Bangladesh Journal of Animal Science 2020-11-29T13:44:10+00:00 Professor Dr. Md. Ruhul Amin Open Journal Systems <p>Official journal of the Bangladesh Animal Husbandry Association, Bangladesh Agricultural University, Mymensingh</p> Application of probiotics in commercial layer diets: a review 2020-11-29T13:44:10+00:00 SD Chowdhury BC Ray A Khatun MRA Redoy AS Afsana <p>Probiotics of various commercial preparations are being considered worldwide for poultry as performance enhancers and suitable alternatives to antibiotics. Much of the previous efforts to explore beneficial effects of probiotics were directed for commercial broilers and scientific information for commercial layer nutrition is limited in contrast to that of broilers. To our knowledge, whatever information is available, no attempt has been made as yet to make a comprehensive review of the effects of probiotics on layer chicken covering different aspects of production. This review is prepared by consolidating and updating information available in the literature covering laying performance, serum chemistry, egg quality and its safety aspects. Data generated from a number of studies clearly indicated that apart from a few exceptions, probiotics are found to be effective for the improvement of laying performance; serum biochemical parameters, egg shell and albumen quality and they are suitable for the production of safe eggs. Effect of probiotics on layers is mediated by boosting up gut health thereby creating an environment for better nutrient assimilation and thus an improvement of production and egg quality is achieved. Factors affecting such results need to be assessed more precisely since they contribute to some contradictions in the literatures. Nevertheless, the feed industry can rely on probiotics as quite safe for the production of quality feed to support commercial layer nutrition.</p> <p><strong><em>Bang. J. Anim. Sci. 2020. 49 (1): </em></strong><strong><em>1-12</em></strong></p> 2020-10-18T13:07:31+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Impact of community based breeding program on breeding buck availability, growth and reproductive performance of Black Bengal goat 2020-11-29T13:44:06+00:00 M Solaiman AS Apu MY Ali M Fakruzzaman MO Faruque <p>The present study was undertaken to evaluate the availability of breeding bucks as well as growth and reproductive performances of Black Bengal goat under community based breeding program. A total of 30 goat rearers in three areas of Sakhipur upazilla were selected based on the survey result. Selected goat rearers were trained on scientific rearing, management and community-based breeding of Black Bengal goat and also build up community link with them. Three Black Bengal breeding bucks have been distributed among three potential farmers in three villages under Sakhipur upazilla. The management and performance of Black Bengal goats were monitored closely and analyze the impact of community based breeding program. The analysis of the growth performance showed that male kids attained significantly (p&lt;0.05) higher birth weight (1.28±0.04 kg) than that of female kids (1.06±0.02 kg). The body weights of male at 3, 6, 9 and 12-month were 5.41±0.28, 9.18±0.32, 12.87±0.35 and 16.91±0.46 kg whereas female reached significantly (p&lt;0.05) lower body weight as 4.97±0.16, 8.02±0.21, 10.91±0.23 and 14.21±0.34 kg at the same ages, respectively. Average daily body weight gain up to 12 months of age was also significantly (p&lt;0.05) higher in males (43.42±1.17 g/day) than females (36.53±2.49 g/day). On the other hand, season had a significant effect (p&lt;0.05) on the body weights of Black Bengal goat at 0 (birth), 3, 6, 9, 12-month of age. In case of reproductive performances, it was revealed that age at sexual maturity was 199.32±2.41 days; age at first kidding 393.23±1.38 days; service per conception 1.17±0.04, and litter size was 1.76±0.08 in community based breeding program. Beside these, post-partum heat period of Black Bengal goat was found 47.50±0.87 days. Comparing with the findings of previous research works, these results suggested that community based breeding program has not only reduced the scarcity of good quality breeding bucks but also improved the growth and reproductive performances of Black Bengal goats.</p> <p><strong><em>Bang. J. Anim. Sci. 2020. 49 (1): </em></strong><strong><em>13-21</em></strong></p> 2020-10-18T13:07:41+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Mitochondrial DNA polymorphisms in Nepalese Achhami cattle 2020-11-29T13:44:02+00:00 NA Gorkhali A Dhakal S Sapkota C Sherpa BR Pokhrel MR Kolachhapati N Bhattarai <p>Achhami cattle is claimed to be the world's smallest cattle which is found in Achham district of Sudur Paschim Province of Nepal. A study was carried out to investigate the polymorphism in the control region of the mitochondrial DNA polymorphism in these Achhami cattle. Thirty-seven blood samples were collected from different pocket areas of in Achham district. Our study revealed that Achhami cattle lie significantly within the indicine haplogroups rather than taurine (34 out of 37 samples) manifesting the later introgression by taurine cattle population. The taurine haplogroup, found within Achhami was different than Lulu cattle, which might be from the independent domestication event. Within indicine haplogroup, I1 type haplogroup (64.7%) was found dominant over I2 type haplogroup (35.3%). Achhami cattle revealed its uniqueness as it segregates from Indian cattle for indicine type as well as Chinese cattle for taurine type. In order to understand its ancestry, the whole genome should be studied together with the consideration of more population of cattle from the Asian region.</p> <p><strong><em>Bang. J. Anim. Sci. 2020. 49 (1): </em></strong><strong><em>22-28</em></strong></p> 2020-10-18T13:07:48+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Assessment of broiler chicken meat quality collected from different markets of Chittagong 2020-11-29T13:43:59+00:00 JC Dey I Jahan S Ghosh BC Halder MH Ahmad MA Hossain <p>The study was conducted to assess the quality of broiler meat procured from four different markets of Chittagong city, (Baddar Hat; BH, Pahartoli; PHT, Jhaowtola; JT and Riazuddin bazar; RB).&nbsp; Broiler was collected from each of the market by replicating four times with five birds per replicate for assessing the meat quality in this study. A total of 20 shops was selected randomly and live broilers of similar age were collected from each shop located in the different places of metropolitan city of Chittagong to conduct the experiment.&nbsp; Meat samples were taken from the live broilers to appraise the quality based on the H<sub>2</sub>O level, pH, water holding capacity (WHC), extract release value (ERV), tyrosine value (TV) and thiobarbituric acid reactive substance value (TBARS) through the laboratory analyses. The data revealed that the TV and TBARS values differed significantly (P&lt;0.01) between markets except for the other parameters (H<sub>2</sub>O, pH, WHC, ERV).&nbsp; The highest TV value (0.66) was found in the meat of PHT market while lowest TV value (0.54) being in BH and JT markets. The TBARS value was improved (P&lt;0.01) in the meat of BH and JT markets compared to that of other markets.&nbsp; The road distance (RD) and the transporting time (TT) for carrying birds were affected (P&lt;0.01) by markets.&nbsp; It can be concluded that the quality of broiler meat of different markets appears to be good based on the chemical evaluation, even though TT and RD might influence meat quality to a bit.</p> <p><strong><em>Bang. J. Anim. Sci. 2020. 49 (1): </em></strong><strong><em>29-36</em></strong></p> 2020-10-18T13:07:58+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Maxigrain® enzyme supplementation effect on serological indices of African catfish Clarias gariepinus (Burchell, 1822) fed Gliricidia sepium(Jacq.) leaf meal 2020-11-29T13:43:55+00:00 AM Ogungbesan AM Akanj SO Sule TA Oyetunji OO Eniolorunda <p>A total of 50 African catfish (<em>Clarias gariepinus)</em> juvenile with average weight 208 ± 6g serum indices were used to monitor the effect of levels of Maxigrain in catfish fed <em>Gliricidia sepium</em> leaf meal. Five experimental diets were formulated which is ascribe to T1, T2, T3, T4 and T5 at 0, 5, 10, 15, and 20% Maxigrain supplemented with 10% <em>Gliricidia sepium. </em>Although results showed that after twelve (12) weeks of feeding, fish fed with 15% Maxigrain (T4) supplemented with 10% <em>G. sepium </em>leaf meal gave the best response in terms of the variables monitored, all the parameters were within the normal physiological range. Hence catfish can be fed with plant protein sources with enzyme supplementation while still maintain their normal health status.</p> <p><strong><em>Bang. J. Anim. Sci. 2020. 49 (1): </em></strong><strong><em>37-44</em></strong></p> 2020-10-18T13:08:06+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Influence of amount of red worm (Eisenia foetida) on the organic matter degradation during vermicomposting of cattle manure 2020-11-29T13:43:51+00:00 A Rahman MA Hashem AKMA Kabir MKJ Bhuiyan MM Rahman <p>This study aimed to understand the degradation pattern of organic substances through different amount of red worms during vermicomposting of cattle manure. For this purpose, an experiment was conducted with three treatments e.g., T<sub>1</sub> (vermicomposting of 25 kg cowdung using 50 g of red worms), T<sub>2</sub> (vermicomposting of 25 kg cowdung using 100 g of red worms) and T<sub>3</sub> (vermicomposting of 25 kg cowdung using 150 g of red worms) with 3 replications. Parameters studied were dry matter (DM), organic matter (OM), ash, organic carbon (OC), total nitrogen (TN), crude fiber (CF), carbon nitrogen ratio (C/N) and pH at different days of intervals. Results showed that the amount of red worms has a significant influence on the quality of the final vermicompost. The highest DM content was observed in T<sub>3 </sub>and the lowest DM content was observed in T<sub>1</sub> after 45 days of composting. There were significant (p&lt;0.001) higher reduction rate of OM, OC and CF were found in T<sub>3 </sub>compared to T<sub>1</sub> and T<sub>2</sub> and the differences were also significant (p&lt;0.001) among days intervals over 45 days of experimental period. TN content gradually increases with the increase of time. There was significant (P&lt;0.05) difference in TN alteration among treatments along with time intervals. There was significant differences (P&lt;0.001) in C/N among treatments and a gradual increment of C/N was found with the advancement of the vermicomposting. There were a little changes in pH of all the treatments but those treatments were not followed a trend during the total experimental period. Finally, it may be concluded that organic matter degradation rate is faster in T<sub>3</sub> compared to T<sub>1</sub> and T<sub>2</sub>. These might be indicated that amount of red worms are an important factors of OM decomposition or digestion during vermicomposting period.</p> <p><strong><em>Bang. J. Anim. Sci. 2020. 49 (1): </em></strong><strong><em>45-54</em></strong></p> 2020-10-18T13:08:22+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Effect of value addition to rice straw on the nutritional improvement and milk productivity of dairy cattle 2020-11-29T13:43:48+00:00 MM Islam A Akter M Salauddin MN Sultana MM Uddin <p>The objective of this study was to evaluate the physical and chemical value addition to rice straw on nutritional quality improvement of rice straw and its effect on milk productivity and composition. Twelve crossbred milking cows (Frisian Cross) of mid-lactation stage and second parity, having average initial body weight of 398.72 ± 42.22 kg and milk yield of 6.42± 0.78 kg were assigned to three treatment group (each group has 4 animals) and one control group. Four treatments were considered: T<sub>0</sub> (control): loose rice straw + green grass + concentrate; T<sub>1</sub>: value addition to rice straw through chopping (physical) + green grass + concentrate; T<sub>2</sub>: value addition to rice straw through urea and molasses without chopped (Chemical) + green grass + concentrate; and T<sub>3</sub>: value addition to rice straw through urea molasses with chopping (Physical and chemical) + green grass + concentrate. The results revealed that T<sub>2</sub> was significantly (p&lt;0.05) higher than T<sub>0</sub>, T<sub>1</sub> and T<sub>3</sub> where total DM intake was 13.44± 0.26, 12.96±0.38, 12.47±0.16 and 12.06±0.31 for T<sub>2</sub>, T<sub>0</sub>, T<sub>3</sub> and T<sub>1,</sub> respectively and the same was found for Crude protein. The daily milk yield was higher in T<sub>3</sub> (8.12±0.30 kg/day) and followed by T<sub>0</sub> (7.30±0.23 kg/day), T<sub>1</sub> (6.61±1.35 kg/day) and T<sub>2</sub> (6.78±0.09 kg/day) but daily milk yield gains were 0.31, 0.11, 1.44 and 1.46 kg in T<sub>0</sub>, T<sub>1, </sub>T<sub>2, </sub>and T<sub>3</sub><sup>, </sup>respectively and differences were highly significant (p&lt;0.01) among the groups. Milk composition of fat (4.40, 3.97, 4.90 and 4.10%), Protein (3.88, 3.69, 3.98 and 3.72%), SNF (8.42, 8.69, 8.49 and 8.13) and TS (12.57, 12.34, 12.96 and 11.90) in T<sub>0</sub>, T<sub>1</sub>, T<sub>2</sub> and T<sub>3,</sub> respectively. There was significant difference (p&lt;0.01) where the cows supplemented with UMS without and with chopping recorded SNF. Further study might be needed to estimate the economics of the value addition for enhancing the adoption of this technology at farm level through development of entrepreneurship.</p> <p><strong><em>Bang. J. Anim. Sci. 2020. 49 (1): </em></strong><strong><em>55-62</em></strong></p> 2020-10-18T13:08:27+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Performance of three meat type chicken farms maintained at different bio-security levels 2020-11-29T13:43:44+00:00 MA Hannan MB Ahmed SS Islam <p>Because of the high density of the poultry flocks in current commercial production operations and the inherent disease risks associated with this type of production, proper bio-security practices are very important for successful poultry farming. The study was undertaken to investigate the productive and economic performances of poultry farms keeping three different meat types chickens under good, fair and poor bio-security conditions in south western regions of Bangladesh. The three meat type chickens under consideration were Cobb 500 broiler strain, cockerel and Sonali (RIR x Fayoumi crossbred). According to obtained marks each of one hundred (total three hundred) surveyed farms were divided into good (≥ 80%), fair (61-79%) and poor (≤ 60%) bio-secured categories. Results revealed that market body weight, total feed intake, efficiency of feed utilization, survivability, gross return and net return of Cobb 500 broiler, cockerel and Sonali farms showed higher trends from poor to good bio-secured farms. The survivability was significantly (p&lt;0.01) higher under good than that of fair and poor bio-secured level. The highest survivability was observed in farms kept Sonali followed by cockerel and Cobb 500. The result revealed that the Sonali was the highly benefited chicken farms than Cobb 500 broiler strain and cockerel. The broiler farms were more bio-security sensitive than Sonali and cockerel farms. Hence, good bio-security practices had significant impact on productive and economic performances of all three categories of meat type chickens. It can be concluded that the meat type chickens are more sensitive to the bio-security measures of the farms and Sonali farms are more beneficial from economic point of view as compared to cockerel and Cobb 500 farms.</p> <p><strong><em>Bang. J. Anim. Sci. 2020. 49 (1): </em></strong><strong><em>63-70</em></strong></p> 2020-10-18T13:08:35+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Production of value-added broiler nugget enriched with dietary fiber from oat meal 2020-11-29T13:43:40+00:00 A Akhter MM Hossain M Habib MA Hashem MS Ali <p>An experiment was conducted to find out the effect of oat meal as a source of dietary fiber to formulate enriched broiler nugget. For this purpose, nuggets were prepared into four different groups such as treatment 1: 10% wheat flour nugget, treatment 2: 20% wheat flour nugget, treatment 3:10% oat meal nugget and treatment 4: 20% Oat meal nugget. All parameters were analyzed at 0, 15<sup>th</sup> and 30<sup>th</sup> days of storage period. The proximate composition of different nuggets batter was analyzed and highly significant differences were found in dry matter (%) and pH. Dry matter was lower, while pH was higher in control nugget (Treatment 1). Significant differences were found in crude protein (%), ether extract (%) among different nuggets, as well as among different storage time. Significantly higher DM (%), Ash (%) and EE (%) was found in broiler meat with 20% oat meal, while higher crude protein (%) were found in broiler meat+10% wheat flour. Crude protein (%) and DM (%) increased, while Ash (%) and EE (%) decreased with increase of storage time.&nbsp; The storage period had significant effect on different biochemical (FFA, POV and TBARS value) and microbial (TVC, TCC and TYMC) tests. In all cases, the values were increased with increase of storage time. The surface color (CIE <em>L</em>*, <em>a</em>*, <em>b</em>*) of nuggets of different treatments at different storage period were measured.&nbsp; No significant differences in <em>b</em>* value were found among broiler meat nuggets and storage time. On the other hand, different types of nuggets and storage period had a significant effect on <em>L</em>* and <em>a</em>* value. Significantly higher <em>a</em>* value was found in broiler meat with 10% wheat flour (T1). In sensory analysis, no significant differences were found in flavor, off-flavor, juiciness, tenderness and overall acceptability among four types of sausages. It could be concluded that addition of oat meal as a source of dietary fiber did not differ the overall acceptability of broiler meat nuggets compare to broiler meat nuggets with wheat flour.</p> <p><strong><em>Bang. J. Anim. Sci. 2020. 49 (1): </em></strong><strong><em>71-82</em></strong></p> 2020-10-18T13:08:47+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Effect of concentrate supplementation during transition period on production and reproduction of indigenous buffalo 2020-11-29T13:43:36+00:00 MR Habib MZ Islam MS Bari MZ Islam MAH Sarker MH Rashid MA Islam <p>This study was to investigate the impact of concentrate supplementation on the growth, milk yield and quality, postpartum heat period and days open in transient buffalo. Hence, six selected indigenous transient buffaloes were equally divided into two groups <em>viz. </em>control (n=3) and supplemented (n=3). About 56.0 kg mixed green fodders (Para:German=3:1) and 2.0 kg concentrate mixtures were offered as a basal diet to each buffalo. Besides these, an additional amount (0.5 kg) of concentrate mixture (wheat bran-50%, mustard oil cake-40%, common salt-2% and di-calcium phosphate-8%) was supplied to each buffalo of the supplemented group. The dry matter intake of the supplemented buffalo was 2.5 and 2% higher (p&lt;0.001) at pre- and post-partum period, respectively than that of the control fed buffalo. Pre- and post-partum body weight, and body condition score of buffaloes between the group were found similar (p&gt;0.05). About 20% more (p=0.02) milk was obtained in the supplemented group compared to the control group, however, the milk composition was not different (p&gt;0.05). Calf birth weight was found ≈10% higher (p=0.51) in the supplemented group than that of the control group. Postpartum heat period and days open of the supplemented buffaloes were reduced remarkably by 13 and 14 days, respectively compared to the buffaloes in control group. Overall, concentrate supplementation to the transient indigenous buffaloes has noteworthy effects on milk yield, postpartum heat period and days open.</p> <p><strong><em>Bang. J. Anim. Sci. 2020. 49 (1): </em></strong><strong><em>83-90</em></strong></p> 2020-10-18T13:08:54+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Comparative performance on plant morphology and biomass yield of two selected Moringa oleifera cultivars 2020-11-29T13:43:32+00:00 S Ahmed MJ Khan KS Huque NR Sarker MA Habib <p>Moringa (<em>Moringa oleifera</em>) could be one of the promising tree fodders to meet up the seasonal forage shortage in Bangladesh. Two cultivars of <em>Moringa </em><em>oleifera</em> species namely Black Seed Moringa (BSM-L) &nbsp;Local and White Seed Moringa (WSM-L) Local were cultivated at fodder research field in Bangladesh Livestock Research Institute (BLRI), Savar, Dhaka, Bangladesh during the period from August 2015 to December 2017 to determine plant morphology and biomass yield in different seasons of two consecutive years under common agronomical practices. The production performances of two Moringa cultivars were analyzed in an ANOVA of a Randomized Block Design (RBD). The result revealed that BSM-L had significantly higher survivability (89.12%, P&lt;0.001), number of prune plant<sup>-1</sup> (4.03, P&lt;0.001) and lower defoliation rate (2.80%, P&lt;0.04) than WSM-L(42.70%; 2.41 and 4.01%, respectively). On the other hand, leaf to stem ratio did not vary significantly (P&lt;0.30) between cultivars (0.51 vs0.62). The annual fresh biomass yields (t ha<sup>-1</sup>) of BSM-L foliage (leaf+stem), stem and leaf (120.88, 84.14 and 45.07, respectively) were significantly (P&lt;0.001) higher than that of WSM-L(33.71, 20.65and 12.67, respectively). On the other hand, the annual dry biomass yields (t ha<sup>-1</sup>) of BSM-L tops, stem and leaf (24.70, 14.49 and 09.85, respectively) were also significantly (P&lt;0.001) higher than that of WSM-L (7.43, 3.93and 2.81, respectively). The seasonal effect of fresh foliage yield of Moringa showed that, dry&amp; hot (March-June) (24.78 t ha<sup>-1</sup>/cut for BSM-L and 8.93 t ha<sup>-1</sup>/cut for WSM-L)and wet &amp;hot(July-October) (31.48 t ha<sup>-1</sup>/cut for BSM-L and 6.85 t ha<sup>-1</sup>/cut for WSM-L)climates were found to be more suitable than dry &amp; cool (November-February) (8.76 t ha<sup>-1</sup>/cut for BSM-L and 1.97 t ha<sup>-1</sup>/cut for WSM-L) climate. The initial growth of Moringa plants in the autumn or winter season was not satisfactory due to low temperature, humidity and rainfall. Results however, also showed that production of Moringa varied with variety and season. Finally, based on plant morphology and biomass yield, it may be concluded that, BSM-L may be cultivated as a potential tree fodder crop rather than WSM-L for ruminants in Bangladesh.</p> <p><strong><em>Bang. J. Anim. Sci. 2020. 49 (1): </em></strong><strong><em>91-99</em></strong></p> 2020-10-18T13:09:05+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement##