16T13:13:02+00:00 S Suban Mohammed Gouse dr.subanmd@gmail.com Hemalatha Ganapathy dr.subanmd@gmail.com Bhuvanamha Devi dr.subanmd@gmail.com G Bheema Rao dr.subanmd@gmail.com BO Parijatham dr.subanmd@gmail.com <p>The challenge in diagnosing the regional ileitis existed since 1932 when Crohn, Ginzberg and Oppenheimer first reported their case1. Many Indian researchers accepted that during last decade there was considerable increase in the incidence of Crohn’s disease (CD) in India which poses great challenge in diagnosing it, due to high prevalence of tuberculosis2. In this perspective we report a case which made a stimulus to review the literature. The purpose of this manuscript is 1. To document the occurrence of an additional case of CD in India, 2. To report that CD can rarely present as post operative enterocutaneous fistula, 3. To discuss the criteria in diagnosing the CD in Tuberculosis (TB) endemic area.</p><p>Bangladesh Journal of Medical Science Vol.17(4) 2018 p.688-690</p> 2018-09-19T05:21:42+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## https://www.banglajol.info/index.php/BJMS/article/view/38341 Mucopyocele of concha bullosa mimicking ethmoidal polyp 2018-12-16T13:12:59+00:00 Siti Asmat Binti Md Arepen irfankb@usm.my Nor Eyzawiah Binti Hassan irfankb@usm.my Shahrul Bin Hitam irfankb@usm.my Siti Soraya Ab Rahman irfankb@usm.my Irfan Mohamad irfankb@usm.my <p>Concha bullosa (CB) is a pneumatised middle turbinate. Although CB is the most common variant of the middle turbinate, the formation of mucocele or mucopyocele of CB has been rarely reported. The inflamed mucosal lining of the concha bullosa may lead to mucocele formation. Infection of the retained secretion will later on lead to mucopyocele. We report a 12-year-old girl presented with right unilateral nasal blockage associated with rhinitis symptoms. She was initially diagnosed as nasal polyp which later on turned out to be a mucocele histpathologically.</p><p>Bangladesh Journal of Medical Science Vol.17(4) 2018 p.691-693</p> 2018-09-19T05:21:49+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## https://www.banglajol.info/index.php/BJMS/article/view/38342 Letter to editor: Obituary 2018-12-16T13:12:56+00:00 Tareq Tahboub amdaoud@just.edu.jo <p>Abstract not available</p><p>Bangladesh Journal of Medical Science Vol.17(4) 2018 p.694-695</p> 2018-09-19T05:21:56+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement##