Bangladesh Journal of Microbiology https://www.banglajol.info/index.php/BJM Full text articles available Bangladesh Society of Microbiologists en-US Bangladesh Journal of Microbiology 1011-9981 Microbial Contamination and Detection of Antibacterial Activity of Syzygium aromaticum against Food Borne Pathogens https://www.banglajol.info/index.php/BJM/article/view/39796 <p>This study was undertaken to find out the presence of contaminating microorganisms in commonly available <em>Syzygium aromaticum </em>samples collected from different areas of Bangladesh and also to evaluate the antibacterial traits of these <em>Syzygium aromaticum </em>samples against food born pathogens. Total viable bacterial count (TVBC) was determined on nutrient agar and for the isolation of specific microorganisms different selective media were used. Crude, ethanol, methanol, hot water and cold water extracts of the samples were prepared for analysing their antibacterial activity using the agar well diffusion method. Furthermore, the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of the crude extracts was determined. TVBC was found between 10<sup>4</sup> to 10<sup>6</sup> cfu/g. None of these samples showed the presence of fungus. <em>Staphylococcus </em>spp. was present almost in all the samples between 10<sup>4</sup> to 10<sup>6</sup> cfu/g while <em>Bacillus </em>spp. was noticed only in one sample. <em>In vitro </em>antibacterial activity of the crude, methanolic and ethanolic extracts of the samples was found to be effective mostly against <em>Escherichia coli, Klebsiella </em>spp., <em>Listeria </em>spp., <em>Pseudomonas </em>spp. and <em>Bacillus </em>spp. On the contrary, hot water extracts of only two samples showed antibacterial property against <em>Pseudomonas </em>spp., <em>Listeria </em>spp. and <em>Klebsiella </em>spp. MIC was confirmed by using 96 well plate methods and the minimum inhibitory concentration was between 11.75 to 94 mg/ml.</p> <p>Bangladesh J Microbiol, Volume 35 Number 1 June 2018, pp 1-5</p> Jubaida Binta Jamal Tasnia Ahmed Md Aftab Uddin ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2019-01-15 2019-01-15 35 1 1 5 10.3329/bjm.v35i1.39796 Antimicrobial Efficacy and Phytochemical Analysis of Three Aquatic Plant Species in Bangladesh https://www.banglajol.info/index.php/BJM/article/view/39797 <p>Aquatic plants are generally considered as breeding grounds for mosquitoes and other harmful vectors of diseases. However, in recent years, some research has been carried out to test their significance as sources of antimicrobial lead molecules. The aim of this research was to study the phytochemical composition of local aquatic plant species and test their antimicrobial effect against selected bacterial strains. Three different aquatic plant samples were collected from a large water body near Dhaka. Ethanol and ethyl acetate extracts of the plant species: <em>Eichhornia crassipes</em>, <em>Pistia stratiotes</em>, and <em>Spirodela polyrrhiza </em>were tested against <em>Staphylococcus aureus</em>, <em>Salmonella typhi</em>, and <em>Lactobacillus </em>spp. Out of the eight different extracts, only the ethyl acetate extracts prepared from <em>Eichhornia crassipes </em>showed significant anti-microbial activity against <em>Staphylococcus aureus </em>and <em>Salmonella typhi</em>. In disk diffusion tests, zone of inhibitions of ethyl acetate extracts of <em>Eichhornia crassipes </em>leaves and stems were 8.00 ± 0.5 mm and 7.83 ± .29 mm respectively. In well diffusion tests, zone of inhibitions of ethyl acetate extracts of <em>Eichhornia crassipes </em>leaves and stems were 18.00 mm and 20.00 mm respectively. Zones of inhibition of ethyl acetate extracts of <em>Eichhornia crassipes </em>stems against <em>Staphylococcus aureus </em>were 7.67 ± 0.29 mm and 12.00 mm respectively in disk and well diffusion tests. Zone of inhibition of ethyl acetate extracts of <em>Spirodela polyrrhiza </em>was 8.17 ± 0.29 mm against <em>Staphylococcus aureus </em>in disk diffusion tests. No extracts showed any antimicrobial potential against <em>Lactobacillus</em>. Phytochemical composition analysis showed the presence of alkaloids, flavonoids, steroids, phenolics, tannins, glycosides, and cardiac glycosides in the different ethanol and ethyl acetate extracts. Tannins were absent in all extracts and saponins were absent in all ethyl acetate extracts.</p> <p>Bangladesh J Microbiol, Volume 35 Number 1 June 2018, pp 7-11</p> Jakir Hossain Abira Khan Md Aftab Uddin ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2019-01-15 2019-01-15 35 1 7 11 10.3329/bjm.v35i1.39797 Microbiological Quality of Prawns Collected from Local Markets of Dhaka Metropolis https://www.banglajol.info/index.php/BJM/article/view/39798 <p>In Bangladesh, food sold at local markets are usually not kept under hygienic conditions leading to contamination with different microorganisms and deterioration of food quality. This study was carried out to examine the microbial quality of prawns sold at local markets. Prawn samples collected from different markets were assessed for their bacteriological quality using the multiple tube fermentation technique to determine coliform count using the most probable number method in Brilliant Green Lactose Broth (BGLB) media. Positive tubes of the presumptive test were further cultured on Eosine Methylene Blue(EMB) and Mac Conkey agar media. The organisms isolated were further characterized using biochemical tests. Out of the 65 samples, 47 (72.3%) showed positive results in all 3 tubes of dilution series using inoculum quantities of 1, 0.1 and 0.01 g.Among 65 samples 57 samples that contained at least one positive in each dilution series were further re-identified with biochemical tests.This study showed 56.14%isolates were <em>Escherichia coli </em>which conformed to expected biochemical reactions, formed round, small,elevated colonies with pink pigmentation on Mac Conkey agar media and round, small colonies with metallic green sheen pigmentation on EMB agar media. Other bacteria which presumptively appeared to be enterics and were isolated from BGLB were identified as <em>Klebsiellapneumoniae</em>(29.82%),St<em>aphylococcus aureus</em>(8.7%), <em>Enterobacter aeroginosa</em>(3.5%) and <em>Salmonellatyphimurium </em>(1.75%).Presumptive identification of <em>E. coli </em>in prawn in order to determine fecal contamination was able to identify ¾ of BGLB tubes with actual occurrence of <em>E. coli</em>. From this study it has been found that 97.14% bacteria were sensitive to Co-Trimoxazole, compared to other antibiotics used in this test whereas only 37.14% bacteria were sensitive to nitrofurantoin. This study also highlighted the fact that prawns act as a major source of <em>E. coli </em>which indicates possible fecal contamination as well as presence of potentially pathogenic <em>E. coli </em>and these bacteria are resistant at a great percentage to almost all of these antibiotics used in this study. Prawns must therefore be cooked adequately before consumption.</p> <p>Bangladesh J Microbiol, Volume 35 Number 1 June 2018, pp 13-16</p> Anindita Bhowmik Sharmistha Goswami Sunjukta Ahsan ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2019-01-15 2019-01-15 35 1 13 16 10.3329/bjm.v35i1.39798 Antigenic Cross-Reactivity Between Escherichia albertii DM104 and Different Shigella spp. https://www.banglajol.info/index.php/BJM/article/view/39799 <p>Environmental <em>Escherichia albertii </em>strain DM104 has been found to induce protective immunity against <em>Shigella dysenteriae </em>in guinea pig model and intranasal immunization showed promising results in terms of antibody response and protective efficacy. For selecting a proper immunodiagnostics marker against shigellosis, the current study investigated the antigenic cross-reactivity between DM104 and four different <em>Shigella </em>spp (<em>S. dysenteriae </em>type 4, <em>S. flexneri </em>type 2a, <em>S. boydii </em>type 15 and <em>S. sonnei</em>). At least six antigenic protein bands (85, 72, 34, 30, 23 and 20 k Da) of the surface components from all these species reacted strongly with both homologous and heterologous antisera, suggesting common distribution of antigenic determinants/epitopes in these bacterial species. This experiment, thus gave a clear idea of the level of antigenic determinants/epitopes sharing and variations between the DM104 and four <em>Shigella </em>spp. Results from this study suggest that the 34, 23 and 20 k Da antigenic proteins may be incorporated as immunodiagnostic marker for the detection of different <em>Shigella </em>spp.</p> <p>Bangladesh J Microbiol, Volume 35 Number 1 June 2018, pp 17-21</p> Fatema Moni Chowdhury Sirajul Islam Khan Nils Kåre Birkeland Chowdhury Rafiqul Ahsan ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2019-01-15 2019-01-15 35 1 17 21 10.3329/bjm.v35i1.39799 Generation of Electricity Using Microbial Fuel Cell (MFC) from Sludge https://www.banglajol.info/index.php/BJM/article/view/39800 <p>Microbial fuel cell (MFC), recently, is considered as a promising alternative to traditional power sources as it can use microorganisms to transform chemical energy of organic compounds into electricity. In future, microbial production of electricity may become an important form of bioenergy because electricity extraction is possible through MFC using wide range soluble or nonsoluble complex organic wastes as a renewable biomass. In this study, single chamber MFC and double chambers MFCs were used to production and enrichment a microbial consortium for electricity generation from organic waste samples. Potential electrogenic bacteria were also isolated from anode, analyzed and evaluated. Most of them were Gram negative and fermentative organisms. Their electrogenic role was promising generating upto 5.05 volts and 4.72 mA when combined five) double chambers in series connection. Isolation of these bacteria and employing these for generation of electricity may bring potential power sector endeavor in future.</p> <p>Bangladesh J Microbiol, Volume 35 Number 1 June 2018, pp 23-26</p> Eti Barua Md Saddam Hossain Modhusudon Shaha Ekramul Islam Fatema Tuj Zohora Anica Tasnim Protity Sanjoy Kumar Mukharjee Palash Kumar Sarker Md Salimullah Abu Hashem ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2019-01-15 2019-01-15 35 1 23 26 10.3329/bjm.v35i1.39800 In Silico Approach To Design a B-cell Epitope Based Vaccine Target Against Yellow Fever Virus https://www.banglajol.info/index.php/BJM/article/view/39801 <p>Yellow fever virus is a prototype member of the Flaviviridae family causing high fever and jaundice. Though YF 17D vaccine is administered to yellow fever patients, however it can produce adverse effects in immunocompromised, older people and young infants. The aim of this study is to design an epitope-based peptide vaccine by targeting envelope (E) protein of Yellow Fever Virus. Thirty sequences of E protein of Yellow Fever Virus strains were retrieved from NCBI database. E protein was found to be mostly conserved among all the sequences with little variability and also was identified as a probable antigen. Different epitope prediction tools predicted 4 common epitopes, 3 of which were found to be antigenic. A peptide VKNPTDTGin E protein was predicted to have surface accessibility which overlaps with the VKNPTDTGHGT epitope.So, the whole VKNPTDTGHGT epitope was taken for further analysis. The VKNPTDTGHGT epitope showed 96.67% conservancy and also possesses flexibility, hydrophilicity and non-toxicity. Therefore, VKNPTDTGHGT can be regarded as a potential vaccine candidate against Yellow fever virus with further <em>in vitro </em>and <em>in vivo </em>validation.</p> <p>Bangladesh J Microbiol, Volume 35 Number 1 June 2018, pp 27-35</p> Shamira Tabrejee M Mahboob Hossain ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2019-01-15 2019-01-15 35 1 27 35 10.3329/bjm.v35i1.39801 Isolation of Bacteriophage from Eggs and Use of Excreta as Biocontrol Agent in Controlling Eggs Related Salmonellosis https://www.banglajol.info/index.php/BJM/article/view/39802 <p>Poultry and poultry products are the leading causes of foodborne salmonellosis worldwide. Antibiotics are used to control <em>Salmonella </em>spp. in poultry but its uncontrolled use results in the emergence of resistant pathogens.The use of bacteriophages as antimicrobial agents to control antibiotic resistant pathogenic bacteria could be a possible alternative. The aim of this study was to isolate, characterize and evaluate the effectiveness of bacteriophages for reducingload of <em>Salmonella </em>spp. on eggshells. One bacteriophage named as Sal-PE, specific to <em>Salmonella enteritidis</em>was isolated from poultry excreta. For isolation, samples were subject to an enrichment protocol and then double agar layer method was performed to detect plaque. It had the capability to survive in wide range of pH between 4 to 10and found to be resistant at 60<sup>°</sup>C for 1 hour. Sal” PE showed its lytic effect on 13 of the 15 (87%) isolates including <em>Salmonella enteritidis </em>and <em>Salmonella typhimurium </em>which were recovered from 50 poultry excreta samples. After enrichment and growth on selective media, isolates were identified based on cultural characteristics, microscopic observation and biochemical tests. Amplification of three different genes (<em>invA</em>, <em>sdfI</em>, <em>fliC</em>) were carried out tocharacterize those isolates in molecular level. All isolates were found to be resistant to penicillin G, ampicillin, oxacillin and clindamycin but sensitive to ciprofloxacin, streptomycin, cefixime and chloramphenicol. Lytic efficiency of Sal-PE was determined by observing the reduction in optical density due to destruction of pathogens. Though more studies are needed in order to evaluate phage effectiveness, our findingsare expected to help us in initiating the development of a better preventive approach to control the occurrence of <em>Salmonella </em>spp. on eggshells.</p> <p>Bangladesh J Microbiol, Volume 35 Number 1 June 2018, pp 37-44</p> Md Abu Sayem Khan Md Muktadir Rahman Ashik Sabita Rezwana Rahman ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2019-01-15 2019-01-15 35 1 37 44 10.3329/bjm.v35i1.39802 In Silico screening of T-cell and B-cell Epitopes of Rotavirus VP7 and VP4 proteins for Effective Vaccine Design https://www.banglajol.info/index.php/BJM/article/view/39803 <p>Rotavirus is one of the deadliest causative agents of childhood diarrhea which causes half a million child death across the globe, mostly in developing countries. However, effective vaccine strategies against rotavirus are yet to be established to prevent these unwanted premature deaths. In this regard, <em>in silico </em>vaccine design for rotavirus could be a promising alternative for developing countries due to its efficiency in shortening valuable time and cost. The present study described an epitope-based peptide vaccine design against rotavirus, using a combination of T-cell and B-cell epitope predictions and molecular docking approach. To perform this, sequences of rotavirus VP7 and VP4 proteins were retrieved from the NCBI database and subjected to different bioinformatics tools to predict most immunogenic T-cell and B-cell epitopes. From the identified epitopes, the sequence VMSKRSRSL of VP7 and TQFTDFVSL of VP4 was identified as the most potential epitopes based on their antigenicity, conservancy and interaction with major histocompatability complex I (MHC-I) alleles. Moreover, the peptide VMSKRSRSL interacted with human leukocyte antigen, HLA-B*08:01 and TQFTDFVSL interacted with HLA-A*02:06 with considerable binding energy and affinity score. Combined population coverage for our identified epitopes was found 70.53% and 45.64% for world population and South Asian population respectively. All these results suggest that, the epitopes identified in this study could be a very good vaccine candidate for the strains of rotavirus circulating in Bangladesh. However, as this study is completely dependent on computational prediction algorithms, further <em>in vivo </em>screening is required to come up in a precise conclusion about these epitopes for effective rotavirus vaccination.</p> <p>Bangladesh J Microbiol, Volume 35 Number 1 June 2018, pp 45-55</p> Md Sadikur Rahman Shuvo Sanjoy Kumar Mukharjee Firoz Ahmed ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2019-01-15 2019-01-15 35 1 45 55 10.3329/bjm.v35i1.39803 Genetic Diversity of Salmonella enterica Strains Isolated from Sewage Samples of Different Hospitals in Bangladesh https://www.banglajol.info/index.php/BJM/article/view/39804 <p>The degree of salmonellosis is associated with the genetic diversity of the <em>Salmonella enterica</em>. Here, the genetic diversity of <em>Salmonella enterica </em>isolated from hospital sewage samples of Bangladesh were analyzed to elucidate the prevalence of <em>S. enterica </em>by random amplification of polymorphic DNA (RAPD) and amplified ribosomal DNA restriction analysis (ARDRA). Twenty six isolates were identified as <em>S. enterica </em>by cultural and biochemical methods as well as 16srDNA sequencing. These isolates showed two types of ARDRA and eight distinct RAPD patterns. All of these isolates possessed <em>inv</em>A gene. However, <em>agf</em>A and <em>fli</em>C genes were found in 21 isolates and 16 isolates respectively. All of the isolates were resistant to rifamycin but most of them were sensitive to ceftriaxone and streptomycin. The study indicated that the genetic diversity is very high among the <em>S. enterica </em>isolates of Bangladesh. Therefore, such diversity may contribute to the future outbreak of salmonellosis in Bangladesh.</p> <p>Bangladesh J Microbiol, Volume 35 Number 1 June 2018, pp 57-60</p> Tusher Al Arafat Md Rasel Mahmud Md Tauhidul Islam Tanim Md Miraj Kobad Chowdhury Md Mizanur Rahaman Sabita Rezwana Rahman Md. Majibur Rahman ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2019-01-15 2019-01-15 35 1 57 60 10.3329/bjm.v35i1.39804 Isolation of Multidrug Resistant Bacteria from Aspirates of Cancer Patients https://www.banglajol.info/index.php/BJM/article/view/39805 <p>Infections due to Gram-negative bacteria are common affairs in cancer patients during aggressive therapy. The present study characterizedmulti-drug resistant bacteria (MDR) isolated from cancer aspirates collected from patients admitted to the National Cancer Hospital in Dhaka, Bangladesh. A total of 210 aspirate samples were collected from cancer patients. Out of 210 samples <em>Acinetobacter spp.</em>led the list of isolates (8.89%, n=45). Of these species, 50% exhibited resistance to Amoxycillin and Nitrofurantoin, each, 25% exhibited resistant to Cefotaxime, Azithromycin, Ciprofloxacin, Clindamycin, and Sulfamethoxazole. A total of 33.33% of the <em>Bordetella spp.</em>which accounted 6.67%of the total isolates exhibited resistance to Cefotaxime<em>. </em>All ofthe<em>Legionellapneumophila</em>,comprising 4.4%of the isolated species, wereresistant to Cefotaxime, Azithromycin, and Clindamycin.In contrast, 50% were resistant to Cefotaxime, Azithromycin, and Ceftriaxone. Of the <em>Escherichia coli</em>(4.4%, n=45) isolated,50% exhibited resistance to Cefotaxime, Clindamycin, Ceftriaxone, Amoxycillinand Sulfamethoxazole.The only isolate of <em>Klebsiella </em>sp. was demonstrated to be an ESBL producer. The isolation of multidrug resistant bacteria from cancer patients is of particular concern in Bangladesh where cancer and drug resistance are both common phenomena but treatment facilities are poor. To our knowledge this is the first report of the isolation of drug resistant bacteria from cancer patients from Dhaka city.</p> <p>Bangladesh J Microbiol, Volume 35 Number 1 June 2018, pp 61-66</p> Sunjukta Ahsan Rayhan Mahmud Kajal Ahsan Shamima Begum ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2019-01-15 2019-01-15 35 1 61 66 10.3329/bjm.v35i1.39805 Isolation and Characterization of Locally Isolated Jute Fungi and Determination of their Pathogenicity https://www.banglajol.info/index.php/BJM/article/view/39806 <p>Currently Jute farmer faces a number of problems in jute sector such as higher labor cost, fungal diseases, low market price, natural disasters etc. As a result the production of jute is far below than the desired figure. The severe yield lost of jute depends on a number of factors of which fungal diseases play a dominant role. In the present investigation 56 samples of infected jute plants were collected from 8 (Eight) different area of Bangladesh and the samples were investigated by Agar plate and Blotter methods. Symptoms of diseases were recorded and associated fungal pathogens were purified and characterized. Based on cultural and morphological characterizations three fungal pathogens were identified as <em>Botryodiplodia theobromae </em>Pat. (Griffon &amp; Maubl.), <em>Colletotrichum corchori </em>(Ikata and Yoshida) and <em>Macrophomina phaseolina </em>(Tassi) Goid and allthe isolates showed their pathogenicity on jute plants.</p> <p>Bangladesh J Microbiol, Volume 35 Number 1 June 2018, pp 67-73</p> Md Abul Kashem Md Towhid Hossain MN Anwar ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2019-01-15 2019-01-15 35 1 67 73 10.3329/bjm.v35i1.39806 Detection of Aflatoxin in Poultry Feed and Feed Materials through Immuno Based Assay from Different Poultry Farms and Feed Factories in Bangladesh https://www.banglajol.info/index.php/BJM/article/view/39807 <p>Current study investigated the occurrence of aflatoxin contamination in poultry feed and feed materials in different poultry farms and feed factories in Bangladesh. A total of 100 samples of finished feed and raw feed materials were collected and tested through direct competitive Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA) for total aflatoxin detection. Overall, 97% samples (n=97/100) in our study, were found positive for aflatoxin contamination. Among finished feed categories, layer grower feed contained highest level of aflatoxin with a mean value of 21.64 ppb whereas layer feed was less susceptible for aflatoxin contamination (mean value 9.49 ppb). Between raw feed materials, maize samples were highly contaminated (n=15/15, 100%) with aflatoxin while 86.67% soybean samples showed positive result. Twenty one percent (21%) of the samples in our study contained aflatoxin concentration more than the acceptable limit employed by USFDA and many other countries which might pose severe health risk to poultry and human consumer. Proper surveillance and immediate control measures should be taken to ensure safe poultry feed and feed materials.</p> <p>Bangladesh J Microbiol, Volume 35 Number 1 June 2018, pp 75-78</p> Mahbuba Akter Lubna Mita Debnath Farzana Hossaini ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2019-01-15 2019-01-15 35 1 75 78 10.3329/bjm.v35i1.39807 In vivo Anticancer Activity on Ehrlich Ascites Carcinoma (EAC) Cells and in vitro Antimicrobial Activity of Psidium guajava Bark Extracts https://www.banglajol.info/index.php/BJM/article/view/39808 <p>This study was performed to evaluate the <em>in vivo </em>anticancer activity against ehrlich ascites carcinoma (EAC) cells and <em>in vitro </em>antimicrobial activity of <em>Psidium guajava </em>bark extracts<em>. </em>By soxhlet apparatus, the <em>P. guajava </em>bark extracts were obtained using four solvents (n-hexane, petroleum benzene, chloroform, and methanol) according to their increasing solubility. In case of <em>in vivo </em>anticancer activity of the sample extracts, mice were seeded with approximately 1x10<sup>5</sup> ehrlich ascites carcinoma (EAC) cells. After seven days of consecutive treatment, the negative and positive control groups (n=8 each group) showed an average EAC cell count of 2.4x10<sup>8</sup> and 1.8x10<sup>8</sup> respectively, and the experimental groups showed the cell count of 2.2x 10<sup>8</sup>, 2.1x10<sup>8</sup>, 1.9x10<sup>8</sup>, and 1.41x10<sup>8</sup> when mice received h-hexane, petroleum benzene, chloroform, and methanol extract respectively. Experimental group that received methanol extract showed percent increase of life span (% ILS) of 33.3 when compared with the negative control. However, treatment in a cyclic manner of the mice showed % ILS of 52.15 for experimental group when compared negative control. In antimicrobial activity experiment, an intermediate zone of sensitivity of the crude methanol extract was found against <em>Escherichia coli</em>, <em>Shigella flexneri</em>, and <em>Staphylococcus aureus </em>when compared with amoxicillin. All these results indicated the anticancer activity and antimicrobial activity of the methanol extract of <em>P. guajava </em>barks on different experimental models.</p> <p>Bangladesh J Microbiol, Volume 35 Number 1 June 2018, pp 79-81</p> Md Jakir Hossain Shashwata Biswas Mohammad Shahriar Sohidul Islam Chowdhury Rafiqul Ahsan ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2019-01-15 2019-01-15 35 1 79 81 10.3329/bjm.v35i1.39808