Bangladesh Journal of Microbiology Full text articles available Bangladesh Society of Microbiologists en-US Bangladesh Journal of Microbiology 1011-9981 Assessment of microbiological quality and safety of fermented and non-fermented Khmer Rice Noodles in Cambodia <p>Fermented and non-fermented Khmer rice noodles is produced basically from <em>indica </em>rice, a popular food item and most important nutrition sources along with an integral part of rural household’s food security of Cambodian population. This study was done to evaluate the microbiological quality of fermented and non-fermented Khmer rice noodle samples sold throughout the country. In total, 75 Khmer rice noodle samples, (23 fermented and 52 nonfermented) were collected from five local varieties (<em>Nom-Banhchok</em>, <em>Nom-Banhhoy</em>, <em>Koyteavkat</em>, <em>Lotchhar </em>and <em>Koyteav</em>) and three locations (Kandal province, Siem Reap province and Phnom Penh city) of Cambodia. The study results showed that irrespective of sample location, all the fermented and non-fermented rice noodle samples analyzed were either contaminated with faecal origin bacteria (<em>Enterococcus </em>spp., and coliform), or faecal indicator bacteria including <em>Escherichia coli </em>and pathogenic bacteria including, <em>Staphylococcus </em>spp., and <em>Bacillus </em>spp. Of the fermented rice noodles about 74% and 98% of non-fermented rice noodles was found contaminated with all the above mentioned bacteria. In addition, 30% samples were found contaminated with <em>Klebsiella pneumonia spp</em>. Furthermore, among the <em>Staphylococcus aureus </em>isolates, three isolates TM-K5-3, OM-L4 and DM-KK3-2 was seen producing protein A (aggregated polysaccharide specific immune latex strongly), positive clumping factor production and harbored type six coagulase gene and among the <em>B. cereus </em>strains, 12 <em>B. cereus, </em>isolates was seen produced enterotoxin, which may cause severe diarrhea and one <em>B. cereus (DM-NB1) </em>isolate was found harbored CRS gene, which may produce emetic toxin, unsafe for human consumption. Therefore, strong regulatory monitoring should be established in order to improve the quality of food to ensure public health.</p> <p>Bangladesh J Microbiol, Volume 35 Number 2 December 2018, pp 82-88</p> Ek Sopheap Yasuhiro Inatsu Sharmin Zaman Borarin Buntong ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2019-08-18 2019-08-18 35 2 82 88 10.3329/bjm.v35i2.42634 Isolation and Identification of Pesticides Degrading Bacteria from Farmland Soil <p>Pesticides are recognized to be the threat to the environment and associated with a wide range of serious diseases including respiratory diseases, cancer and even birth defects. In this study, six-different bacterial strains capable of degrading Carbofuran, Emamectin Benzoate and Thiamethoxam were isolated from eight different soil samples. The isolates were characterized by using different conventional and molecular methods. The strains were identified molecularly into different genotypes using amplified ribosomal DNA restriction analysis (ARDRA) and partial sequencing of 16S rDNA. The ARDRA pattern clustered them into 3 groups. Among the isolates three were identified as <em>Achromobacter </em>spp. and one as <em>Diaphorobacter </em>sp. by biochemical tests. It was further confirmed by the partial 16S rDNA sequencing. The two identified potential bacteria can be used for biodegradation of different pesticides which can have a significant environmental impact in soil farm.</p> <p>Bangladesh J Microbiol, Volume 35 Number 2 December 2018, pp 90-94</p> Md Atikur Rahman ASM Shamsul Arefin Otun Saha Md Mizanur Rahaman ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2019-08-18 2019-08-18 35 2 90 94 10.3329/bjm.v35i2.42635 Effect of Washing on Reducing Bacterial Loads in Common Vegetables Sold in Dhaka City <p>Vegetables and fruits can be contaminated with microorganisms from different sources during production and processing. Quality of vegetables usually relies on the quality of processing water and sanitizers used to reduce microbial load and increase shelf-life of vegetables. The present study demonstrates the role of washing on reducing bacterial loads in common vegetables sold in Dhaka city. A total of seventy two samples comprising of eighteen types of fresh vegetables were collected. Total heterotrophic bacteria, coliforms and <em>Enterobacteriaceae </em>were determined in 72 samples including potato, tomato, carrot, cucumber, green chilli, bean, eggplant, cauliflower, turnip, radish, capsicum, pumpkin, cabbage, gourd, papaya, bitter gourd, snake gourd and ridge gourd before and after washing with tap and filtered water, halotab water, bleaching powder (0.2%) solution and bleaching powder (0.2%) with citric acid (0.1%) for 10 minutes. Tap water, filtered water, bleaching powder (0.2%), halotab solution and bleaching powder (0.2%) + citric acid (0.1%) solutions were found to be effective and significantly reduced the bacterial loads in vegetables compared to the unwashed vegetables (P&lt;0.01). Effect of washing vegetables using tap and filtered water were found to reduce load of total viable bacteria to 0.85-2.05 log10cfu/g and 2.38-3.36 log<sub>10</sub>cfu/g, respectively compared to those of unwashed samples. The efficiency of washing for reducing the bacterial load depends on the quality of washing water used and the types of disinfectant solutions used. An appropriate washing technique can significantly reduce the bio burden in contaminated vegetables and may reduce the risk of foodborne infections associated with the consumption of vegetables.</p> <p>Bangladesh J Microbiol, Volume 35 Number 2 December 2018, pp 96-101</p> Ashish Kumar Das Zinia Sultana Ahamed Kabir Md Shahidul Kabir ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2019-08-18 2019-08-18 35 2 96 101 10.3329/bjm.v35i2.42637 Potential Drug Target Identification of Legionella pneumophila by Subtractive Genome Analysis: An In Silico Approach <p>Though <em>Legionella pneumophila </em>is an opportunistic pathogen, recent reports about multi drug resistance in <em>L. pneumophila </em>is alarming. Annotated whole genome provides a pool of information which is applied for therapeutic drug targets identification in pathogenic bacteria. Subtractive genomic analysis is a pragmatic approach to screen the essential proteins present in pathogen but absent in host. Phylogenetically closely related <em>L. pneumophila </em>str. Philadelphia and <em>L. pneumophila </em>str. ATCC43209 protein profiles were analyzed to identify putative drug targets. Paralogous duplicate profiles were primarily discarded using CD-hit suit. Six hundred and ninety one <em>L. pneumophila </em>str. Philadelphia and 690 <em>L. pneumophila </em>str. ATCC43209 human homologous proteins were excluded using blstP. Among the human non-homologous proteins, the essential proteins for bacteria were separated using DEG tool. For both strains, one hundred and nineteen essential proteins were marked which participate in various metabolic pathways. Among them 11 unique proteins were found. Beside it, 15 and 16 exposed surface proteins were present in strain Philadelphia and ATCC43209 respectively. These unique and cell surface proteins can be utilized for effective drug and vaccine targets.</p> <p>Bangladesh J Microbiol, Volume 35 Number 2 December 2018, pp 102-107</p> Md Sadikur Rahman Shuvo Shahriar Kabir Shakil Firoz Ahmed ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2019-08-18 2019-08-18 35 2 102 107 10.3329/bjm.v35i2.42638 Influence of multi-species biofilm formed in vitro from different environmental samples on the drug-resistance traits of resident bacteria <p>Present study was designed to investigate whether the formation of multi-species biofilm impart any effect on the enhancement of the antibiotic resistance of the planktonic cells residing in the general nutrient enriched environments. In this regard, surface water of pond, mud from agricultural field, pharmaceutical waste waters, municipal waste water, hospital waste water and the domestic waste samples were collected and were induced to form an <em>in vitro </em>multi-species biofilm. All samples were found to contain huge array of pathogenic bacteria. The pathogenic isolates both from the bulk samples and their corresponding biofilms were subjected to antibiogram assay using 13 commonly used antibiotics. An extended frequency of drug resistance was observed in case of biofilm isolates. The findings of present study revealed that a number of bacterial isolates which showed sensitivity towards antibiotics, acquired drug-resistance when they were isolated from biofilms.</p> <p>Bangladesh J Microbiol, Volume 35 Number 2 December 2018, pp 108-114</p> Saurab Kishore Munshi Tamanna Haque Rashed Noor ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2019-08-18 2019-08-18 35 2 108 114 10.3329/bjm.v35i2.42639 Seasonal variation of bacterial load in river and lake waters of Dhaka city, Bangladesh <p>Surface water is often contaminated due to human excreta and urban and industrial pollution. The increased population growth and industrialization are likely to exacerbate the situation. Microbiological analysis of waters from rivers (Turag and Buriganga) and lakes (Banani and Dhanmondi) around Dhaka city were conducted for Spring, Monsoon and Fall seasons of the year, 2016 and 2017. Total Viable Count (TVC), Total Coliform Count (TCC), Total Fecal Coliform Count (TFCC) and Total Salmonella Shigella Count (TSSC) were conducted to obtain bacterial load in both enriched and without enrichment water samples. All the Isolates were identified by microscopy, cultural characteristics and biochemical methods. Most of the water reservoirs have a decline in the bacterial load in monsoon where the microbial load of pathogens is highest during spring. Without enrichment, <em>E. coli, Enterobacter </em>sp.<em>, Klebsiella </em>sp. and <em>S. aureus </em>were abundant, where others like <em>Shigella </em>sp., <em>Proteus </em>sp., <em>Serratia </em>sp., <em>Pseudomonas </em>sp., <em>Acinetobacter </em>sp., and <em>Alcaligenes faecalis </em>mostly exhibited growth following enrichment. Results indicate that pathogenic environmental isolates can cause serious health issue if water is left untreated or poorly treated from reservoirs within and around Dhaka city.</p> <p>Bangladesh J Microbiol, Volume 35 Number 2 December 2018, pp 116-121</p> Md Suprio Sadat Sikdar Maruf Abony Tamanna Zerin Avijit Banik Suvamoy Datta ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2019-08-18 2019-08-18 35 2 116 121 10.3329/bjm.v35i2.42640 Microbiological safety of commonly available eye ointments and their in-vitro anti-bacterial potency <p>Current study attempted to check out the microbiological quality of some common sterile ointment commonly implemented for the treatment of eye infections in Bangladesh. Seventeen (17) different eye ointment (T-Mycin, Aprocin, Bactin, Optimox and Cloram, Hypomer gel, Sonexa, Polytracin, Cero, Aristobet, Lotepred, Herpigel, Gentob, Xoviral, Zirgan, Xovir, Tomycin, Tobirax, AFm-plus and Parafresh) were microbiologically examined through common and traditional cultural methods. Total viable bacterial and fungal contamination was found up to 10<sup>6</sup> and 10<sup>5</sup> cfu/ml respectively. Among the 17 samples T-Mycin, Aprocin, Sonexa, Polytracinand Tomycinwere free from fungal contamination. All the samples significantly exceeded United States Pharmacopeia (USP) or British Pharmacopeia (BP) limit (&lt;10<sup>2</sup> cfu/ml) in case of Total viable bacteria and fungus contamination. While the coliforms (<em>Escherichia coli </em>and <em>Klebsheilla </em>spp.) were absent in all samples, the prevalence of <em>Staphylococcus </em>spp. was 100% in all samples up to 10<sup>3</sup> while the <em>Bacillus </em>spp. was found up to 10<sup>2</sup> cfu/ml. Pseudomonas spp. was cultivated in TMycin, Aprocin Hypomer gel, Sonexa, Polytracin, Cero, Aristobet and Lotepred up to 10<sup>3</sup>cfu/ml. All the 5 drugs showed their antibacterial potency with satisfactory range of zone diameter against<em>E. coli</em>, <em>Pseudomonas </em>spp., <em>Staphylococcus </em>spp., <em>Klebsheilla </em>spp. and <em>Bacillus </em>spp. In case of all 17 ointments the average zone diameter range was noticed within 13mm-22mm. The highest zone diameter (22mm) was recorded against <em>E. coli </em>produced by Aprocin and minimum zone diameter (13mm) was recorded against <em>Bacillus spp</em>. produced by Bactin, Optimox and Cloram.Gentamicin and Streptomycin were used as positive control against the tested bacteria.</p> <p>Bangladesh J Microbiol, Volume 35 Number 2 December 2018, pp 122-126</p> Mrityunjoy Acharjee Rakhi Baishnaib Rashed Noor ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2019-08-18 2019-08-18 35 2 122 126 10.3329/bjm.v35i2.42641 The Microbiological Quality of Commercial Fruit Juices-Current perspectives <p>The purpose of this review article is to introduce the importance of fruit juices for human health living in the country and in a broad, and to develop awareness among the people about the diseases caused by pathogens associated with fruit juice. Health benefits of juices have been included in this article and how the same juice can cause problems among people of different ages have been discussed. Contamination sources and the ways to prevent them is very important issue in protecting public health Some future recommendations for fruit juices have also been added in this article. Different diseases caused by various microbial agents and the associated symptoms after consuming contaminated fruit juices worldwide are discussed in this review. This review was aimed at the possible sources of microbial contamination, disease caused by them and determining some ways to avoid such phenomena. From the information provided here, it was noticeable that commercial fruit juice can also harbor pathogenic microorganisms which can cause serious disease outbreaks. The contamination can also be initiated during in house consumption if lack of awareness prevails among the consumers. Manufacturing process should be much more strict in this regard to assure the public health safety. Commercially available fruit juices are consumed worldwide among different ages of people and if not processed properly, this healthy drink may be hazardous for human health.</p> <p>Bangladesh J Microbiol, Volume 35 Number 2 December 2018, pp 128-133</p> Tasnia Ahmed Kamal Kanta Das Md Aftab Uddin ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2019-08-18 2019-08-18 35 2 128 133 10.3329/bjm.v35i2.42643 Drug Resistance Associated with Blood Borne Bacteria in Dhaka Metropolis <p>Blood borne infections are easy to contract during hospital procedures and can easily be transferred to other personnel in a healthcare setting. Bacteremia has become a common incidence and treatment is by administration of antibiotics. But this is not a simple task any more, since the pathogenic bacteria causing bacteremia are becoming resistant to a wide range of antibiotics. Blood samples were collected from outdoor patients seeking laboratory tests in Dhaka city. Blood samples were inoculated onto blood agar medium and after incubation for 37oC for 24 hours, bacterial isolates were identified and subjected to antibiotic susceptibility test by following the Kirby-Bauer method. The current present study deals with 100 patients of bacteremia from whom 150 isolates of 15 different bacterial genera have been collected among which the most prominent bacteria were <em>Staphylococcus </em>spp<em>. </em>(51 isolates), <em>Pseudomonas </em>spp. (19 isolates) and <em>Escherichia </em>spp<em>. </em>(19 isolates)<em>. </em>After the antibiotic susceptibility test it was found that all isolates were resistant to a number of commonly used antibiotics. Twenty eight different antibiotics were used for this study. All isolates showed resistance to CAR, ATM, TOB, CXM, FD, CL, CAZ, AMC. NET and CN showed the most effective results (can effectively clear 9 and 10 types of isolates respectively found in this study). New discovery of drugs to fight these resistant pathogens is needed. In the meantime, safe administration of drugs, handling patients with appropriate protective personal clothing and apparatus, proper waste disposal managements in the hospital should be maintained strictly.</p> <p>Bangladesh J Microbiol, Volume 35 Number 2 December 2018, pp 134-140</p> Tasnia Ahmed Rajib Dey Rashed Noor ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2019-08-18 2019-08-18 35 2 134 140 10.3329/bjm.v35i2.42642