Bangladesh Journal of Infectious Diseases https://www.banglajol.info/index.php/BJID <p>Published by the Bangladesh Infection Research Association. Full text articles will be available.</p> <p>This journal invites authors and reviewers to register with the journal. The online submission process is available for new submissions.</p> <p><strong>Indexed/Abstract in: </strong>ROAD (road.issn.org); Open DOAR, Directory of Open Access Scholars Repository; ResearchBib; BASE (Bielefeld Academic Search Engine); Academic Resource Index; SciLit.net; Bibliothek.Univechta.de; Infobase Index; Eurasian Scientific Journal Index; International Committee for Medical Journal Editors (ICJME); Easy Bib; Google Scholar; AsiaJol; Open Science Directory; EBSCO Information Service; EBSCO Open Access Journals; Hasselt University Library; Islamic Science Index (ISI); World Association of Medical Editors (WAME); Journal Factor; International Institute of Organized Research (I2OR); Impact Factor Services for International Journals (IFSIJ); Open Access Library; Scientific Indexing Services (SIS)</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> Bangladesh Infection Research Association en-US Bangladesh Journal of Infectious Diseases 2411-4820 <p class="default"><strong>Copyright</strong></p><p>Copyright on any research article in the Bangladesh Journal of Infectious Diseases is retained by the author(s).</p><p>The authors grant the Bangladesh Infection Research Association a license to publish the article and identify itself as the original publisher.</p><p>Articles in the Bangladesh Journal of Infectious Diseases are Open Access articles published under the Creative Commons CC BY-NC License (<a href="https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0/">https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0/</a>)</p><p>This license permits use, distribution and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited, and it is not used for commercial purposes.</p> Rabies Elimination Program of Bangladesh https://www.banglajol.info/index.php/BJID/article/view/51511 <p>Abstract not available</p> <p>Bangladesh Journal of Infectious Diseases 2020;7(2):34-35</p> Moazzem Hossain ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2021-01-20 2021-01-20 7 2 34 35 10.3329/bjid.v7i2.51511 Association of Testosterone Level among Lepromatous and Borderline Leprosy Male Patients: Experience of 30 Cases in Bangladesh https://www.banglajol.info/index.php/BJID/article/view/51506 <p><strong>Background: </strong>Hormonal dysfunction is reported among the leprosy patients.</p> <p><strong>Objective: </strong>The purpose of the present study was to see the association of testosterone level among male patients presented with lepromatous and borderline leprosy<strong>.</strong></p> <p><strong>Methodology: </strong>This cross-sectional study was conducted in the Leprosy Hospital, Dhaka, Bangladesh from January to December 2016 for a period of one year. All patients with a known diagnosis of leprosy under follow up at the hospital were included in the study. The serum concentration of testosterone was measured using an enzyme immunoassay technique (ELISA) (DiaMetra, Spello, Italy).</p> <p><strong>Result: </strong>A total number of 30 cases of leprosy were recruited for this study. The mean with SD of the study population was 39.20±9.065 years. Among 30 cases of study population 26 cases were lepromatous leprosy patents and the rest 4 cases were Borderline Leprosy patients. The mean with the standard deviation of testosterone level in serum was 6.41±4.756 mg/dL and 4.71±2.396 mg/L in lepromatous leprosy and borderline leprosy respectively (p=0.497).</p> <p><strong>Conclusion: </strong>In conclusion there is no statistically significant relationship between leprosy and testosterone; however, lower level of testosterone is found among the study population</p> <p>Bangladesh Journal of Infectious Diseases 2020;7(2):36-39</p> Abu Sayeed Mohammad Tarequzzan Mia MA Hamid Shahadat Hossain Zulfiqur Hossain Khan ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2021-01-20 2021-01-20 7 2 36 39 10.3329/bjid.v7i2.51506 Demographic Profiles and Sources of Infection among Septic Patients admitted at ICU of a Public Hospital in Dhaka City https://www.banglajol.info/index.php/BJID/article/view/51507 <p><strong>Background: </strong>Sepsis occurs due to different sources of infection.</p> <p><strong>Objective: </strong>The purpose of the present study was to see the demographic profiles and sources of infection among septic patients admitted at ICU of a public hospital in Dhaka City.</p> <p><strong>Methodology: </strong>This descriptive cross sectional study was conducted in the Intensive Care Unit of the department of Anaesthesia Analgesia, Palliative and Intensive Care Medicine, Dhaka Medical College Hospital, Dhaka, Bangladesh over a period of 12 months starting from January 2016 to December 2016. All patients admitted to ICU with the features of severe sepsis and septic shock according to SSC guidelines with the age of more than or equal to 18 years in both sexes were set as selection criteria for this study. Instruments required to perform the study were data sheet addressing the demographic data, primary source of severe sepsis and organ dysfunctions. BSepsis was confirmed by detection of serum lactate and culture of blood.</p> <p><strong>Result: </strong>A total number of patients was 69 cases. The mean with SD was 38.72 ±13.43 with the age range of patient 18 to 65 year. The male and female ratio was 1.7:1. The most common source of infection were abdomen which was 30(43.5%) cases followed by CNS, respiratory tract, urogenital tract and GIT which were (21.7%) cases, (14.5%) cases, (17.4%) cases and (2.9%) cases respectively. Among the 69 patient 20 patients were blood cultures positive, 15 patients were pus culture positive, 10 patients were urine/catheter tip culture positive.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion: </strong>In conclusion young adult male is most commonly suffering from sepsis in ICU mostly due to infection of abdomen.</p> <p>Bangladesh Journal of Infectious Diseases 2020;7(2):40-43</p> Subroto Kumar Sarker Mohammod Saiful Azam Montosh Kumar Mondal Uday Kumar Goswami - Mohammad Mohsin ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2021-01-20 2021-01-20 7 2 40 43 10.3329/bjid.v7i2.51507 Diagnostic Validity of Serum Cystatin C for Detection of Acute Kidney Injury in Children https://www.banglajol.info/index.php/BJID/article/view/51508 <p><strong>Background: </strong>Detection of acute kidney injury is very essential among the children.</p> <p><strong>Objective: </strong>The purpose of the present study was to validate the serum cystatin C for the detection of acute kidney injury in children.</p> <p><strong>Methodology: </strong>This cross-sectional study was conducted in the Department of Paediatric Nephrology with the collaboration of Paediatric Gastroenterology, Paediatric Neurology, Paediatric Neonatology and Microbiology and Immunology at Bangabandhu Sheikh Mujib University, Dhaka, Bangladesh from May 2018 to July 2019 for a period of one year. Patients with the age group of 1 month to 17 years, who were at risk of AKI, and admitted in the inpatient department of Pediatrics and allied at Bangabandhu Sheikh Mujib University, Dhaka, Bangladesh during this study period in both sexes were selected as study population. To detect AKI, serum creatinine was measured at 0 h (baseline), 48 h and 5th day respectively. Serum cystatin C were measured at 0 (baseline) and 48 h respectively for all patients.</p> <p><strong>Result: </strong>A total number of 52 patients were enrolled in this study. Here the AUC was 0.93 with 95% CI (0.864 - 0.995). Serum cystatin C had sensitivity of 95% (95% CI 77.9%-099.7%) with specificity 84% (95% CI 73.7%-87.3%), PPV 79% (95% CI 64.9%-83.1%), NPV 96% (95% CI 84.2%-99.8%), accuracy 88.7% (95% CI 75.3%-92.1%), positive likelihood ratio 6.08 and negative likelihood ratio 0.06 (95% CI 2.96-7.87 and 0.003-0.300 respectively).</p> <p><strong>Conclusion: </strong>In conclusion the diagnostic validity of serum cystatin C for the detection of AKI is very high among the children.</p> <p>Bangladesh Journal of Infectious Diseases 2020;7(2):44-48</p> Sharmin Akter Luna Jakia Sultana Md Abdullah Yusuf Golam Muin Uddin Md Habibur Rahman Ranjit Ranjan Roy ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2021-01-20 2021-01-20 7 2 44 48 10.3329/bjid.v7i2.51508 Knowledge of Biosafety Measures among Laboratory Personnel at Tertiary Level Public Hospitals in Dhaka City https://www.banglajol.info/index.php/BJID/article/view/51509 <p><strong>Background: </strong>Biosafety is the principles, technologies and practices that are implemented to prevent the unintentional exposure to pathogens and toxins.</p> <p><strong>Objective: </strong>The purpose of the present study was to assess the Status of biosafety safety measures practice by medical laboratory workers in public hospitals of Dhaka city.</p> <p><strong>Methodology: </strong>This descriptive cross-sectional study was conducted with Data from Medical Laboratory Workers of Tertiary Level Public Hospitals of Dhaka City using a Semi-Structured Questionnaire. The study was conducted from May 2015 to November 2015. It was designed to assess the Status of Practicing Biosafety Safety Measures in Tertiary Level Public Hospitals of Dhaka City. The knowledge, training, level of education on Biosafety were assessed by medical laboratory workers<strong>.</strong></p> <p><strong>Result: </strong>The Data of this study is obtained from a total of 238 respondents. In this study it is observed that 224(94%) respondents could not say the concept of Biosafety as defined by WHO. In this study 118(49%) respondents do not know about biosafety cabinet and 84(35%) could say up to Biosafety Level IV and 36(15%) can say up to Biosafety Level 3. Orientation with biosafety tools is observed in 138(58%) respondents, 76(32%) got training during course and 78(33%) got training during service.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion: </strong>In conclusion knowledge and training on biosafety of the laboratory worker are inadequate.</p> <p>Bangladesh Journal of Infectious Diseases 2020;7(2):49-56</p> Md Nowfel Islam Md Humayun Kabir Md Abdullah Yusuf Md Badius Salam Irin Perveen Sadia Shirin ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2021-01-20 2021-01-20 7 2 49 56 10.3329/bjid.v7i2.51509 Prevalence and Antibiotic Resistance Pattern of Salmonella typhi and Salmonella paratyphi A isolated by Automated Blood Culture System https://www.banglajol.info/index.php/BJID/article/view/51510 <p><strong>Background: </strong><em>Salmonella thyphi </em>and <em>Salmonella paratyphi </em>A are the members of Enterobactoriaceae and gram negative rods causing typhoid fever &amp; partyphoid fever respectively. Automated blood culture system is the standard diagnostic method.</p> <p><strong>Objective: </strong>The purpose of the present study was to see the prevalence and antibiotic resistance pattern of <em>Salmonella typhi </em>and <em>Salmonella paratyphi </em>A isolated by automated blood culture system.</p> <p><strong>Methodology: </strong>This cross-sectional study was done in the Microbiology Lab at IBN Sina D. Lab and consultation center, Doyagonj, Dhaka, Bangladesh from January 2019 to June 2019. Blood culture was performed by automated blood culture method. Sensitivity pattern of antibiotic was measured by Disk diffusion method.</p> <p><strong>Result: </strong>A total of 3240 blood samples were collected from suspected patients. Among them, bacteria were isolated 336 (10.37%). The most common isolated bacteria were <em>Salmonella typhi </em>which was 261(77.68%) cases and <em>Salmonella paratyphi </em>A which was in 60 (17.86%) cases. <em>Salmonella typhi </em>is the most common organism and showed sensitivity pattern to imipenem 97.3%, colistin 80.46% and amikain 77.4% and <em>Salmonella paratyphi </em>A showed. Sensitivity pattern to imipenem 93.3% and amikacin 83.3%.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion: </strong>In conclusion high rate of <em>Salmonella typhi </em>and <em>Salmonella paratyphi </em>A are isolated during blood culture showing less sensitive to imipenem and amikacin.</p> <p>Bangladesh Journal of Infectious Diseases 2020;7(2):57-60</p> Md Badrul Islam Sazzad Bin Shahid AFM Arshedi Satar Md Abdullah Yusuf Shoriful Islam Raihanul Islam ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2021-01-20 2021-01-20 7 2 57 60 10.3329/bjid.v7i2.51510 Seroconversion of Indirect Immunofluorescent Antibody IgM and IgG in Melioidosis https://www.banglajol.info/index.php/BJID/article/view/51514 <p><strong>Background: </strong>There are several serological tests used in the diagnosis of melioidosis. However, the interpretation of the results can be problematic in endemic areas because there might be a high background positivity due to previous exposure.</p> <p><strong>Objective: </strong>This study aimed to determine the usefulness of Indirect Immunofluorescent Antibody (IFA) IgM and IgG in the diagnosis of melioidosis and the time for seroconversion.</p> <p><strong>Methodology: </strong>We prospectively studied the trend of IFA IgM and IgG in 40 patients with culture-confirmed melioidosis over three months at six different time points (days 1, 8, 15, 30, 60, and 90).</p> <p><strong>Results: </strong>From the results, 37.5% and 32.5% of patients had IFA IgM and IgG of ≤ 1:20 respectively on day 1 when the blood culture was positive. The natural log (ln) of the titres was used for the analysis. Repeated measures ANOVA showed significant changes in both IgM (p= 0.001) and IgG (p= 0.045) respectively throughout six sampling time points. Both the means of ln IgM and ln IgG peaked at day 15. At day 90, mean ln IgG remained high but mean ln IgM dropped to a level below that of day one. All culture-confirmed melioidosis patients recorded a maximum IFA IgM titre of at least 1: 80, but all subsequently dropped to below this level at day 90.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion: </strong>IFA IgM is a more useful diagnostic serological marker than IFA IgG in acute melioidosis.</p> <p>Bangladesh Journal of Infectious Diseases 2020;7(2):61-66</p> Arumugam Janaki How Soon Hin Ummu Afeera Zainulabid Mohammed Imad A Mustafa Mahmud Jamaluddin Ab Rahman Ahmad Kashfi Ab Rahman Yeh Chunn Kuan ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2021-01-20 2021-01-20 7 2 61 66 10.3329/bjid.v7i2.51514 Prediction of Length of Hospital Stay and Immediate Outcome of Children Suffering From Bronchiolitis on the Bases of Associated Risk Factors https://www.banglajol.info/index.php/BJID/article/view/51512 <p><strong>Background: </strong>Bronchiolitis is the most common reason for hospitalization among children younger than 2 years.</p> <p><strong>Objective: </strong>The aim of the study was to assess the possibility that the associated risk factors in children suffering from bronchiolitis could predict the length of hospital stay and also to observe the immediate outcome.</p> <p><strong>Methodology: </strong>This prospective study was conducted in a district hospital of Bangladesh in a period of two years from January 2011 to December 2012. Patients aged 2 years or less fulfilling inclusion criteria for bronchiolitis and required admission were enrolled in this study. Patients having comorbidities and who were discharged before fulfilling the study criteria for discharge were excluded from the study. Treatment was given according to National Guidelines for the Management of Bronchiolitis. All demographic, clinical and laboratory data were recorded in a prefixed questionnaire and analyzed.</p> <p><strong>Results: </strong>Among 100 patients, 60% cases were hospitalized for 4 days or more. Mean duration of hospital stay was 4.37±1.93 days. Patients of male sex (67%), younger than 6 months of age (71%), preterm birth (21%), weight-for-age was either ≥2SD (60%) or ≤3SD (23%) were hospitalized for longer duration. Length of hospitalization was also increased in patients with family history of asthma (37%), smoking (75%), using wood-burning stoves for cooking (89%) and no previous history of respiratory distress (81%). Exclusively breastfed infants (41%) stayed hospital for shorter duration than those who fed partially (53%) or not at all (6%). All patients were improved in this case series (100%).</p> <p><strong>Conclusion: </strong>Bronchiolitis patients having male sex, age less than 6 months, preterm born, partially breast fed , family history of asthma, exposure to smoking and wood-burning stoves were deduced to be significant risk factors for prolongation of length of hospitalization. Further research is needed to determine how these risk factors contribute to the development of the disease and prolong the length of hospital stay.</p> <p>Bangladesh Journal of Infectious Diseases 2020;7(2):67-71</p> Bithi Debnath Sajani Islam Nazmul Haque ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2021-01-20 2021-01-20 7 2 67 71 10.3329/bjid.v7i2.51512 Association of Cartridge Based Nucleic Acid Amplification Test (CBNAAT) Grading on the Basis of Cycle Threshold Value with Conventional Microbiological Diagnosis in Pediatric Tuberculosis https://www.banglajol.info/index.php/BJID/article/view/51513 <p><strong>Background: </strong>Microbiological confirmation of tuberculosis disease in children remains difficult due to paucibacillary disease and inability to obtain optimal samples. Recently introduced Cartridge based nucleic acid amplification test (CBNAAT) has improved microbiological diagnosis in pediatric tuberculosis.</p> <p><strong>Objectives: </strong>We aimed to study association of CBNAAT grading based on cycle threshold value with conventional microbiological diagnosis.</p> <p><strong>Methodology: </strong>This prospective study was conducted over a period from November 2016 to October 2017 in the Departments of Microbiology and Pediatrics, University College of Medical Sciences and Guru Teg Bahadur Hospital, Delhi. CBNAAT positive pediatric TB cases ≤12 years were recruited and subjected to Ziehl-Neelsen staining for acid fast bacilli (AFB) &amp; culture on Lowenstein Jensen medium. CBNAAT positivity was graded based on cycle threshold value: very low, low, medium and high.</p> <p><strong>Results: </strong>Smear and culture positivity was highest (100%) among specimens with high positive CBNAAT result based on CT value. Time to culture positivity was inversely related to CBNAAT grading (p=0.000).</p> <p><strong>Conclusion: </strong>CBNAAT grading has significant positive association with smear and culture positivity.</p> <p>Bangladesh Journal of Infectious Diseases 2020;7(2):72-77</p> Bineeta Kashyap Neha Gupta Pooja Dewan NP Singh Ashwani Khanna ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2021-01-20 2021-01-20 7 2 72 77 10.3329/bjid.v7i2.51513 Exploration of Knowledge of Tuberculosis Patients Regarding their Disease in Quetta, Pakistan https://www.banglajol.info/index.php/BJID/article/view/51517 <p><strong>Background: </strong>Knowledge of tuberculosis is very important for the patients.</p> <p><strong>Objective: </strong>This study was aimed to assess and explore the knowledge of TB patients regarding their diseases in Quetta, Pakistan.</p> <p><strong>Methodology: </strong>This questionnaire based, cross sectional analysis was conducted in Fatima Jinnah Chest Hospital, Quetta with in all TB patients. Knowledge was assessed by using a pre-validated self-administered questionnaire containing 22 disease related questions. Convenience sampling technique was used for data collection. Descriptive analysis was used to demonstrate the characteristics of the study population.</p> <p><strong>Result: </strong>Mean age of respondents was 40.99±18.10. Study was dominated by 168 (60.00%) of females. Two hundred (71.40%) were married. One hundred sixteen (41.40%) had no any education. One hundred sixty-eight (60.00%) were Pashtun. One hundred thirty-two (47.10%) having income less than 10000 PKR and ranges between 10000 to 18000 PKR respectively. One hundred fifty-six (55.70%) were having rural residency. One hundred fifty-six (58.10%) having no any co-morbidity. Mean score of knowledge was 11.23±3.616.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion: </strong>Knowledge is a key factor in understanding any particular disease. If the level of knowledge is low in some or all parts of the disease, it will actually affect the patient. It can be concluded that there is a need to raise awareness of TB symptoms, mode of transmission, prevention, diagnosis and treatment of the disease through health education.</p> <p>Bangladesh Journal of Infectious Diseases 2020;7(2):78-83</p> Noman Ul Haq Aqeel Nasim Palwasha Kakar ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2021-01-20 2021-01-20 7 2 78 83 10.3329/bjid.v7i2.51517 Management of Hemodialysis Unit for Care Receivers in a Specialized Hospital https://www.banglajol.info/index.php/BJID/article/view/51516 <p><strong>Background: </strong>Chronic Kidney disease is becoming a global public health problem throughout the world.</p> <p><strong>Objective: </strong>The aim of the study was to assess the management status of hemodialysis unit for care receivers in a specialized hospital.</p> <p><strong>Methodology: </strong>This was a hospital based descriptive cross-sectional study. The participants were selected by purposive sampling method on the basis of defined selection criteria from January 2015 to December 2016. The place of study was National Institute of Kidney Diseases and Urology (NIKDU) hospital, Dhaka. The research instruments were a semi structured questionnaire and an observational checklist. Data were collected from respondents by face to face interview and an observational Checklist was also used to collect information regarding administrative facility, physical facility and utility services.</p> <p><strong>Result: </strong>The findings of the study were presented by frequency, percentage in tables. Means and standard deviations for continuous variables and frequency distributions for categorical variables were used to describe the characteristics of the total sample. Among the service receiver, mean age was 46.65±13.53 years of which 69.9 %( n=58) were male and their average monthly income Tk. 20670±14811. Formalin and hydrogen per oxide were used to wash dialyzer. In the support services unit, equipment and stationery were supplied always. Ratio of health care receiver and provider in the unit was Patient-doctor ratio 1:15 and Patient-nurse ratio 1:6. From the respondents 38 (45.8%) said that, doctor/ nurse visit them thrice per cycle. In majority of respondents, were satisfied regarding the unit including doctors and nurses activities, physical facilities, and cleanliness of the unit, except the cleanliness of toilet.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion: </strong>Increasing number of functioning dialysis machine, skilled manpower, medicine supply and strict infection control measure could be helpful to improve the management status of the hemodialysis unit of NIKDU.</p> <p>Bangladesh Journal of Infectious Diseases 2020;7(2):84-89</p> Arifa Sultana ANM Shamsul Islam China Rani Mittra Salma Khatun Ashees Kumar Saha ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2021-01-20 2021-01-20 7 2 84 89 10.3329/bjid.v7i2.51516 Severity of Liver Involvement in Children with Dengue Infection https://www.banglajol.info/index.php/BJID/article/view/51519 <p><strong>Background</strong>: Liver involvement in dengue infection is one of the clinical presentations.</p> <p><strong>Objective: </strong>This study was undertaken to see severity of liver dysfunction in children with dengue infection.</p> <p><strong>Methods: </strong>It is a cross sectional observational study conducted in 100 consecutive children with serologically positive dengue infection aged between 2 months to 14 years of age. Liver function tests were done in all patients and were studied the severity of deranged LFT with severity of dengue infection.</p> <p><strong>Results</strong>: Out of 100 admitted children with dengue infection, deranged liver function tests found in 57(57.0%). ALT was above normal in 10 (29.4% of DF, 19 (57.6%) cases of DHF and 19(57.6%) cases of DSS respectively. AST was above normal level in 12(35.3%) cases of DF, 23(69.7%) cases of DHF and 22(66.7%) cases of DSS respectively. Low albumin was found in 41.0% of cases, 15(45.5%) cases of DHF and 19(57.6%) cases of DSS. INR was high only 4 cases of DSS. The bilirubin was normal in all cases except one died due to ALF due to DSS. The mean ALT and mean AST statistically higher in DHF and DSS in compare to DF (P-value 0.011 and 0.037) respectively. However, there was no significant difference in meal ALT and AST between DHF and DSS respectively. Overall mortality in 2 cases with DHF and DSS.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion</strong>: Dengue infection is associated with variable level of liver dysfunction. The severity of liver dysfunction can predict the severity of dengue infection.</p> <p>Bangladesh Journal of Infectious Diseases 2020;7(2):90-94</p> Afsana Yasmin Rozina Akhter Shahina Pervin Shapla Laila Yeasmin ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2021-01-20 2021-01-20 7 2 90 94 10.3329/bjid.v7i2.51519 Ivermectin the Promising Drug to Stave off the COVID-19 Crisis: A Review https://www.banglajol.info/index.php/BJID/article/view/51520 <p>The Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) outbreak, forcing us to face unprecedented moments in the world. The huge devastating impact of the world due to the covid-19 attack causes the brink of no return. However, there is no proven and specific treatment for Covid -19. Very few medications have received Emergency Use of Authorization. A recent in vitro study was the first time to find out and to assess the antiviral effect of Ivermectin on COVID-19. The study showed that Ivermectin was active against COVID- 19-infected cells, was able to kill effectively almost all viral particles within 48 h. In these moments of crisis, FDA-approved ivermectin is a ray of hope.</p> <p>Bangladesh Journal of Infectious Diseases 2020;7(2):95-98</p> Zakia Jahan Masudul Hassan ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2021-01-20 2021-01-20 7 2 95 98 10.3329/bjid.v7i2.51520 A Case Report of Streptomycin Induced Cochlear Toxicity in Tuberculosis Patients https://www.banglajol.info/index.php/BJID/article/view/51515 <p>Streptomycin is a semi-synthetic, oldest aminoglycoside. It is the first line drug for tuberculosis. It may adversely produce ototoxicity, nephrotoxicity, neuromuscular blockage. The initial isolation of streptomycin from <em>Streptomyces griseus</em>. A 51 year old female visited to the medicine OPD in hospital. On presentation she complained of vomiting and vertigo from last few days. The patient recently diagnosed for Pulmonary TB by chest X-ray 3 month back. She taken streptomycin 0.75mg IV bid. As these were the new symptoms, the physician requested for otolaryngologist consultation to rule out the other causes and was insignificant. But the audiometry report showed hearing loss. The ototoxicity caused by aminoglycosides is permanent and can negatively affect the individual’s quality of life. The early detection, management and therapeutic approaches for prevention of hearing loss is crucial. Reporting here is an interesting case of streptomycin induced cochlear toxicity.</p> <p>Bangladesh Journal of Infectious Diseases 2020;7(2):99-101</p> Ambika Nand Jha Akshay H Shah Upama N Trivedi Jignesh S Patel ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2021-01-20 2021-01-20 7 2 99 101 10.3329/bjid.v7i2.51515 Neonate with Rare Clinical Presentation of COVID-19: A Report of Two Clinically Distinct Cases https://www.banglajol.info/index.php/BJID/article/view/51518 <p>Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), has spread across the world. We describe two cases of neonate, presenting with features like multisystem inflammatory syndrome (MIS-C), who presented to our neonatal unit of Dr. M R Khan Shishu Hospital, Bangladesh on August, 2020.Case 1 was a 7-day-old male infant presented at 14 hours of life with fever, poor feeding, per rectal bleeding and shock. Detailed examination revealed Down’s fancies and pallor. Case 2 was 15-day old neonate presenting with fever, rash and convulsion and his laboratory values were remarkable for high levels of C-reactive protein, D-dimer, ferritin and his Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) findings were consistent with aseptic meningitis. Both babies were tested positive for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). First case was very critical and referred to tertiary care hospital after stabilization. 2nd case recovered completely and was discharged to home in 15 days. Though till date COVID 19 in neonate is not very well-known to us, it is essential to disseminate information among the medical community regarding severe and atypical presentations of COVID-19 in neonate as prior knowledge can help to quickly identify and treat these patients as they present in the neonatal department.</p> <p>Bangladesh Journal of Infectious Diseases 2020;7(2):102-106</p> Ruma Parvin Sharmin Afroze AHM Khairul Bashar Sheikh Farjana Sonia Nobo Krishna Ghosh ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2021-01-20 2021-01-20 7 2 102 106 10.3329/bjid.v7i2.51518 Whooping Cough Followed by Lower Motor Neuron Facial Palsy: A Case Report https://www.banglajol.info/index.php/BJID/article/view/51521 <p>A 5 years old child with pertussis reported to us with a unique complication not mentioned in the literature. He was thoroughly examined and investigated to find out cause for his lower motor neuron (LMN) facial palsy but purtussis seemed to be the sole reason. With treatment of purtussis the patient showed marked improvement of neurological deficit.</p> <p>Bangladesh Journal of Infectious Diseases 2020;7(2):107-109</p> Sajid Ali Shah Sohail Shahzad ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2021-01-20 2021-01-20 7 2 107 109 10.3329/bjid.v7i2.51521 Acute Parkinsonism in Young Adult Following Streptococcal Infection https://www.banglajol.info/index.php/BJID/article/view/51522 <p>Acute parkinsonism following streptococcal infection is rarely reported. To date, there is paucity of literature of post streptococcal immune mediated acute parkinsonism and dyskinesia among adult. We report a case of 18 years old woman, who presented with acute parkinsonism after streptococcal tonsillitis. The patient who was previously well presented with a two-month history of intermittent fever, associated with sore throat and sudden onset of behaviour changes. She has been found to be quieter and respond slowly to questions and commands in the preceding one week prior to admission. Features of secondary parkinsonism was noted during examination. Her blood counts, viral screenings and anti-NMDAR were unremarkable. Her lumbar puncture revealed an opening pressure of 10 cm CSF with normal constituents. The ASO titre was raised up to 400IU/ml. Electroencephalogram (EEG) shows mild encephalopathy changes and MRI brain shows normal finding. She was initially treated initially for meningoencephalitis with intravenous acyclovir 500mg q8h and ceftriaxone 2g q12h, concomitant with intravenous methylprednisolone 1g daily for 3 days. Intravenous immunoglobulin was started on her in view of poor response to the above treatment, which later resulted in significant and rapid clinical improvement. Upon clinic review at 3 months, her tremor, bradykinesia, and rigidity resolved. Her medication was able to be weaned off and she was referred to the ENT team for further evaluation for tonsillectomy. This case illustrates the importance of recognising post-streptococcal infection as aetiology of acute parkinsonism in young adults, to avoid treatment delay. As illustrated in our case, the prognosis was excellent with prompt immunomodulatory therapy.</p> <p>Bangladesh Journal of Infectious Diseases 2020;7(2):110-112</p> Shahedah Koya Kutty Ummu Afeera Zainulabid ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2021-01-20 2021-01-20 7 2 110 112 10.3329/bjid.v7i2.51522 Spraying Disinfectants to Combat SARS-CoV-2 Transmission: Is it Fruitless Rather Than Fruitful? https://www.banglajol.info/index.php/BJID/article/view/51523 <p>Abstract not available</p> <p>Bangladesh Journal of Infectious Diseases 2020;7(2):113-114</p> - Md Sohel Md Rashel Mahmod ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2021-01-20 2021-01-20 7 2 113 114 10.3329/bjid.v7i2.51523