Bangladesh Journal of Infectious Diseases <p>Published by the Bangladesh Infection Research Association. Full text articles will be available.</p> <p>This journal invites authors and reviewers to register with the journal. The online submission process is available for new submissions.</p> <p><strong>Indexed/Abstract in: </strong>ROAD (; Open DOAR, Directory of Open Access Scholars Repository; ResearchBib; BASE (Bielefeld Academic Search Engine); Academic Resource Index;;; Infobase Index; Eurasian Scientific Journal Index; International Committee for Medical Journal Editors (ICJME); Easy Bib; Google Scholar; AsiaJol; Open Science Directory; EBSCO Information Service; EBSCO Open Access Journals; Hasselt University Library; Islamic Science Index (ISI); World Association of Medical Editors (WAME); Journal Factor; International Institute of Organized Research (I2OR); Impact Factor Services for International Journals (IFSIJ); Open Access Library; Scientific Indexing Services (SIS)</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> en-US <p class="default"><strong>Copyright</strong></p><p>Copyright on any research article in the Bangladesh Journal of Infectious Diseases is retained by the author(s).</p><p>The authors grant the Bangladesh Infection Research Association a license to publish the article and identify itself as the original publisher.</p><p>Articles in the Bangladesh Journal of Infectious Diseases are Open Access articles published under the Creative Commons CC BY-NC License (<a href=""></a>)</p><p>This license permits use, distribution and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited, and it is not used for commercial purposes.</p> (Dr M Abdullah Yusuf) (Md Fahmid Uddin Khondoker) Sun, 08 Nov 2020 00:00:00 +0000 OJS 60 Super Environmental Adaptability of SARS CoV2 <p>Abstract not available.</p> <p>Bangladesh Journal of Infectious Diseases, October 2020;7(suppl_2):S1-S2</p> Zebunnesa Zeba ##submission.copyrightStatement## Sun, 08 Nov 2020 10:06:41 +0000 Evidences on Irrational Anti-Microbial Prescribing and Consumption among COVID-19 Positive Patients and Possible Mitigation Strategies: A Descriptive Cross Sectional Study <p><strong>Background: </strong>Increased antimicrobial consumption has increased the burden on worsening situation of antimicrobial resistance throughout the world.</p> <p><strong>Objective: </strong>The purpose of this study was to assess the practice of irrational antibiotic prescribing and consumption among COVID-19 positive patients of Bangladesh and its possible impact on existing AMR.</p> <p><strong>Methodology: </strong>This was a cross-sectional study conducted among SARS-CoV-2 positive patients from a tertiary COVID-19 PCR testing center in Dhaka between 10<sup>th</sup> July 2020 and 20<sup>th</sup> July 2020. A validated questionnaire was used to gather data. Ethical approval was obtained. A total of 100 participants through random sampling was selected.</p> <p><strong>Results: </strong>A total of 100 COVID-19 RT-PCR positive patients were participated in this study: 96% had mild symptoms, fever (81.0%) was the most common presenting symptoms, 45.0% patients did not consult with physicians even after knowing their positive test results and reported self medicating with antibiotics, and 36.0% were treated with multiple antibiotics and antiviral at a time. Azithromycin (46.0%), Ivermectin (22.0%) and doxycycline (21.0%) were the antibiotics most used, which were mainly obtained from local retail pharmacies.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion: </strong>Practice of irrational antibiotic prescribing and self medication is relatively high among COVID-19 positive participants.</p> <p>Bangladesh Journal of Infectious Diseases, October 2020;7(suppl_2):S3-S7</p> Monira Parveen, Md Maruf Ahmed Molla, Mahmuda Yeasmin, Tasnim Nafisa, Arifa Akram Barna, Asish Kumar Ghosh ##submission.copyrightStatement## Sun, 08 Nov 2020 10:06:54 +0000 Impact of COVID-19 Pandemic among Health Care Providers in Bangladesh: A Systematic Review <p><strong>Background: </strong>The world has been passing the most critical time of the century with the COVID-19 pandemic since late December 2019, and numerous people, including a significant portion of health care providers, got the infection and are still sacrificing their lives.</p> <p><strong>Objective: </strong>The study was aimed systematically to assess the severity of the SARS-CoV-2 infection, especially in health care sectors, and to appraise the physical, psychological, and social effects of the COVID-19 epidemic among frontline fighters in Bangladesh.</p> <p><strong>Methodology: </strong>The keywords: “COVID-19”, “SARS-CoV-2”, “health care system in Bangladesh”, “health care providers”, etc. were searched to collect the desired articles by utilizing various search engines like google, google scholar, pub med, and science direct journals. Data were extracted and finally, were summarized, discussed, analysed, and reported the study results.</p> <p><strong>Result: </strong>Numerous specialist doctors, nurses, and all other healthcare workers are immolating their lives to save human entities amid the current coronavirus pandemic, 2019 (COVID-19). In Bangladesh, till August 9, 2020, 73 doctors, including some senior specialists, died of COVID-19 infection reported by various national newspapers. At the early phase of this epidemic in Bangladesh, around 10% of the total infection was found among health workers, alarmingly reported by the Bangladesh Medical Association (BMA). These frontline fighters are additionally confronting numerous challenges, including psychological sufferings, and furthermore, they are assaulted by the society.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion: </strong>Since these fighters are relinquishing their beloved lives to protect us from this brutal virus, we are trying to show our profound gratitude, appreciation, thousands of salutes, and undying tribute to these health care fighters with this publication.</p> <p>Bangladesh Journal of Infectious Diseases, October 2020;7(suppl_2):S8-S15</p> Md Jamal Hossain ##submission.copyrightStatement## Sun, 08 Nov 2020 10:07:30 +0000 Clinico-demographic Profile of Coronavirus Infection among Bangladeshi Children: A Tertiary Care Hospital Study <p><strong>Background: </strong>Variation and atypical presentation of COVID-19 in Bangladeshi children has been noticed. <strong>Objective: </strong>The purpose of the present study was to see the clinical and demographic features for easy and early identification of coronavirus infection.</p> <p><strong>Methodology</strong>: This descriptive cross-sectional study was done at Dr. MR Khan Shishu Hospital &amp; ICH, Dhaka, Bangladesh from April 2020 to August 2020. The suspected case of coronavirus infection was advised RT-PCR and symptomatic home treatment was given. Hospitalization was done in severe cases. Then diagnosis was made by clinical symptoms plus investigations and appropriate treatment was given. Then RT-PCR was done among them in suspected cases. Other investigations were done accordingly.</p> <p><strong>Results: </strong>Among the 236 cases RT-PCR positive was found 71(30.08%) cases. The male-female ratio was 1.7:1. Mostly was 1 year to 2 years (21.13%) and 5 years to 10 years (21.13%). About twenty percent was asymptomatic, 80.28% was symptomatic, co-infections was 29.58%, and co-morbidities was 8.45%. The duration of RT-PCR was positive up to two, four, six, and more than six weeks 49.30%, 30.99%, 16.90%, and 2.82% respectively. Fever (80.28%), cough (45.07%), sore throat (33.80%), runny nose (29.58%), anorexia (28.17%), convulsion (25.35%), respiratory distress &amp; acute diarrhea (15.50%), weakness (14.08%), paralytic ileus, rash and acute abdomen (4.23%).</p> <p><strong>Conclusion: </strong>COVID-19 in Bangladeshi children are found with a variety of clinical presentations; unlike that of the adult.</p> <p>Bangladesh Journal of Infectious Diseases, October 2020;7(suppl_2):S16-S21</p> Uzzal Kumar Ghosh, Azmeri Sultana, Nobo Krishna Ghosh, Arifa Akram, Erfan Ahmed, Imam Haidar Rana, Ahmed Murtaza Choudhury ##submission.copyrightStatement## Sun, 08 Nov 2020 10:07:45 +0000 Demographic Characteristics of 1082 Positive Cases of COVID-19 Patients: Experience at National Referral Laboratory of Bangladesh <p><strong>Background: </strong>COVID-19 has now become a pandemic.</p> <p><strong>Objective: </strong>The aim of this study was to characterize the demographic features with infection rate of SARS-CoV-2 in 4/5 divisions of Bangladesh.</p> <p><strong>Methodology: </strong>This cross-sectional study was conducted at National institute of Laboratory Medicine and Referral Center, Dhaka, Bangladesh from 15<sup>th</sup> April to 30<sup>th</sup> April, 2020. It was performed RT-PCR for 2462 cases within the time frame and 1082 samples were positive for SARS CoV-2. Patient demographic characteristics including age, gender, occupation and blood group was investigated.</p> <p><strong>Results: </strong>The mean age of positive cases was 40.2 ± 15.33 years, 426 (39%) cases were 25-39 years of age. The majority of cases were male (71%) and the predominant blood group was B positive (37%).</p> <p><strong>Conclusions: </strong>In conclusion male gender, younger age and blood group B positive are more commonly suffering from COVID-19 infection.</p> <p>Bangladesh Journal of Infectious Diseases, October 2020;7(suppl_2):S22-S26</p> Arifa Akram, Mahmuda Yeasmin, THM Enayet Ullah Khan, Mohammad Abdullah Az Zubayer Khan, Md Bayzid Bin Monir, Mst Naznin Tarana, Sunzida Arina, Md Maruf Ahmed Molla, Tasnim Nafisa, Md Abdullah Yusuf, Shaikh Badiuzzaman, Md Khan Zahan Ali, Abu Ahammad Al Mamun, AKM Shamsuzzaman ##submission.copyrightStatement## Sun, 08 Nov 2020 10:07:55 +0000 Nurses’ Knowledge and Practices Regarding Prevention and Control of COVID-19 Infection in a Tertiary Level Hospital <p><strong>Background: </strong>Bangladesh is a highly populated country for that reasonCOVID-19 is highly transmittable infection in Bangladesh.</p> <p><strong>Objective: </strong>The aim of this study was to identify the nurses’ knowledge and practices regarding <strong>prevention </strong>and control of COVID-19 infection.</p> <p><strong>Methodology: </strong>This cross-sectional study was conducted in Rajshahi Medical College Hospital, Rajshahi, Bangladesh from April to July 2020. The questionnaires were completed and returned by the nurses. Collected data were checked, coded and transferred in to SPSS version 25 for analysis. Frequency, percentage, mean, SD, chi-squire and other statistics were calculated.</p> <p><strong>Result: </strong>The knowledge and practices scores were categorized into good (≥80%), fair (59-79%), and poor. The result shows that majority of the respondents 83.4% were female and 16.6% were male. 0nly 8.68% took training on COVID-19. More than half of the respondents (52.11%) took information from social media and 7.89% from seminars and workshops. Nearly two third percent nurse’s possessed (73.42%) good knowledge about COVID-19and 17.63% had fair knowledge.73.42% nurses had good practices, 21.84% fair practices and8.68% poor practices. There is a significant relationship between Nurses’ knowledge and practices (p=0.01).</p> <p><strong>Conclusion: </strong>In conclusion effective and appropriate health education and training programs improve COVID-19 knowledge and maintenance of safe practices. Safe practices lead to prevent spread of COVID-19 infection from patient to nurses and nurse to patient.</p> <p>Bangladesh Journal of Infectious Diseases, October 2020;7(suppl_2):S27-S33</p> Ashees Kumar Saha, China Rani Mittra, Ronju Ara Khatun, Hasan Mahfuz Reza ##submission.copyrightStatement## Sun, 08 Nov 2020 10:08:07 +0000 Pathogenesis, Diagnosis, Treatment and Prevention Strategies of Human Coronavirus: A Review <p>Coronaviruses is a group of virus which infects many species of animals, including humans. The rapid outbreak of COVID-19 raised serious attention at national and international levels and it was recognized as a pandemic by the World Health Organization. The disease model comprised of three different phases: replication of virus, hyperactivity of immune system and pulmonary cells destruction. For the diagnosis of asymptomatic carriers, viral nucleic acid (RNA) can be detected by using pharyngeal swab. Isolation of infected persons prevents the transmission and spread risk of the disease. Therapy includes use of oxygen therapy, high-flow nasal cannula (HFNC) and methylprednisolone (IV) and in severe cases adrenaline (IV). Anti-viral drugs such as ritonavir plus lopinavir per-orally and antibiotics (moxifloxacin or any antibiotic) were administered by IM/IV route to prevent secondary bacterial infection. Education campaigns are launched to promote different precautionary measures to avoid disease transmission.</p> <p>Bangladesh Journal of Infectious Diseases, October 2020;7(suppl_2):S34-S37</p> Ayisha Shaukat, Muhammad Saqib Javed ##submission.copyrightStatement## Sun, 08 Nov 2020 10:08:16 +0000 Combined Homeopathy and Allopathy Treatment for COVID-19: A Review <p>At the end of 2019, an outburst of a novel virus called severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) was observed in Wuhan, China. World Health Organization proclaimed this upsurge as a Public Health Emergency of International Concern on 30th January 2020. In this article, epidemiology, the causative agent, pathogenesis of SARS-CoV-2 and its treatment approaches like homeopathy and allopathy are reviewed. However, our main focus was to collect and visualize some data which bring evidence that combined homeopathy and allopathy treatment can help to cure COVID-19.</p> <p>Bangladesh Journal of Infectious Diseases, October 2020;7(suppl_2):S38-S45</p> Md Irfanul Haque, Aqib Adnan Shafin, - Md Mahmud ##submission.copyrightStatement## Sun, 08 Nov 2020 10:08:28 +0000 Cytokine Storm in COVID-19 in Diabetic Patients: A Review <p>COVID-19, a global pandemic has created a worldwide disaster since its first outbreak in December 2019 in Wuhan, China. Studies based in China have reported that people with diabetes and infected with COVID-19 showed higher hospital admission rates, serious pneumonia development, and higher mortality rates. SARS-CoV-2 can increase the metabolism of glucose by fueling immune cell overproduction - a phenomenon known as a 'cytokine storm'. Glucose metabolism is said to contribute to diverse COVID-19 outcomes. In this study, we are overviewing the linkage among SARS-CoV-2, diabetes, and cytokine storm for a better understanding of aggravating health conditions in diabetic patients due to this SARS-CoV-2 virus. In conclusion, this review will contribute to understanding complications that is rising among diabetic patients due to SARS-CoV-2 induced cytokine storm.</p> <p>Bangladesh Journal of Infectious Diseases, October 2020;7(suppl_2):S46-S49</p> Arpita Mazumder, Nilanjan Roy ##submission.copyrightStatement## Sun, 08 Nov 2020 10:08:43 +0000 COVID-19 Complicated with Arterial Thrombosis Resulting Acute Limb Ischemia: A Case Report from Bangladesh <p>COVID-19(Corona virus disease 2019), which starts from Wuhan, China on December, 2019 spread rapidly to different countries of the world including Bangladesh. It affects huge impact on health care system. It’s a new disease with multisystem involvement. Physicians are experiencing new presentation of different cases and rare complication including arterial thrombosis. Few data is available regarding arterial thrombosis in SARS-CoV-2 infected patients. We are currently fighting with a 60 year old lady suffering from COVID-19 pneumonia with other co-morbidities developed severe arterial occlusion of right leg despite of taking anti platelet for long time for another cause. Patient developed irreversible right lower limb ischemia not improving with continuous infusion of unfractionated heparin followed by severe pulmonary embolism. So further study and recommendations will need to evaluate the cases and treatment in COVID-19 Patients with rare presentation.</p> <p>Bangladesh Journal of Infectious Diseases, October 2020;7(suppl_2):S50-S56</p> Md Reaz Uddin Chowdhury, Kazi Shanzida Akter, Sahedul Islam Bhuiyan, Bimal Chandra Das, Mohammad Moksedul Moula, Fazla Alahi Khan, Sohel Rahman, Arifa Akram ##submission.copyrightStatement## Sun, 08 Nov 2020 10:08:53 +0000 A Case Report of Recurrent Covid-19 Infection of a Physician in Bangladesh: Re-infection or Persistence Infection? <p>The novel coronavirus disease (COVID-19) has created a large problem to the healthcare system all over the world. “Retest Positive” for SARS‐CoV‐2 from “recovered” patients (COVID‐19) has been reported recently which raised several questions for the COVID‐19 disease. In this case report, we had described a patient who became positive after 1 month from the initial infection with SARS-CoV-2. It is therefore possible that recurrences should be actually persistent infections in which PCR resulted falsely negative during initial infection when he left home isolation assuming himself disease free. The discharge criteria should be ensured for a recovered patient to prevent the relapse or persistence of COVID-19.</p> <p>Bangladesh Journal of Infectious Diseases, October 2020;7(suppl_2):S57-S60</p> Lubana Akram, Md Harun Ur Rashid Khan, Asif Iqbal, Arifa Akram ##submission.copyrightStatement## Sun, 08 Nov 2020 10:09:03 +0000 "Third wave" of COVID-19 Pandemic in Hong Kong <p>Abstract not available</p> <p>Bangladesh Journal of Infectious Diseases, October 2020;7(suppl_2):S61-S62</p> Siukan Law, Albert Wingnang Leung, Chuanshan Xu ##submission.copyrightStatement## Sun, 08 Nov 2020 10:09:12 +0000 Is Bangladesh Moving toward Herd Immunity? Current COVID-19 Perspective <p>Globally, a spectrum of infectious disease outbreaks like SARS in 2013, Ebola in 2014, MERS in 2015, and currently COVID-19, have affected us in the early phase of this century and coerced the people across the world to search the adamant control measures to avert the pandemic by any means. Unfortunately, high economic costs and resource-limitations, especially in low-and middle-income countries, restrict the adoption of the epidemic control measures in most cases. Since late December of 2019, the SARS-CoV-2 virus has been creating a breakneck public health concern worldwide. Currently, there is no effective drug to tackle the COVID-19 infection or vaccine yet to be approved. An old-age concept, herd immunity might be a prospective option in this uncertain situation to fight the COVID-19 pandemic. A minimum fraction of people need to be immunized through vaccination or previous infection to attain the herd immunity base that may build an obstacle to free the community from the disease. The insusceptible or indirectly immunized people can act as an invisible shield to impede the epidemic's dispersion anymore.</p> <p>Bangladesh Journal of Infectious Diseases, October 2020;7(suppl_2):S63-S66</p> Md Jamal Hossain ##submission.copyrightStatement## Sun, 08 Nov 2020 10:09:29 +0000 Demerits of Remdesivir: An Unseen Trouble <p>Remdesivir is an investigational antiviral agent available for COVID-19 therapy. Even though its efficacy has been proven through various clinical trials, the evidence is still scarce. The side effects of remdesivir are highlighted in this paper and should be kept in mind during its use. Moreover, the availability of this drug is limited, and we fear an impending shortage of the said medicine in the near future. Thus through this letter we hope to increase awareness regarding this potentially lifesaving medicine.</p> <p>Bangladesh Journal of Infectious Diseases, October 2020;7(suppl_2):S67-S68</p> Sundus Nasim, Sohail Kumar, Dua Azim, Areej Haider Hashmi, Muhammad Taha Nasim ##submission.copyrightStatement## Sun, 08 Nov 2020 10:09:37 +0000 Challenge of Neurosurgical Practices during Covid-19 Pandemic <p>The COVID 19 pandemic has changed the world forever. As healthcare facilities were struggling to care for the infected patients, neurosurgeons had to postpone routine surgeries and continue with emergency procedures. They had to take unprecedented measures of protection. The safety and protective measures observed in the hospital for about five months were recorded. These measures were on effect all these time. COVID 19 is very contagious. The preventive and disinfection measures changed our way of consultation in OPD, admission in the wards and surgical and post-operative measures. This changed the practice in our institution. In this paper we look at how the pandemic had changed our practice of neurosurgery.</p> <p>Bangladesh Journal of Infectious Diseases, October 2020;7(suppl_2):S69-S71</p> Kaisar Haroon, Tania Taher, Md Shafiul Alam, Md Farhad Ahmed ##submission.copyrightStatement## Sun, 08 Nov 2020 10:09:45 +0000 Prevalence of Human Rift Valley Fever Virus as a Bio-threat in Asian Countries after COVID-19 Lockdown <p>Abstract not available</p> <p>Bangladesh Journal of Infectious Diseases, October 2020;7(suppl_2):S72-S74</p> Anika Bushra, Khandaker Sabit Bin Razzak, Mohammad Nabil Hossain, Divya Jain, ASM Sarwar, Soaibur Rahman ##submission.copyrightStatement## Sun, 08 Nov 2020 10:09:55 +0000