Bangladesh Journal of Microbiology <p>The official journal of the Bangladesh Society of Microbiologists. Full text articles available</p> Bangladesh Society of Microbiologists en-US Bangladesh Journal of Microbiology 1011-9981 Plant Growth Promoting (PGP) Activities of Rhizobial Isolates from Sesbania bispinosa in Response to Pesticides <p>The aim of this study was to investigate the impact of some pesticides on the plant growth promoting activities of Rhizobium spp. isolated from Sesbania bispinosa. Sustainability and environmental safety of agricultural production relies on eco-friendly approaches like use of biofertilizers, biopesticides and crop residue return. The plant growth promoters (PGP) emphasize the need for further strengthening the research and their use in modern agriculture. PGPs inhabit the rhizosphere for nutrients from plant root exudates. On return, they help to increase plant growth through soil nutrient enrichment by nitrogen fixation, phosphate solubilization, siderophore and phytohormone production, etc. Using pesticide/insecticide in the field may protect the plants from undesirable organisms, however, if accumulated in the habitat may adversely affect the growth and development of non-target lives like the rhizobacteria. The present study was performed to demonstrate the influence of pesticides on plant growth promoting activities of rhizobial isolates from Sesbania bispinosa known as green manure among farmers of Bangladesh. It was observed that two pesticides/insecticides (Imitaf 20SL and Tilt 250EC) in vitro shows variable effect on the plant growth promoting activities of the rhizobial isolates.</p> <p>Bangladesh J Microbiol, Volume 38, Number 2, December 2021, pp 31-37</p> Moumita Chakrabarty Farhad Hossen Anowara Begum Humaira Akhter Copyright (c) 2021 Bangladesh Journal of Microbiology 2022-02-06 2022-02-06 38 2 31 37 10.3329/bjm.v38i2.58090 Prevalence and Genetic Diversity of Escherichia coli Isolated from Sewage Samples of Hospitals in Different Regions of Bangladesh <p>Escherichia coli are a large and diverse group of bacteria found in the environment, foods and intestines of humans and animals. This study was carried out to observe the genotypic variations in E. coli found at different regions in Bangladesh using Amplified Ribosomal DNA Restriction Analysis (ARDRA) of the 16S rDNA and RAPD (Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA). Sewage samples were collected from different medical college hospitals and a total of 118 samples were observed in this study of which 26 were identified as E. coli based on their cultural, biochemical and molecular characteristics. Antibiotic susceptibility test was carried out where most isolates were resistant to Amoxicillin, Rifampicin and Erythromycin; and some were resistant to kanamycin, ceftriaxone, Chloramphenicol and Azithromycin; besides 73% (N=19 out of 26) of the test isolates were multi-drug resistant. Results of Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) showed that none of the isolates carried Stx1, Stx2 and LT gene. Two genotypic groups were found from Amplified Ribosomal DNA Restriction Analysis (ARDRA) by Alu1 restriction enzyme and seven different Random Amplification of Polymorphic DNA (RAPD) patterns were found. After analyzing, it was found that 24 out of 26 isolates showed similarity with Escherichia coli strain NBRC 102203 and the remaining two isolates showed similarity with Escherichia coli strain Mui T5 based on the restriction patterns of ARDRA and sequences of 16S rDNA. From the study, it was concluded that Escherichia coli strain NBRC 102203 was more prevalent than Escherichia coli strain Mui T5 isolated from sewage sample of hospitals from different regions of Bangladesh.</p> <p>Bangladesh J Microbiol, Volume 38, Number 2, December 2021, pp 39-44</p> Md Rasel Mahmud Tusher Al Arafat Md Tauhidul Islam Tanim Md Mizanur Rahaman Sabita Rezwana Rahman Md Majibur Rahman Copyright (c) 2021 Bangladesh Journal of Microbiology 2022-02-06 2022-02-06 38 2 39 44 10.3329/bjm.v38i2.58091 Death Profiling of Hospitalized Patients with COVID-19: Experience from a Specialized Hospital in Bangladesh <p>The information on characteristics and causes of mortality in deceased patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is scarce in the literature. This study is aimed to document the clinical profile with causes of death in deceased patients admitted to a COVID-19 dedicated hospital in Dhaka, Bangladesh. This cross-sectional retrospective study included 108 RT-PCR confirmed COVID-19 associated deceased patients admitted in Kurmitola general hospital, Dhaka, Bangladesh, between 25 March 2020 and 24 June 2020) Data were collected from hospital records. Causes of death were categorized into early-death and late-death, with a cut-off of 48 hours of hospitalization. Among 809 hospitalized cases of COVID-19, 108 patients died (13.35%) over three months of the study period. The median age of the deceased patients was 60.0 (50.0, 70.0) years; 86.1% were male. About 85% had at least one comorbidity with diabetes mellitus (65.7%) was the most common one. The most common symptoms were breathlessness (88.0%), fever (65.7%) and cough (43.5%). Nearly 75% presented with severe disease. Patients had altered biochemical profiles and were treated with different drugs, including antibiotics and steroids. Young age and undernutrition were two characteristic features. Only one-third got intensive care support. The most common cause of death was acute respiratory distress syndrome (95.37%). Septic shock and acute myocardial infarction were predominant among early death cases, and uremia, hepatic failure, and hyperglycemic crisis were the predominant causes of late hospital death. The findings of this study will help clinicians and policymakers to take the necessary steps to prevent deaths from COVID-19 in the Bangladeshi population.</p> <p>Bangladesh J Microbiol, Volume 38, Number 2, December 2021, pp 45-49</p> Md Shahed Morshed Abdullah Al Mosabbir Mohammad Sorowar Hossain Copyright (c) 2021 Bangladesh Journal of Microbiology 2022-02-06 2022-02-06 38 2 45 49 10.3329/bjm.v38i2.58102 Microbial Safety, Visual Quality and Consumers’ Perception of Minimally- Processed Ready-to-eat Salad Vegetables Prepared and Stored at Room and Refrigeration Temperature <p>Raw salad vegetables are evaluated for the consumer’s perceptions on taking ready to eat fresh cut-vegetables and the effectiveness of some non-chlorine disinfectants [peracetic acid (PAA), shell powder (SP) and hydrogen peroxide (H<sub>2</sub>O<sub>2</sub>)] in improving the microbial safety, quality and shelf life of ready to eat fresh-cut vegetables (lettuce, carrot and cucumber) at ambient and refrigeration temperature. Consumer’s perception study results identified three clusters of consumers, whose preferences are related to purchasing styles and socio-demographic variables.The overall positive attitude of consumers was evident towards convenience, taste and appearance, but safety and health benefit attributes get importance while buying the ready to eat fresh-cut vegetables.The microbiological and visual observation result demonstrated that, all the non-chlorine sanitizers used were able to decrease the bacterial population in fresh-cut vegetables initially; however, microbial population increases or remain constant or decrease depending on the types of vegetables, storage temperature and duration. In addition, among the wash-sanitizers, PAA and H<sub>2</sub>O<sub>2</sub> showed better microbial reduction for fresh-cut lettuce, and cucumber, and SP showed better microbial reduction for fresh-cut carrot. Irrespective of sanitizer treatment refrigerated storage showed better visual quality, microbial safety and shelf life of fresh-cut produce. Therefore, this study results suggested that washing fresh-cut vegetables with produce specific sanitizer and stored at refrigerated temperature keep the quality of fresh-cut produce better compared to ambient storage.</p> <p>Bangladesh J Microbiol, Volume 38, Number 2, December 2021, pp 51-62</p> Md Nazim Uddin Sharmin Zaman Ashfaq Aziz Kazutaka Yamamoto Yohiko Nakaura Md Latiful Bari Copyright (c) 2021 Bangladesh Journal of Microbiology 2022-02-06 2022-02-06 38 2 51 62 10.3329/bjm.v38i2.58103 Two Novel Thermotolerant Methane Oxidizers from a Tropical Natural Gas Field in Bangladesh <p>Aerobic thermotolerant methane oxidizers utilize methane as a sole carbon and energy source, and predominantly they are associated with the phylum Proteobacteria. Here we present two further new strains (HGS-45: coccusshaped and HGF-47: rod-shaped and vibrioid) of thermotolerant obligate proteobacterial methanotrophic bacteria, which were isolated from an abandoned tropical natural gas field wet soil sample in the northeast of Bangladesh. Strains are Gram-negative, nonmotile, and capable of growth on methane and methanol as their energy sources. Isolates are thermotolerant and could grow up to 52<sup>o</sup>C, optimally at 42<sup>o</sup>C, but show no growth at 55 or 15<sup>o</sup>C. Based on 16S rRNA gene sequence analyses and phylogenetically, HGS-45 is most closely related to the obligate Type Ib methanotroph Methylococcus capsulatus of the family Methylococcaceae, whereas HGF-47 is affiliated to Type IIa methanotroph Methylocystis sp. of the family Methylocystaceae and possesses Type II intracytoplasmic membrane (ICM) systems. Genes of particulate methane monooxygenase (pMMO) and the methanol dehydrogenase (MDH) were detected by PCR. Southern-blot analyses of genomic DNA from both strains were positive, implying the aerobic biological oxidation process from methane to methanol by the pMMO. Each strain presumably represents a novel species. Furthermore, both strains will increase our knowledge of thermotolerant methanotrophic proteobacterial diversity, cohabitation, and their participation to global carbon cycles as well as signifying biological methane sinks in the terrestrial natural gas field ecosystems.</p> <p>Bangladesh J Microbiol, Volume 38, Number 2, December 2021, pp 63-71</p> Tajul Islam Maqsud Hossain Naushin Tabassum Mahir Amer Haque Hasan Mahmud Reza Lise Øvreås Copyright (c) 2021 Bangladesh Journal of Microbiology 2022-02-06 2022-02-06 38 2 63 71 10.3329/bjm.v38i2.58104 Comparison of toxicities between Vibrio fluvialis and Vibrio furnissii strains isolated from environmental samples <p>Gastrointestinal episodes associated with Vibrio species have been rising worldwide in the last few years. In this study, toxicities of two very well characterized V. fluvialis and V. furnissii strains, isolated from environmental samples, were used to investigate the comparative pathogenicity of these strains. The results showed that there is a positive relationship between toxin production as well as a high interspecies correlation. In the analysis of toxicity, both species showed positive results with close similarity in cell death on BHK-21 cell line and destruction of RBC, which were indicative of cytotoxic and hemolytic activity, respectively. Besides, molecular analysis showed the absence of ctx, tdh, trh, stx1 and stx2 genes. On the other hand, reduced fluid accumulation ratio in rabbit ileal loop assay and paralysis of hind legs of Swiss Albino mice were observed for V. furnissi strain, which indicates the differences in pathogenicity between the two species.</p> <p>Bangladesh J Microbiol, Volume 38, Number 2, December 2021, pp 73-77</p> Tahsina Jainab Sayeema Hasan Mohammed Abul Manchur Mahmuda Yasmin Jamalun Nessa Chowdhury Rafiqul Ahsan Copyright (c) 2021 Bangladesh Journal of Microbiology 2022-02-06 2022-02-06 38 2 73 77 10.3329/bjm.v38i2.58105 Seroepidemiology of Chikungunya Fever in Dhaka, Bangladesh: A Crosssectional Study <p>Chikungunya fever (CHIKF) is a mosquito-borne febrile illness caused by the Chikungunya virus (CHIKV). Bangladesh has documented several outbreaks of CHIKF since it was first reported in 2008. The latest CHIKF outbreak occurred in the Dhaka in 2017. In this study, a serosurvey of the 2017 outbreak was conducted during its peak. The study involved the assessment of CHIKV immunoreactions among participants suffering from CHIKF related symptoms. One hundred blood samples were collected from patients suffering from CHIKF-associated symptoms and were subsequently tested for the presence of anti-CHIKV IgM and/or IgG antibodies. Data based on clinical symptoms and the demographics of the participants were recorded and analyzed. Seventy-four percent of the studied patients (n = 100) possessed anti-CHIKV antibodies. Among this seropositive group (n = 74), almost 62% contained anti-CHIKV IgM and IgG antibodies, whereas 10% contained only anti-CHIKV IgM antibodies indicating recent infection. Anti-CHIKV IgG antibodies were found in 28% of patients. Among the symptoms examined, polyarthralgia showed a highly significant relationship (P &lt; 0.001), whereas high fever and the presence of rash demonstrated a significant association with CHIKV seropositivity (P &lt; 0.05). Discoveries made on this research can better help public health officials to gain a comprehensive insight into the seroepidemiology of the condition based in the city and maintain constant vigilance against any future outbreak.</p> <p>Bangladesh J Microbiol, Volume 38, Number 2, December 2021, pp 79-85</p> Abiral Hasib Shourav M Murshida Mahbub Mahmuda Yasmin Chowdhury Rafiqul Ahsan Jamalun Nessa Copyright (c) 2021 Bangladesh Journal of Microbiology 2022-02-06 2022-02-06 38 2 79 85 10.3329/bjm.v38i2.58106