Bangladesh Journal of Microbiology Full text articles available en-US (Professor Mahmuda Yasmin) (Md Fahmid Uddin Khondoker) Wed, 19 Feb 2020 07:06:52 +0000 OJS 60 Potential Thermotolerant Lactobacilli Isolated from Chicken Gastrointestinal Tract for Probiotic Use in Poultry Feeds <p>This research was carried out to isolate and identify thermotolerant lactobacilli from broiler chicken gastrointestinal tract from Dhaka, Bangladesh. Twenty five thermotolerant Lactobacillus strains were isolated and identified as Lactobacillus species based on cultural characteristics, biochemical tests, and sugar fermentation. The probiotic are a live microbial feed supplements which positively affects the health of the host animal by improving its intestinal balance.The results showed only four among twenty five isolates were highly responded to probiotic criteria such as low pH tolerance (2.5), bile salt tolerance (2%) and sodium chloride salt tolerance (5%) in vitro, and were identified strains as Lactobacillus plantarum img-02, Lactobacillus plantarum img-08, Lactobacillus plantarum img-10 and Lactobacillus acidophilus img-14 according to Bergey’s Manual of Systematic Bacteriology. Four isolates grow enough at 45°C and two isolates (Lactobacillus plantarum img-10 and Lactobacillus acidophilus img-14) heat stable at 60°C for 30 min. All the strains were showed protease activity on skim milk agar. These strains were resistance to commercial antibiotic ciprofloxacin, gentamycin, imipenem and penicillin G but sensitive to ampicillin, doxycycline, erythromycin and tetracycline; also have antimicrobial activity against common pathogen such as ATCC of Salmonella enteritidis, Staphylococcus aureus, Listeria monocytogenes, Shigella flexneri, Bacillus cereus, Klebsiella pneumonia, Escherichia coli (environmental isolates), Aspergillus flavus and Candida albicans. This study concludes that these isolates may be used as potential candidate as probiotic poultry feed.</p> <p>Bangladesh J Microbiol, Volume 36 Number 2 December 2019, pp 63-68</p> M Mizanur Rahaman, M Nur Hossain, Nantu Chandra Das, Monzur Morshed Ahmed, M Mahfuzul Hoque ##submission.copyrightStatement## Wed, 19 Feb 2020 05:24:08 +0000 In Vitro Comparative Analysis of Antibacterial Activity of Different Fractions of Corchorus capsularis and Corchorus olitorius Leaves Extracts <p>High prevalence of antibiotic resistance is necessitating the investigation of novel antimicrobials from natural herbs and plant. So, this present study investigated two of indigenously cultivated jute plants, Corchorus capsularis (white jute)and Corchorus olitorius (tossa jute) for their antibacterial activity. Lipophilic extracts of leaves were prepared and fractionated by column chromatography resulting in 6 fractions of the extract of C. olitorius leaves (At, Bt, Ct, Dt, Et and Ft) and 11 fractions in case of white jute leaves (Aw, Bw, Cw, Dw, Ew, Fw, Gw, Hw, Iw, Jw and Kw). Each fraction of both of the leaves extracts were used to tested by agar well diffusion assay against Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli along with a control organism, E. coli DH5±. While the fractions of C. olitorius leaves showed higher antibacterial activity against S. aureus, fractions of the extract of C. capsularis leaves were more effective against E. coli. The At fraction of C. olitorius extract showed the highest inhibition zone of 19 ± 2.80 mm against S. aureus and Dw fraction of C. capsularis extract had the highest inhibition zone of 15 ± 2.3 mm against E. coli (p &lt;0.05). The extract of C. olitorius leaves showed comparatively higher antibacterial effect than that of C. capsularis leaves. Considering the promising finding regarding the antibacterial effectiveness, these fractions of the leave extract should be analyzed further to isolate the exact bioactive component to develop the lead component of new generation antibacterial drugs.</p> <p>Bangladesh J Microbiol, Volume 36 Number 2 December 2019, pp 69-73</p> Riad Raihan Abir, Mafruha Marjia, Nadira Naznin Rakhi, Otun Saha, M Anwar Hossain, M Mizanur Rahaman ##submission.copyrightStatement## Wed, 19 Feb 2020 05:25:22 +0000 Isolation and Enumeration of Escherichia coli from Soil and Water <p>Majority of the population of Bangladesh depend on tap or surface water as their source of water supply. This study was carried out to examine the microbial quality of both water and soil collected from different places using the multiple tube fermentation technique to determine coliform count by the most probable number (MPN) method in brilliant green lactose broth (BGLB) media.Inoculum from positive tubes of the presumptive test were further transferred on eosinemethylene blue (EMB) and MacConkey agar.The organisms isolated were further characterized using biochemical tests. Out of 93 water samples, 30 (32.26%) indicated the presence of lactose fermenter and gas producer in all 3 tubes of dilution series using inoculum quantities of 1.0, 0.1 and 0.01 ml, whereas out of 85 soil samples, 45 (52.94%) showed acid and gas production in all 3 tubes of dilution series.Among 85 soil samples, 40 samples that contained at least one positive in each dilution series and among 93 water samples, 31 samples that contained at least one positive in each dilution series were further re-identified with biochemical tests.This study showed 30.59% soil isolates and 26.88% water isolates were Escherichia coli which highlighted the fact that both water and soil act as a major reservoir of E.coli, which indicates possible fecal contamination as well as presence of potentially pathogenic E. coli.</p> <p>Bangladesh J Microbiol, Volume 36 Number 2 December 2019, pp 75-77</p> Anindita Bhowmik, Sunjukta Ahsan ##submission.copyrightStatement## Wed, 19 Feb 2020 05:26:28 +0000 Study of the in vitro Anti-bacterial Susceptibility of the Commercially Available Antibiotics in Suspension or Solution Forms Collected within Dhaka Metropolis <p>Consumption of a range of antibiotics upon bacterial infections is a common chemotherapeutic practice. Current study attempted to detect the in vitro anti-bacterial activities of such finished medicaments against some of the selected bacterial strains in order to examine their sustainable effectiveness against microorganisms. A total of six categories of samples were randomly collected from different pharmacies within the city of Dhaka. The antibacterial susceptibility tests were conducted employing the Kirby-Bauer (agar well diffusion) method. The test bacterial strains used in this study were Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus cereus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and P. putida and P. fluorescence. While E. coli was found to be sensitive towards all the antibiotics used, others showed resistance to a significant extent. flucloxacillin, cephradine and salbutamol were noticed to be completely inactive against Pseudomonas species. Besides, the salbutamol was found only to suppress the growth of E. coli but the other five test organisms were completely resistant against this antibiotic solution.</p> <p>Bangladesh J Microbiol, Volume 36 Number 2 December 2019, pp 79-83</p> Asma Akter Bhuiyan, Mehran Mosharraff Hossain Niloy, Anamika Chakrabarty, Syeda Muntaka Maniha, Rashed Noor ##submission.copyrightStatement## Wed, 19 Feb 2020 05:27:04 +0000 Isolation and Identification of Gram-Negative Bacteria from Oral Cancer Site Infections and Study of Their Antibiotic Resistance Pattern <p>Cancer is one of the non-communicable lethal diseases which affects millions of people worldwide and is responsible for the majority of global deaths. Among the types of cancers occurring in humans, oral cancer has a higher incident rate which is significantly alarming. Oral cancer sites are associated with increased risk of metastasis, along with making the cancer site susceptible to infection by a vast number of opportunistic pathogens. Gram-negative opportunistic bacilli can dwell in these cancer ulcer sites since the patient becomes immune compressed due to radiotherapy and chemotherapy treatments, which prolong the infection. The present study was undertaken to find the most prevalent gram-negative bacilli in oral cavity cancer sites. Swab samples from 50 oral cancer patients were taken to check the presence of the opportunistic organisms. While the control group was set with people with no cancer, only 4 bacteria were isolated from 40 healthy volunteers. Among the isolates from both test group and control group, the most prevalent organism was Klebsiella species 37(45%), followed by Pseudomonas species 29 (34.5%) and Proteus species 8(9.5%). The least prevalent was Escherichia coli 5(6%). The isolates were all taken for antibiotic sensitivity testing (AST) against 15 antibiotics from 11 different groups used in hospitals. Results of the AST were as follows: 100% of the isolates from cancer patients were resistant to vancomycin, clindamycin, amoxicillin, penicillin G, and metronidazole. It was followed by azithromycin, where 86.25% of the isolates were resistant to it. The least resistance was seen against aminoglycoside antibiotic group, amikacin (6.25%), then gentamicin having a resistance percentage of 7.5. A substantial amount of qualitative data on medical history, clinical examination, and treatment, etc. was documented and presented in this study.</p> <p>Bangladesh J Microbiol, Volume 36 Number 2 December 2019, pp 85-90</p> Samiha Ashreen, Akash Ahmed, Nadimul Hasan, Waheed Akhtar, M Mahboob Hossain ##submission.copyrightStatement## Wed, 19 Feb 2020 05:29:08 +0000 Characterization of ctx gene Negative Vibrio fluvialis Organisms Isolated from the Environment <p>A total of five Vibrio fluvialis organisms were isolated from the different environmental samples collected from Dhaka, Satkhira and Khulna. All these isolates were confirmed following API 20NE tests. Molecular analysis showed the absence of ctx, toxR, tdh, trh, stx1, and stx2 genes in these organisms. However, culture filtrates and crude proteins prepared from these organisms showed fluid accumulation in rabbit ileal loop assay, haemolysis of sheep red blood cess, rounding of BHK-21, HeLa and MDCK cells in cell culture assay, hind limb paralysis and death of mice in mice lethality assay and morphological changes in mouse neuronal cell assay. All these results indicated that the environmental V. fluvialis organisms, may not contain different virulence genes, including the ctx gene. However, the other in vivo and in vitro assays indicate that the toxins produced by the V. fluvialis organisms may contain enterotoxin, haemolysin, cytotoxin and neurotoxin.</p> <p>Bangladesh J Microbiol, Volume 36 Number 2 December 2019, pp 91-97</p> Juthi Biswas, Tahsina Jainab, Mahmud Hossain, Mahmuda Yasmin, Jamalun Nessa, Chowdhury Rafiqul Ahsan ##submission.copyrightStatement## Wed, 19 Feb 2020 05:31:00 +0000 Prevalence of Disease and Antibiotic Sensitivity Profile of Hospital Associated Pathogens: A study on a local diagnostic Centre in Dhaka city <p>Different types of diseases inflict the inhabitants of Dhaka city from time to time. The focus of this study was to investigate disease prevalence, etiology and antibiotic sensitivity profiles reported at a local diagnostic service in Dhaka, Bangladesh. Pathogens were transported from a renowned local diagnostic centre in Dhaka city in Trypticase Soy broth (TSB) to the laboratory. Antibiogram was performed by Kirby Bauer disc diffusion assay. A total of 110 samples (20% blood (n = 22), 60.9% urine (n = 67), 13.64% pus (n =15), 3.64% sputum (n = 4) and 1.82% wound swab samples (n = 2) were collected for further investigation. Of the patients, 30% were male and 70% were female. In case of blood samples from diarrheal patients, Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi (72.7%) and S. enterica serovars Paratyphi (27.2%) were predominant. Both serovars were sensitive to Cefixime, Ceftriaxone and Gentamicin and resistant to Nalidixic acid. E. coli (91%) was the predominant pathogen in Urinary Tract Infection (UTI) patients followed by Klebsiella spp. (8.9%). E. coli exhibited resistance to Cephalosporins and Ciprofloxacin whereas Klebsiella spp. were, however, sensitive to these antibiotics. Both species showed resistance against Amoxicillin and sensitivity to Imipenem, Merpenem and Colistin. In pus samples, S. aureus (46.7%) prevailed followed by Klebsiella spp. (26.7%) and E. coli (26.7%) spp. All S. aureus isolates were sensitive to Fusidic acid, Vancomycin, Linezolid and Piperacillin and 50% were sensitive to Cephalosporins and Ciprofloxacin and resistant to Amoxycillin and Azithromycin. E. coli and Klebsiella spp. from pus samples could be inhibited by Carbapenem. As with UTI isolates, E. coli from pus were resistant to Cephalosporins, Ciprofloxacin and Amoxicillin whereas 66% Klebsiella spp. were sensitive to the first two. A total of 66% of E. coli and Klebsiella spp. showed sensitivity to Gentamicin and Amikacin. It was observed that there was a similarity in the antibiotic sensitivity pattern of the same bacterial spp. isolated from different disease cases. As a general rule, it was observed that Imipenem is a good treatment option for treating E. coli and Klebsiella spp., Cephalosporins for Salmonella while a number of treatment options existed for S. aureus infections.</p> <p>Bangladesh J Microbiol, Volume 36 Number 2 December 2019, pp 99-104</p> Sharmin Ahmed, Riajul Islam, Sunjukta Ahsan ##submission.copyrightStatement## Wed, 19 Feb 2020 05:31:15 +0000 Prevalence of Transfusion Transmissible Infections (HBV, HCV, HIV and Treponema pallidum in Volunteer Blood Donors in Shirajganj District <p>Blood and its components are essential for life and often required to be transfused in critical health condition. However, such transfusion is reported to be associated with the risk of transfusion transmissible infections (TTIs) with notable pathogens e.g. Hepatitis B virus (HBV), Hepatitis C virus (HCV), Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and Treponema pallidum. These pathogens are of major public health concern especially in developing countries like Bangladesh. Increase in the number of TTIs is found to be associated with improper management of safe blood transfusion protocol (SBTP) and unethical practices. This study focuses on the prevalence of such TTIs in volunteers’ blood collected between October and December 2018 from Sakhawath Memorial and Avicina Hospitals in Shirajgong district. Prevalence rate of HIV, HBsAg, HCV and Treponema pallidum were 1.2%, 6.8%, 0.8% and 1.6%, respectively. Among the infected individuals, 75% HIV positive cases were professionals, 70% HCV infected cases wwere from other professional groups and 50% of syphilis infected were homemakers. Male donors showed higher incidence rate of HBV (65%), HCV (72%) and HIV (85%) compared to the female donors. Although the findings of the study showed prevalence of TTIs in volunteer blood donors (VBDs) at an alarming rate, most of the infected individuals were not aware of their infections and potential risk of transmission from them. It is necessary to create awareness among blood donors about possible causes of transmission and prevention of infection . Such initiative from both governmental and non-governmental organizations can help reduce TTIs among VBDs.</p> <p>Bangladesh J Microbiol, Volume 36 Number 2 December 2019, pp 105-109</p> Md Mahmudul Hasan, Tahmina Shammi, Md Shahidul Kabir ##submission.copyrightStatement## Wed, 19 Feb 2020 05:31:28 +0000 Effectiveness of Antibiotics: Anti-Bacterial Activity or Microbial Drug Resistance? <p>Antibiotics, both broad- and narrow spectrum, are widely used for treatment of specific infection by a consortium of microorganisms or by a single pathogen, respectively. Oral or intravenous, or even topical administration of different categories of antibiotics in various forms is a common practice round the globe. Yet for the recent years a major public health issue has been raised by the emergence of the drug-resistance microorganisms. A number of researches focused on the issue of the ineffectiveness of antibiotics as well as regarding the evolution of the drugresistance genes within the pathogenic microorganisms. Isolation of the drug-resistant microorganisms including the multi-drug resistant (MDR) and the extensively drug resistant (XDR) bacteria from a range of patients with microbiological infections has been seriously challenging the disease mitigation approaches. Besides, the dominance of the methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), vancomycin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (VRSA), etc. are quite frequent as evident from different case studies. Current review focused on the origin and evolution of such drug-resistance incidences, and the promising remedies over the problems of drug-resistance.</p> <p>Bangladesh J Microbiol, Volume 36 Number 2 December 2019, pp 111-114</p> Rashed Noor, Syeda Muntaka Maniha, Taskina Murshed, M Majibur Rahman ##submission.copyrightStatement## Wed, 19 Feb 2020 05:31:35 +0000 Microbiological Quality Analysis of Popular Fluids and Drinks Sold in Bashundhara Residential Area, Dhaka <p>The mass public health principally depends on types and qualities of a range of food items in any neighborhood. In this very study the microbiological analysis of the most sold bottled waters, fruit juices and dairy fluids consumed by the maximum children, carbonated soft drinks and the energy drinks especially consumed by young people was conducted with the simple isolation approach following the traditional microbiological methodology. Presence of Staphylococcus spp. was detected in 50% samples the results for the presence of enteric bacteria; fecal coliforms and Vibrio spp. were completely negative. On the basis of the quantification of total bacteria and of the staphylococcal species, more emphasis on the good manufacturing practice (GMP) as well as on the market complaints is suggested.</p> <p>Bangladesh J Microbiol, Volume 36 Number 2 December 2019, pp 115-117</p> Tasmin Tabassum, Tahsin Tabassum, Asma Akter Bhuiyan, Mehran Mosharraff Hossain Niloy, Syeda Muntaka Maniha, Rashed Noor ##submission.copyrightStatement## Wed, 19 Feb 2020 05:31:43 +0000