https://www.banglajol.info/index.php/BJLR/issue/feed Bangladesh Journal of Livestock Research 2016-01-21T04:39:58+00:00 Nathu Ram Sarker, Ph.D sarkernr62@yahoo.com Open Journal Systems <p>As far as we are aware, this journal is no longer being published.</p><p>Official journal of Bangladesh Livestock Research Institute.</p> https://www.banglajol.info/index.php/BJLR/article/view/26421 Optimization of the dietary protein and energy levels for Dhakai quail during growing period 2016-01-21T04:39:41+00:00 S Faruque Shakila_blri@yahoo.com H Khatun Shakila_blri@yahoo.com MS Islam Shakila_blri@yahoo.com SMA Rahman Shakila_blri@yahoo.com <p>A feeding trial was conducted to investigate the optimum level of dietary protein and energy on production performance and carcass characteristics of quail. A total number of 128 day-old chicks of Dhakai quail were used from internal hatchery of Bangladesh Livestock Research Institute, Savar, Dhaka. The chicks were arranged according to a 4 × 2 factorial (4 protein levels; 20, 22, 24 and 26% and 2 energy levels; 2800 and 2900 kcal ME/kg), and allocated into eight dietary treatment combinations according to the experimental design. The combinations were designated as D<sub>1</sub> (CP<sub>20</sub>ME<sub>2800</sub>), D<sub>2</sub> (CP<sub>20</sub>ME<sub>2900</sub>), D<sub>3</sub> (CP<sub>22</sub>ME<sub>2800</sub>), D<sub>4</sub> (CP<sub>22</sub>ME<sub>2900</sub>), D<sub>5</sub> (P<sub>24</sub>ME<sub>2800</sub>), D<sub>6</sub> (P<sub>24</sub>ME<sub>2900</sub>), D<sub>7</sub> (P<sub>26</sub>ME<sub>2800</sub>) and D<sub>8</sub> (P<sub>26</sub>ME<sub>2900</sub>). There were 16 chicks per treatment, each treatment had 2 replications having 8 chicks in each. At the end of 5 weeks, 2 birds from each replication were randomly selected and slaughtered to analyze the meat yield traits. All birds were fed <em>ad libitum </em>with treatment diets from day-old to 35 days of age. There were significant effect (P&lt;0.001) of crude protein levels on final body weight, total weight gain, daily gain, feed intake and feed conversion ratio (FCR). Feed intake, total weight gain and FCR at different energy levels did not differ significantly (P&gt;0.05). It was observed that the performance of Dhakai quail fed diet with 22% crude protein and 2900 kcal. ME/kg DM was better compared to others in terms of total gain, daily gain, FCR and dressing percent. Futher, treatments effect of protein level was observed on weight gain from day-old to 35 days. A crude protein level of 22.227% was estimated by regression equations for growing Dhakai quail.</p><p>Bangladesh J. of Livestock Res. 19(1-2): 1-9, Jan-Dec 2012</p> 2016-01-21T04:39:41+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## https://www.banglajol.info/index.php/BJLR/article/view/26422 Effect of feeding ca-salts of fatty acids on fatty acids composition in milk 2016-01-21T04:39:43+00:00 NR Sarker sarkernr62@yahoo.com KS Huque sarkernr62@yahoo.com H Islam sarkernr62@yahoo.com NG Das sarkernr62@yahoo.com <p>A study was undertaken to investigate the effects of Calcium Salt of Fatty Acid on the fatty acids composition of milk fed green German grass and concentrate diet. Twenty lactating Pabna cows having similar daily milk yield (3.4±0.842 Kg) were used and divided into four groups with five animals in each group. The study revealed that saturated fatty acids of milk fat were 61.12, 57.83, 54.93, and 54.56% and unsaturated fatty acids of milk fat were 38.36, 42.22, 45.22 and 45.5 38 % in treatment groups T0 (without Calcium Salt of Fatty Acid), T<sub>1</sub> (2.0 % Calcium Salt of Fatty Acid), T<sub>2</sub> (2.5 % Calcium Salt of Fatty Acid) and T<sub>3</sub> (3.0 % Calcium Salt of Fatty Acid), respectively. The highest unsaturated fatty acid was found in T<sub>3</sub> treatment and the lowest in T<sub>0</sub> treatment. There is no significant difference between T<sub>2</sub> and T<sub>3</sub> treatments in relation to unsaturated fatty acids. The palmetic acid content in milk fat were 25.47, 27.22, 26.22 and 26.22% in T<sub>0 </sub>, T<sub>1</sub> , T<sub>2</sub> and T<sub>3</sub> respectively. The highest palmetic acid found in T<sub>2</sub> treatment and the lowest in T<sub>0</sub> treatment. The stearic acid content in milk fat were 22.98, 15.78, 13.74 and 13.68% in T<sub>0</sub> , T<sub>1</sub> , T<sub>2</sub> and T<sub>3</sub> respectively. The study showed that there is a significant (p&lt;0.01) difference in the treatments for stearic acid content in milk fat. The linoleic acid content in milk fat were 1.57, 1.64, 1.73 and 1.94 % in treatment groups T<sub>0</sub> , T<sub>1</sub> , T<sub>2</sub> and T<sub>3</sub> respectively. It may be concluded that the feeding Ca-Salts of Fatty Acids increased unsaturation of milk fat, oleic acid, linoleic acid and linolenic acid and decrease saturation and stearic acid content in milk fat.</p><p>Bangladesh J. of Livestock Res. 19(1-2): 10-17, Jan-Dec 2012</p> 2016-01-21T04:39:43+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## https://www.banglajol.info/index.php/BJLR/article/view/26423 Performance of BLRI developed native duck under farmer’s condition with supplementary feeding 2016-01-21T04:39:44+00:00 H Khatun hkr.7519@gmail.com MN Islam hkr.7519@gmail.com AA Bhuyan hkr.7519@gmail.com MN Hasan hkr.7519@gmail.com MS Islam hkr.7519@gmail.com <p>A total of 198 straight run day old ducklings of Bangladesh Livestock Research Institute (BLRI) developed native duck (named as Rupali and Nageswary) and local native duck genotypes were distributed among nine farmers of low laying areas of Kalihati Upazilla of Tangail district. Rupali and Nageswary ducklings were obtained from existing stock of BLRI and local native ducklings were collected from local farmers of the study area. After 12 weeks of age each farmers retained 10 female and 2 male ducks and sold away remaining ducklings. Farmers’ were instructed to supply 50g of balanced feed to their ducks in the morning and evening. Ducks were allowed to scavenge in the <em>beel </em>throughout the day. Data on: growth, feed intake, age at onset of lay, egg production rate, egg weight, mortality rate were recorded and cost-benefit was calculated. There found no significant difference on growth parameters, live weight gain, age at first laying or age at peak egg production among the duck genotypes. In the study highest live weight gain was found in Nageswary (1090 g) followed by Rupali (1058 g) and local native (912 g) duck at 8 weeks of age. Egg production rate of local native ducks (37.21%) was found significantly lower (P&lt;0.001) compared to Rupali (50.67 %) and Nageswary (55.40 %). The mortality rate in local duck was significantly higher (P&lt;0.05) compared to Rupali and Nageswary ducks. Rupali ducks produced heavier eggs (66.86g) followed by local native (62.20g) and Nageswary (57.22g) which differed significantly (P&lt;0.05). Rupali ducks laid eggs of thicker shell (0.61mm) compared to other duck genotypes under study which was also varied statistically (P&lt;0.05). Cost benefit analysis shows that earning both from Nageswary and Rupali was much higher than local native ducks. Higher egg production rate of Nageswary and Rupali duck has contributed for higher return. It is concluded that rearing Rupali or Nageswary ducks in the low laying rural areas with scavenging and supplementary feeding facility is more profitable than rearing local native ducks.</p><p>Bangladesh J. of Livestock Res. 19(1-2): 18-23, Jan-Dec 2012</p> 2016-01-21T04:39:44+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## https://www.banglajol.info/index.php/BJLR/article/view/26424 Existing production and marketing system of fodder under Meherpur district as livelihood activity 2016-01-21T04:39:45+00:00 BK Roy biplobkroy@yahoo.com NR Sarker biplobkroy@yahoo.com MK Alam biplobkroy@yahoo.com KS Huque biplobkroy@yahoo.com <p>An investigation was carried out with the objectives to determine the existing production and marketing system of fodder as a livelihood activity of farmers under Meherpur district. For this, a purposive survey was conducted covering three Upazilas’ of Meherpur district namely, Meherpur Sadar, Gangni and Mujibnagar. Before conducting the survey, a Focus Group Discussion (FGD) was arranged and it was identified that there were three stakeholders involved under these areas: fodder producers, middlemen and users of fodder. On the basis of the findings of FGD, a survey was conducted through a pre-tested structured questionnaire as per objectives of the survey. Data were collected randomly from 33 Napier producers, 18 middlemen and 64 fodder users. Survey results indicated that, the average number of cattle and goat per household was 2.12 and 3.19, respectively, while on the other hand none of the farmers under the study areas reared sheep. Sharing of major household income implied that, majority of the fodder producers (72.72%) depended on their livelihood on Napier production and about 83.33% middlemen depends their livelihood on fodder marketing. However, the major sources of income of dairy keepers were business (39.06%), fodder production (20.31%) and agriculture (12.50%). The annual total biomass production of Napier per hectare was 314.48 metric tons. About 45% producers sold green Napier grass in the market, 30% supply directly to middlemen and the rest of 25% farmers marketed their produces directly in market and to middlemen. The prices of a bundle of Napier grass were varied from Tk. 3.00-4.00 to 5.00-6.00, respectively during summer and winter. The total cost, gross income and net profits for Napier production were Tk. 2,37,934.00, Tk. 4,71,723.00 and Tk. 2,33,789.00 per hectare per year, respectively. The benefit cost ratio (BCR) for Napier cultivation was 1.98:1. It can be concluded that fodder production and marketing system in Meherpur district is a profitable enterprises and all the stakeholders under this production and marketing system are getting monetary benefits.</p><p>Bangladesh J. of Livestock Res. 19(1-2): 24-32, Jan-Dec 2012</p> 2016-01-21T04:39:45+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## https://www.banglajol.info/index.php/BJLR/article/view/26425 Growth performance of calves fed shoti, wheat and soybean based milk replacers 2016-01-21T04:39:47+00:00 BK Roy biplobkroy@yahoo.com NR Sarker biplobkroy@yahoo.com MK Alam biplobkroy@yahoo.com KS Huque biplobkroy@yahoo.com <p>A study was conducted with objectives to determine the comparative growth performance of calves fed shoti, wheat and soybean based milk replacers and their economics. To achieve the objectives, a total of 24 local calves of about 6-10 days of age were selected and divided in four groups; having six (6) calves in each. A limited suckling with feeding whole milk considered as control (T<sub>o</sub>), suckling along with feeding of wheat, shoti and soybean based milk replacer considered as treatments and denoted as T<sub>1</sub>, T<sub>2</sub> and T<sub>3</sub>, respectively. Results obtained in the present study revealed that, the total DM, OM and CP intake did not differ significantly (p&gt;0.05) among the treatment groups. However, calves in T<sub>2</sub> group sucked significantly (p&lt;0.01) higher milk or milk DM compared to milk sucked by calves in T<sub>0</sub>, T<sub>1</sub> and T<sub>3</sub>, respectively. No significant differences (p&gt;0.05) was observed in average daily weight gain (ADG) of calves among the treatment groups. The feed conversion efficiency (FCR) was relatively better (p&gt;0.05) in calves those fed shoti and soybean based MR compared to calves fed wheat and control diets. The overall levels of both glucose and BUN did not differ significantly (p&gt;0.05) in calves under different treatment groups. The total cost of per kg wheat (T<sub>1</sub>), shoti (T<sub>2</sub>) and Soybean (T<sub>3</sub>) based MR were Tk. 52.69, Tk. 94.45 and Tk. 51.11, respectively. The processing cost per kg MR was increased Tk. 41.00-43.00 in T<sub>2</sub> group than that of T<sub>1</sub> and T<sub>3</sub> groups. The feeding cost per calf per day was reduced Tk. 88.93.00 Tk. 57.87 and Tk. 82.55 in T<sub>1</sub>, T<sub>2</sub> and T<sub>3</sub>, respectively than that of T0 group<strong>. </strong>Results considering for both FCR and per day feeding cost, it indicates that T<sub>2 </sub>and T<sub>3</sub> diets i.e, shoti and soybean based MR maintained growth of calves compared to wheat based MR and milk fed calves.</p><p>Bangladesh J. of Livestock Res. 19(1-2): 33-43, Jan-Dec 2012</p> 2016-01-21T04:39:47+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## https://www.banglajol.info/index.php/BJLR/article/view/26426 Outbreak evaluation of highly pathogenic avian influenza in Bangladesh 2016-01-21T04:39:48+00:00 M Giasuddin mgias04@yahoo.com ME Haque mgias04@yahoo.com AHM Kamal mgias04@yahoo.com MR Islam mgias04@yahoo.com A Jahangir mgias04@yahoo.com EH Chowdhury mgias04@yahoo.com MJFA Taimur mgias04@yahoo.com M Hafizur Rahman mgias04@yahoo.com <p>Bangladesh first experienced outbreaks of highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) subtype H5N1 in poultry 2007 and by December 2012 a total of five hundred fifty six (556) outbreaks have been reported of which four hundred ninety nine (499) outbreaks occur in commercial poultry farm as against only fifty seven (57) in backyard poultry chicken. The virus appeared to be a deadly pathogen causing a total of six hundred eight (608) human cases with three hundred fifty nine (359) deaths in the world. In Bangladesh seven (7) human cases have been reported with a singular mortality of a child acquiring the infection from household poultry. There had been six epidemic waves of AI outbreaks in Bangladesh since March 2007 and other new waves seem to have started. From the six year’s incidence analysis it was found that higher number of outbreaks occurred in the month of February followed by March. The outbreak started from the middle to late winter and continued up to summer. The phylogenetic analysis of viruses isolated till 2010 revealed only one clade 2.2 virus circulating in Bangladesh. But from 2011 two new clades 2.3.2 and 2.3.4 viruses have been introduced. In 2012, it was observed that Clade 2.2 viruses that was in circulation since 2007 were replaced by 2.3.2.1 viruses. Extensive backyard poultry including a large number of ducks, dense human population, and economic dependence of poor people on poultry with low awareness about risk of infection, live bird trading and poor bio-security were critical factors in the spread of avian influenza infection that posses key challenge in rapid containment. Because of the complex situation in poultry production and marketing system, attempts to control this disease through stamping out and bio-security measures have apparently failed in Bangladesh.</p><p>Bangladesh J. of Livestock Res. 19(1-2): 44-49, Jan-Dec 2012</p> 2016-01-21T04:39:48+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## https://www.banglajol.info/index.php/BJLR/article/view/26427 Effect of season, genotype and lactation on milk yield and composition of local and crossbred dairy cows reared under different feed base region 2016-01-21T04:39:49+00:00 MA Baset mabaset1968@gmail.com KS Huque mabaset1968@gmail.com NR Sarker mabaset1968@gmail.com MM Hossain mabaset1968@gmail.com MN Islam mabaset1968@gmail.com <p>A total of 160 cows, 10 cows in each of native (local cow) and crossbred (local × Holstein Friesian) origins differing in lactation were used in 2×2×2×2 factorial experiment using Randomized Block Design (RBD) to evaluate milk yield and composition of cows considering regions (good &amp; poor feed base region), seasons (dry: Nov.–Feb. 2009 &amp; wet: Jun.–Oct. 2009), genotypes and lactation. A “good and/or poor feed base” region was classified based on the availability of quantity and quality roughages throughout the year. The study revealed that the daily milk yield and 4% FCM of cows under good feed base condition were 6.76 and 6.49 kg, respectively and under poor feed base condition were 3.67 and 3.31 kg, respectively. Feed base region did not affect on milk fat and it was observed that the milk protein, lactose, solids-not-fat (SNF), minerals and total solids under good feed base condition were 37.9, 54.9, 100.9, 6.3 and 140.6 g/kg, respectively, whereas, under poor feed base condition the values were 36.3, 52.9, 98.0, 6.1 and 135.2 g/kg, respectively. Season did not affect milk yield and composition except minerals (6.5 g/kg vs. 5.9 g/kg). Genotypes significantly (p?0.01) influenced daily milk yield, the milk protein and minerals. Lactation did not affect milk yield and the milk protein, but influenced the fat, lactose, SNF, minerals and total solids. The interaction of feed base regions and seasons significantly (p?0.01) influenced milk yield and the milk fat and SNF. The milk protein and lactose was influenced by the interaction of feed bases region, seasons and lactation. Milk yield negatively correlated with fat per cent. The percentage of fat significantly (p?0.01) correlated with protein, lactose, SNF, and minerals %. The percentage protein correlated with lactose, SNF and minerals. Lactose % significantly (p?0.01) correlated with SNF%. It may be concluded that milk yield and composition depends on feed base region, genotype and lactation of cows. Season did not influence milk yield and the composition. Milk yield negatively correlated with the percentage of fat, protein, lactose, SNF and milk composition strongly correlated with each other.</p><p>Bangladesh J. of Livestock Res. 19(1-2): 50-65, Jan-Dec 2012</p> 2016-01-21T04:39:49+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## https://www.banglajol.info/index.php/BJLR/article/view/26428 Selection responses for egg production of Fayoumi and Rhode Island Red breeds 2016-01-21T04:39:51+00:00 ME Haque ebadul11@yahoo.com GK Deb ebadul11@yahoo.com MN Hasan ebadul11@yahoo.com MH Ali ebadul11@yahoo.com <p>This experiment estimated the selection responses for egg production of Fayoumi (Fay) and Rhode Island Red (RIR) breeds. A total of 3000; belonging Fay 2000 &amp; RIR 1000 day old chicks were collected from Egypt and Bangladesh Livestock Research Institute (BLRI), Savar, Dhaka respectively, considered as foundation stock. The chicks were brooded for 5 weeks and reared up to 14 weeks of age providing standard feeding and management. After brooding, 640 Fay and 504 RIR pullets were reared in 40 and 36 individual pens respectively, considering as a family. Finally, 30 and 24 best families of Fay and RIR respectively were selected with 420 Fay and 288 RIR pullets at 15 weeks of age, on the basis of age at 1<sup>st</sup> egg lay, egg production and fertility. Salmonella and mycoplasma free eggs were collected on the basis of blood test (agglutinate test) from the selected families of both the breeds and hatched out for next generation. The experiment was continued up to 40 weeks of age for each generation. The study revealed that hen day egg production of Fay and RIR was higher in Foundation stock (64.39% in Fay and 68.54% in RIR) than that of F<sub>1</sub> generation (58.6% in Fay and 46.8% in RIR) but no significant difference (P &gt; 0.05) was observed for livability between Foundation stock and F<sub>1</sub> generation. Reasons for lower productivity in F<sub>1</sub> generation may be the poor management practices during growing period. In F<sub>2</sub> generation, egg production was higher in both the breeds (64.09% in Fay and 62.05% in RIR) than in F<sub>1</sub> generation. Egg production of RIR was not recorded for F<sub>3</sub> generation, as their ability to adopt under farmers condition was very poor. However, in F<sub>3</sub> generation, egg production of Fay was higher (65.82%) than in F<sub>2</sub> generation. Genetic gain in Fay was 0.06%, 0.11% and 0.12% for F<sub>1</sub>, F<sub>2</sub> and F<sub>3</sub> generation, respectively. In case of RIR genetic gain was 0.07% in F<sub>1</sub> and 0.18% in F<sub>2</sub> generation. Due to selection slight genetic gain for egg production was obtained in Fay and RIR but further research with larger stock is needed for better understanding of selection responses of these breeds.</p><p>Bangladesh J. of Livestock Res. 19(1-2): 66-73, Jan-Dec 2012</p> 2016-01-21T04:39:51+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## https://www.banglajol.info/index.php/BJLR/article/view/26429 Effect of genotype and lactation on milk urea nitrogen, blood urea nitrogen and milk composition of dairy cows 2016-01-21T04:39:52+00:00 MSK Sarker sazdulkarim@yahoo.com MA Islam sazdulkarim@yahoo.com KS Huque sazdulkarim@yahoo.com NR Sarker sazdulkarim@yahoo.com MM Hossain sazdulkarim@yahoo.com AA Bhuiyan sazdulkarim@yahoo.com <p>This study was aimed to evaluate milk urea nitrogen (MUN) of cows considering variations in dietary nutrition, genetic quality and lactation yield which will be helpful to develop practical feeding guidelines for dairy cows based on MUN. A total of forty dairy cows consisting 20 native and 20 crossbred milking cows were selected in Sonaimuri, Noakhali in winter season to know the daily feed availability to cows. Feed, milk and blood samples were collected and analyzed. The dry matter intake of the local and crossbred cows were 2.58 and 2.74 (g/100 kg live weight respectively) and they did not show statistical variation (p&lt;0.05). Metabolizable energy (ME) and protein intake showed significantly higher values in crossbred (85 MJ/day and 815 g/day) compared to local (40 MJ/day and 395 g/day) cows in winter season (p&gt;0.05). Live weight, body condition score and milk yield and MUN varied significantly between genotypes although blood urea nitrogen (BUN) value did not differ significantly. Strong correlation between lactose and protein percentage was observed in both the lactations in local cows. Milk minerals are negatively correlated with protein, SnF and minerals in first lactation whereas moderate to strong relation was observed in second lactation with those parameters. Milk constituents didn’t show any difference between local &amp; crossbred cows. Strong correlation between milk protein and lactose with SnF were observed in both local and crossbred cows in first lactation stage. BUN value showed a moderate correlation between milk yields of local cows. The results revealed that genotype and lactation have no effect on BUN although MUN value showed significant difference between local and crossbred cows.</p><p>Bangladesh J. of Livestock Res. 19(1-2): 74-84, Jan-Dec 2012</p> 2016-01-21T04:39:52+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## https://www.banglajol.info/index.php/BJLR/article/view/26430 Study on feeding effect of dietary protein sources of on blood or milk urea nitrogen in native cows 2016-01-21T04:39:53+00:00 NR Sarker sarkernr62@yahoo.com KS Huque sarkernr62@yahoo.com M Asaduzzaman sarkernr62@yahoo.com <p>A feeding trial with 30 Pabna milking cows of 2 to 4 parities dividing equally into 5 groups was conducted to determine the effect of feeding protein from different sources on blood or milk urea nitrogen, and milk yield or protein content in native cows. Considering a group of cows fed a diet of rice straw and concentrate as the control (T<sub>0</sub>), two out of the rests were fed either with urea-molasses straw (UMS) (T<sub>1</sub>) or Matikalai (<em>Vigna mungo</em>) hay ( T<sub>2</sub>) as sources of basal roughage. The rest two groups of cows were fed the control diet replacing percent (%) of feed protein by the amount of urea and molasses fed to UMS group. The amount of urea and molasses was fed daily either in two meals (T<sub>3</sub>) or fed to cows mixing with other concentrate feed (T<sub>4</sub>). Feeding a basal diet of UMS, DS or leguminous hay did not affect milk protein (%) and daily milk production Feeding urea and molasses in meals or mix (T<sub>3</sub> and T<sub>4</sub>) did not affect significantly (p&gt;0.05) BSU and MUN contents. It indicates that feeding urea and molasses in two meals in a day either as a single mix of the two or as a mix of the two with concentrates significantly (p&gt;0.05) reduced the concentration of BSU or MUN without having any change in milk protein (%) of the cows. Dry matter (DM) intake was significantly (p&lt;0.05) higher in T<sub>1</sub> treatment group followed by T<sub>4</sub>, T<sub>0</sub>, T<sub>3</sub> and T<sub>2</sub>, respectively. Similarly, CP intake was significantly (p&lt;0.05) higher in T<sub>1</sub> and T<sub>2</sub> treatment groups followed by T<sub>3</sub> and T<sub>4</sub> treatment groups. The values of CP intake were 490, 770, 760, 630 and 580 g/day for treatment groups T<sub>0</sub>, T<sub>1</sub>, T<sub>2</sub>, T<sub>3</sub>, and T<sub>4</sub>, respectively. Feedings urea and molasses as meals (T<sub>3</sub>) significantly (p&lt;0.05) reduced the fat content in milk compared with other treatment groups. Similar to T<sub>3</sub>, UMS feeding also significantly (p&lt;0.05) reduced fat content in milk compared to Matikalai hay and T<sub>4</sub> treatment groups. Milk urea nitrogen (MUN) content in morning milk was lower compared to evening milk. These data showed that feeding urea or protein of organic sources had effect on BSU and MUN contents in the morning milk but had no significant effect on evening milk. The lower BSU or MUN content in milk of the cows fed urea and molasses either in daily meals or as mix with concentrates may be due mainly to a lower CP intake compared to UMS and Matikalai. Therefore, it may be concluded that feeding urea or organic protein had no significant effect on milk protein percent<strong>.</strong></p><p>Bangladesh J. of Livestock Res. 19(1-2): 85-96, Jan-Dec 2012</p> 2016-01-21T04:39:53+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## https://www.banglajol.info/index.php/BJLR/article/view/26431 Isolation, identification and molecular characterization of contagious ecthyma virus from goat and sheep 2016-01-21T04:39:53+00:00 Jahangir Alam authorinquiry@inasp.info Md Shahin Alam authorinquiry@inasp.info Md Giasuddin authorinquiry@inasp.info Papia Monoura authorinquiry@inasp.info Md Abdus Samad authorinquiry@inasp.info Md Hasan Al Faruque authorinquiry@inasp.info Md Bahanur Rahman authorinquiry@inasp.info Md Shahidur Rahman Khan authorinquiry@inasp.info Md Ershaduzzaman authorinquiry@inasp.info MJFA Taimur authorinquiry@inasp.info <p>Contagious ecthyma (CE) is one of the most widespread viral diseases; primarily affect goat and sheep but also reported from human, reindeer, musk ox, dog, cat, red squirrel etc. The disease is caused by contagious ecthyma virus (CEV) and he virus is circulating in Bangladesh. Present study was aimed at isolation, identification and molecular characterization of the CEV circulating in Bangladesh. A total of 13 samples (scab materials; 11 from goat and 2 from sheep) were collected from three different farms of Sylhet and Dhaka divisions followed by processing for virus detection by PCR and isolation in Vero cell. Four different sets of primers were used targeting four different genes of CEV. Of these samples, 10 (8 from goat and 2 from sheep) were found positive by PCR. From these positive samples three viruses were isolated. Sequencing of different genes of several CEV isolates has been done directly from PCR product using automated DNA sequencer 3010 Genetic Analyzer available at the National Reference Laboratory for Avian Influenza (NRL-AI), Bangladesh. Bangladeshi isolates were found to have 95-99% identity to each other. When compared to viruses from other countries, high homology (92-96%) was observed to viruses from New Zealand and India, and phylogenetically clustered with them. This is the first report of molecular characterization, though partial, of CEV in Bangladesh.</p><p>Bangladesh J. of Livestock Res. 19(1-2): 97-106, Jan-Dec 2012</p> 2016-01-21T04:39:53+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## https://www.banglajol.info/index.php/BJLR/article/view/26432 Rabbit production under intensive system in rural condition 2016-01-21T04:39:55+00:00 R Khatun rkbaby96@yahoo.com MN Islam rkbaby96@yahoo.com MA Rashid rkbaby96@yahoo.com S Ahmed rkbaby96@yahoo.com <p>A total 20 (sixteen female and four male) growing rabbits aged 120 days have been distributed at each farmer’s level in 5 location of Bangladesh; F<sub>1</sub> (Dhaka-Pollobi), F<sub>2</sub> (Savar-Parbotinagor), F<sub>3</sub> (Magura-Boralidhaho), F<sub>4</sub> (Magura-Pannandualli), F<sub>5</sub> (Magura-Radhanagor) to know the production response and cost effectiveness under intensive in rural condition. The rabbits were reared in their own arrangement. Age of sexual maturity, age of first kidding, percentage of does kidded, gestation period, litter size, weaning period, breeding ratio were not significantly different (P&gt;0.05) among the locations. Feed cost per month was Tk. 903, Tk. 732, Tk. 772, Tk. 1221.96 and Tk. 976 for F<sub>1</sub>, F<sub>2</sub>, F<sub>3</sub>, F<sub>4</sub> and F<sub>5</sub> respectively for 20 rabbits rearing. Monthly consumption of rabbit meat per family was 4.5kg, 3kg, 2.4 kg, 6.0 kg, in F<sub>1</sub>, F<sub>2</sub>, F<sub>3</sub>, and F<sub>5</sub> respectively. Kid mortality (0-10 days) was significantly different (P&lt;0.01) among the locations and this value was recorded 8.47%, 11.11%,12.00%, 8.82% and 13.11% in F<sub>1</sub>, F<sub>2</sub>, F<sub>3</sub>, F<sub>4</sub> and F<sub>5</sub> respectively. Farmer earned some money by selling their rabbit which was Tk 10200, Tk7600, Tk8400, Tk12400 and Tk7200 /batch and can earn profit around the 49,564; 39,316; 38,536; 62,336 and 35,688 Tk/year in rearing (7batchs/year) 20 rabbit at in F<sub>1</sub>, F<sub>2</sub>, F<sub>3</sub>, F<sub>4</sub> and F<sub>5</sub>, respectively. Rabbit production could be an important micro-livestock component to produce for meeting up extra demand of the country.</p><p>Bangladesh J. of Livestock Res. 19(1-2): 107-111, Jan-Dec 2012</p> 2016-01-21T04:39:55+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## https://www.banglajol.info/index.php/BJLR/article/view/26433 Epidemiological studies on subclinical mastitis in dairy goats in northern regions of Bangladesh 2016-01-21T04:39:55+00:00 MIA Begum iakalpona@gmail.com MS Hossain iakalpona@gmail.com M Ershaduzzaman iakalpona@gmail.com MS Alam iakalpona@gmail.com <p>A cross sectional study was carried out from June, 2008 to December, 2010 to estimate the prevalence of subclinical mastitis and to determine the responsible bacterial pathogens in lactating dairy goats in northern districts of Bangladesh. A total of 292 goats and 584 udder halves milk samples were screened using California Mastitis Test (CMT). Prevalence of subclinical mastitis at goat level was 56.2% (164/292), and in udder half level it was 33.9% (198/584). The subclinical mastitis prevalence at goat level was high (71.6%) in Jamnapari goats as compared to Black Bengal goats (50.2%), whereas at the udder half level, subclinical mastitis prevalence was 45.1% and 29.6% in Jamnapari and Black Bengal goats, respectively. The pathogens isolated from subclinical mastitic milk samples were coagulase negative <em>Staphylococci</em>, Coliforms, <em>Streptococcus spp.</em>, <em>Staphylococcus aureus</em>, <em>Micrococcus spp., Pseudomonas aeruginosa </em>and <em>Bacillus cereus. </em>Among these, the most frequent isolates were coagulase negative <em>Staphylococci </em>(28.8%), Coliforms (22.7%) and <em>Streptococcus spp </em>(15.2%). Out of four potential host related risk factors considered, litter size and body condition of goats were found to influence the prevalence rate of subclinical mastitis in goat significantly (<em>p&lt; 0.05</em>). On the other hand, the subclinical mastitis was very significantly (<em>p=0.0001</em>) associated with the housing system of goats, i.e., goats reared in raised floor had a low subclinical mastitis infection rate (35.8%) as compared to reared in earth floor (62.2%). Antibiogram studies were also performed for the bacterial isolates and Gentamicin was found to be the most effective drug.</p><p>Bangladesh J. of Livestock Res. 19(1-2): 112-122, Jan-Dec 2012</p> 2016-01-21T04:39:55+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## https://www.banglajol.info/index.php/BJLR/article/view/26434 A socio-economic study on Red Chittagong Cattle (RCC) farmers in selected upazilas of Chittagong district 2016-01-21T04:39:56+00:00 SMJ Hossain smjhossainblri@yahoo.com AKFH Bhuiyan smjhossainblri@yahoo.com KS Haque smjhossainblri@yahoo.com M Akteruzzaman smjhossainblri@yahoo.com NR Sarker smjhossainblri@yahoo.com N Sultana smjhossainblri@yahoo.com <p>This study was conducted to identify the existing socio-economic status and to know the present condition of RCC population, their management system, prevalence of diseases and income from RCC and other sources. Results showed that the RCC farmers have an average landholding of 0.89±0.09 and it varied from 0.22±0.01 acres for landless to 13.63±4.63 acres for large farms. The distribution of land was found uneven among farm categories. The average size of family members was 4.98±0.11 per farm and. 67.34% of them were in the active age group of 18-57 years. The main occupation of the community farmers were agriculture (51.96%) followed by service (21.75%) and business (19.94%). On average the highest (33.55%) of family literacy prevailed in primary education. The average RCC herd size per farm was 1.70±0.04 and varied from 1.50±0.50 in large to l.78±0.06 in landless farms and no relationship (r<sup>2</sup> = 0) was found with landholdings. For raising RCC the participation women was (36.00%) and it was found the highest (42.52%) in landless farms. Only 7.09% of the farmers were found cultivating fodder and of the farmers 77.78% cultivated napier and 22.22% german grass. The most prevalent diseases reported by the farmers were Foot and Mouth Disease (FMD) (26.20%) and worm (21.13%). The average mortality of RCC was observed 2.12%. The age group proportional mortality showed that mortality was the highest for calf (55.56%), followed by growing animals (22.22%) and adult (22.22%) and death of animals was highest (55.56%) in rainy season. Only 29.44% of farmers reported to vaccinate their cattle against some viral and bacterial diseases and it was highest against FMD (53.43%) followed by BQ (28.92%) and Anthrax (17.65%). Annual average gross income per farm from different sources was Tk 128016 and it varied from Tk 80618 to Tk 847500 for different farm categories. Average annual income from RCC source was calculated to be Tk 16412 and it varied from Tk 2500 for large to Tk. 28598 for small farms.</p><p>Bangladesh J. of Livestock Res. 19(1-2): 123-136, Jan-Dec 2012</p> 2016-01-21T04:39:56+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement##