Bangladesh Journal of Agricultural Research 2020-01-25T13:19:45+00:00 Md. Hasan Hafizur Rahman Open Journal Systems <p>The official journal of the Bangladesh Agricultural Research Unit (BARI). <br>Full text articles available.</p> Effects of tillage practices and nutrient management on crop productivity and profitability in Jute-T. aman rice- onion cropping system 2020-01-25T13:19:45+00:00 N Salahin MK Alam NC Shil ATM AI Mondol MJ Alam <p>Conservation agriculture (CA) with appropriate nutrient management can help increase crop production, improve soil health and bring economic return. An experiment was conducted at farmer’s field of Rajbari district under Low Ganges River Floodplain (AEZ-12) during 2017-2018 to evaluate the effects of tillage and nutrient management on the system productivity and profitability in the jute - T. Aman rice- onion cropping system. Strip tillage (ST) for jute, non-puddling for T. Aman rice and one pass minimum tillage (MT) for onion was contrasted with conventional crop establishment practice (CT). Four different nutrient management practices were NM<sub>1</sub>: farmer’s practice (FP), NM<sub>2</sub>: soil test based (STB) fertilizer, NM<sub>3</sub>:25% extra of STB and NM<sub>4</sub>: organic amendments (20 % nutrients from cowdung). The experiment was laid out in a split-plot design with three replications by assigning tillage practices in main plots and nutrient management in sub-plots. The yield attributes of jute, T. Aman rice and onion responded similarly to tillage practices. On the other hand, the system productivity and yield of component crops varied due to different nutrient management practices (p&lt;0.05). The highest fibre yield of jute (3.64 t ha<sup>-1</sup>) was obtained in 25% extra of STB fertilizer dose; the highest T. Aman yield (6.02 t ha<sup>-1</sup>) and the highest onion bulb yield (16.0 t ha<sup>-1</sup>) in 20 % organic nutrient management, followed by25 % extra of STB fertilizer dose. The highest system productivity was also produced by 20 % organic amendments (33.6 t ha<sup>-1</sup>), followed by 25 % extra of STB fertilizer dose (32.3 t ha<sup>-1</sup>). The lowest yield of crops and system productivity was recorded in FP (28.6 t ha<sup>-1</sup>).The increased yield of T. Aman rice and onion in 20 % organic amendment by cowdung and ST resulted in the highest net return (NR) and benefit-cost ratio (BCR), while 25% extra of STB and FP under CT gave the lowest NR and BCR. Residual nutrient from successive use of cowdung combined with chemical fertilizers outperformed other management practices in terms of crop yield and economic return.</p> <p>Bangladesh J. Agril. Res. 44(3): 387-399, September 2019</p> 2019-10-10T06:12:34+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Socio economic aspect of organic farming practices for improving farmer’s income in some locations of Kerala, India 2020-01-25T13:19:43+00:00 N Karunakaran MS Sadiq <p>Agriculture is the major source of livelihood and is under the big threat of liberalization and modernization. Organic farming is eco-friendly, promotes sustainable development, protects the fertility of the soil and ensures long term crop income to the farmer. In 2018, total area under organic certification process is <strong>3.56 million hectare and </strong>produced around <strong>1.70 million MT </strong>of certified organic products. In Kerala, the total area under organic farming stands at 15790.49 hectare. Organic farmers fail to capture the market for selling their products and have less capacity in the competing world, leads to worse financial situation of farmers. The total volume of export during 2017-18 was <strong>4.58 lakh MT. </strong>Fair trade has flourished as an initiative for lifting poor organic farmers by providing higher price, credit and improved community life. It is also a market for high value products in the global trade policies. Fair Trade Alliance Kerala (FTAK) is a small farmers’ organisation to access global market on fair trade in an equitable trading terms and improved income. The system provides better price to products compared to open market and benefited fair trade exporting. This paper by studying FTAK focused the impacts of it on income and highlights the increased production of organic crops, better prices, premium and schemes to farmers. The study revealed that fair trade farmers earned higher price (20 to 50 percent) for commodities and marketing of products to foreign countries without intermediaries and organic farming is a better option for increasing farmer’s income in India.</p> <p>Bangladesh J. Agril. Res. 44(3): 401-408, September 2019</p> 2019-10-10T06:12:45+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Impact of multi-crop planter business on service providers’ livelihood improvement in some selected areas of Bangladesh 2020-01-25T13:19:40+00:00 MA M Miah ME Haque RW Bell <p>The custom hiring of the Versatile Multi-crop Planter (VMP) is a profitable enterprise for Local Service Providers (LSP) that could improve their household livelihood but the impacts have not yet been assessed in Bangladesh. In this study, we assessed the use pattern and profitability of custom-hiring the VMP, and its impacts on LSPs’ livelihood. A total of 18 LSP were purposively selected from Rajshahi, Thakurgaon, Mymensingh, and Rajbari districts for this study. The study revealed that LSPs effectively utilized VMP and 2-wheel tractor (2WT) for 4-6 months. They earned Tk. 1,42,434 (with incentive on VMP) and Tk. 1,36,134 (without incentive) per year as net income. The average payback periods were 0.72 and 0.98 years with and without incentive, respectively. The annual break-even of a VMP use was 7.79 ha. The LSPs reported a considerable cash (annual income increased by 34.9 %), and capital enhancement, e.g., land holdings (8.3 %), value of livestock (11.2 %), dwelling houses (36.6 %), household furniture (19 %), and modern amenities (45.5 %). The increased incomes from VMP custom hiring were mostly spent on nutritious food, land mortgage-in, and dwellings. The LSPs reported minor challenges such as being unable to use this machine in the wetland condition (61 %), no seating arrangement on the machine during operation in small plots (56 %), long time taken to complete sowing due to narrow planting width per pass (50 %), farmers’ skepticism about the planting machine as it is still new technology (44 %), and lack of skilled drivers (17 %). Financial support and technical assistance should be made available by the government for LSPs and local manufacturers to accelerate greater adoption of the VMP.</p> <p>Bangladesh J. Agril. Res. 44(3): 409-426, September 2019</p> 2019-10-10T06:12:56+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Integrated management of bacterial wilt and root knot nematode of brinjal 2020-01-25T13:19:37+00:00 MI Faruk MM Islam F Khatun MA Hossain TK Dey <p>The field experiment was conducted at Regional Agricultural Research Station (RARS), Hathazari, Chattagram to find out the efficacy of integration of poultry refuse (PR) with stable bleaching powder (SBP) or CaNO3 and Furadan 5G for the management of bacterial wilt (<em>Ralstoniasolanacearum</em>) and root-knot nematode disease <em>(Meloidogyne incognita) </em>of brinjal. Soil was treated with PR @ 3 t/ha 3 weeks before transplanting, stable bleaching powder @ 20 kg/ha during final land preparation and Furadan 5G @ 20 kg/ha on the day of seedlings transplanting while CaNO3 was used as soil drenching 10 days after seedling transplanting. Results showed that integration of poultry refuse with Furadan 5G and stable bleaching powder or CaNO3 reduced root-knot and bacterial wilt diseases and increased plant growth as well as yield of brinjal. The most effective treatment combination was PR + stable bleaching powder + Furadan 5G with early sowing, followed by PR + CaNO3 + Furadan 5G with early sowing for the management of bacterial wilt and root knot nematode diseases and increasing plant growth and yield of brinjal. The technology, poultry refuse+ stable bleaching powder + Furadan 5G was validated at Bangladesh Agricultural Research Institute (BARI), Gazipur, Regional Agricultural Research Station of Jessore, Hathazari and Jamalpur and also at Agricultural Research Station and farmers field at Burirhat, Rangpur and OFRD farm at Alamnagar, Rangpur. The validation trials showed that integration of poultry refuse + stable bleaching powder+ Furadan 5G in early sowing was an effective management package of bacterial wilt and root knot nematode diseases of brinjal which also offered 21.81 to 25.98% higher yield over the conventional practices.</p> <p>Bangladesh J. Agril. Res. 44(3): 427-437, September 2019</p> 2019-10-10T06:13:06+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Morpho-anatomical appraisal of some pulse crops under salinity stress 2020-01-25T13:19:35+00:00 MAH Khan MA Baset Mia JU Ahmed MA Karim MMH Saikat <p>The experiment was conducted at the field and laboratory of the Department of Crop Botany, Bangabandhu Sheikh Mujibur Rahman Agricultural University, Salna, Gazipur during the period from December 2016 to March 2017 to find out the morpho-anatomical appraisal of some pulse crops of Fabaceae family under salinity stress. Seven pulse crops viz., Lentil var. BARI Masur-7, Mungbean var. BARI Mung- 6, Blackgram var. BARI Maskalai-1, Chickpea var. BARI Chola-9, Field pea var. BARI Motor-1, Grasspea var. BARI Khesari-3 and Cowpea var. BARI Felon-2; two levels of salinity 0 and 8 dSm<sup>-1</sup>were imposed as experimental treatments. It was laid out in a completely randomized design with three replications. The NaCl was directly mixed to the dry soil. The soil (6 kg pot<sup>-1</sup>) of each treatment was placed in plastic pots with drainage holes in the bottom. The results of the experiment revealed that, salt stress caused decrease in morphological attributes and also changed anatomical features. There was a significant variation in relative values (%) of plant height, root length (%) root dry matter (%) and shoot dry matter (%) of seven selected pulse crop varieties due to the salinity stress. The highest percentage of relative plant height (92), relative root length (98), relative root dry weight (89) and relative shoot dry weight (72.8) were observed in cowpea followed by grass pea and the lowest percentage of relative plant height (51), relative root length (56), relative root dry weight (54) and relative shoot dry weight (48) were observed in lentil. The stem anatomical features were found similar changes in xylem and phloem area. Among the pulse crop varieties, cowpea and grass pea were performed better whereas lentil and black gram were found more susceptible species than the others according to their morphological and anatomical attributes.</p> <p>Bangladesh J. Agril. Res. 44(3): 439-451, September 2019</p> 2019-10-10T06:13:16+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Effect of Ethephon on ripening and postharvest quality of mango 2020-01-25T13:19:32+00:00 AA Sabuz MGF Chowdhury MM Molla MHH Khan M Miaruddin <p>The experiment was conducted at the laboratory of Postharvest Technology Division, BARI to evaluate the effect of postharvest application of 6 concentrations (0, 250, 500, 750, 1000 &amp; 10000 ppm) of ethephon on ripening and postharvest qualityof mango (cv. Langra) fruits harvested at mature green stage on 3<sup>rd</sup>week of June in 2011 and 2012. The treated fruits were assessed for physiological changes such as ripening %, weight loss (%), biochemical aspects such as TSS (0Brix), titratable acidity (%), reducing sugar (%), total sugar (%), ascorbic acid content (mg/100g), total carotenoids (μg/100g), carbon di oxide production (ml/g fruit) and residual level of the applied ethephon during storage period. The observations were recorded at 2 days interval during 6 days storage at ambient condition (23±2°C with 80±5% RH). Complete yellow color (full ripe) was developed on the fruits treated with 500-1000 ppm ethephon at 4 days of storage while yellowish green and greenish yellow color was developed on 250 ppm treated and control fruits, respectively, and 10000 ppm ethephon treated fruits overripened at this period. At 6 days of storage, 250 ppm ethephon treated fruits got ripen and 500-1000 ppm ethephon treated fruits overripened whereas 10000 ppm treated fruits got rotten and control one was still unripe. Irrespective of ethephon treatments, weight loss of fruits, TSS, reducing sugar, total sugar, carbon di oxide production and total carotenoid showed increasing trends upto 6 days whereas titratable acidity, ascorbic acid and residue level of ethephon showed decreasing trends in both years. At 4 days of storage, 750-1000 ppm ethephon dipped fruits induced uniform attractive yellow color while untreated control fruits remained yellowish greenish (unripe) even after 6 days of storage. At 6 days of storage TSS, reducing sugar, toatal sugar, ascorbic acid and total carotenoid content were found maximum in 750-1000 ppm treated fruits compared to 250-500 ppm treated fruits. The residue level of ethephon in mango fruits treated with ethephon concentrations (250-1000 ppm) at 6 days of storage was found below 2 ppm (0.1 1ppm-0.54 ppm), which is safe for human consumption. Therefore, mangoes ripened by using ethephon @ 750-1000 ppm can be consumed safely without any health risk.</p> <p>Bangladesh J. Agril. Res. 44(3): 453-467, September 2019</p> 2019-10-10T06:13:35+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Evaluation of salt tolerant mungbean (Vigna radiata L.) Genotypes on growth through bio-molecular approaches 2020-01-25T13:19:29+00:00 MM Rohman I Ahmed MR Molla MA Hossain M Amiruzzaman <p>This study was conducted to obtain saline tolerant mungbean genotypes through evaluating growth, biochemical and molecular parameters, and possible salt tolerant mechanisms were studied in different salt sensitive genotypes. Thirteen prescreened mungbean genotypes were grown on 0, 40, 80 and 120 mMNaCl induced salinity and evaluated by germination percentage, shoot and root length, superoxide (O<sub>2</sub><sup>•-</sup>) generation rate, concentration of H<sub>2</sub>O<sub>2</sub>, lipid peroxidation (as malondialdehyde, MDA), methylglyoxal (MG), K<sup>+</sup>/Na<sup>+</sup> and proline content in leaves. Based on these parameters, genotypes BD-10588, BD-6894 and IR-01 were selected as tolerant genotypes. For studying oxidative stress tolerance mechanism, BD-10588 and IR-01 were used as tolerant and BD-6887 and BD-10741 as susceptible genotypes, and comparative ROS (O<sub>2</sub><sup>•-</sup> and H<sub>2</sub>O<sub>2</sub>), and MDA as well as LOX activity between the two groups were determined. Analysis of activities of ROS metabolizing antioxidant enzymes strongly suggested that superoxide dismutase in tolerant genotypes provided first line protection from salt induced O<sub>2</sub>•-. Higher catalase (CAT) and ascorbate peroxidase (APX) played major role in H<sub>2</sub>O<sub>2</sub> metabolism in tolerant genotypes. Both specific and in-gel activities of glutathione peroxidase (GPX) strongly proved the H<sub>2</sub>O<sub>2</sub> metabolism for reducing oxidative damage in both tolerant and susceptible genotypes. However, higher peroxidase activity was important for mitigating salt stress in susceptible mungbean genotypes. Therefore, SOD, APX and GPX are very important for protecting salt mediated oxidative damage in mungbean genotype.</p> <p>Bangladesh J. Agril. Res. 44(3): 469-492, September 2019</p> 2019-10-10T06:13:47+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Population fluctuation of jassid, and shoot and fruit borer of okra 2020-01-25T13:19:26+00:00 A Mohammad SN Alam MRU Miah MR Amin RS Smriti <p>A field study was conducted at the research field of Entomology Division, Bangladesh Agricultural Research Institute (BARI), Gazipur during April to July, 2016 to measure the population fluctuation of jassid (<em>Amrascabiguttulabiguttula</em>), and shoot and fruit borer of okra <em>(Eariasvittella)</em>. Results revealed that jassid was always found in okra leaf during the whole study period. The highest jassid population was found during June and population reduced at the last week of July. Jassid population had significant positive relationship with temperature and significant negative relationship with relative humidity and rainfall. The weather parameters contributed 63.1% abundance of jassid population. But temperature had the most important effect which contributed 31.4% population fluctuation of jassid. Okra shoot and fruit borer population was the lowest during May and the highest at the end of June. There were non-significant relationship between okra shoot and fruit borer population and weather parameters. Multiple regression equation exerted 15.2% effect of weather parameters on okra shoot and fruit borer population abundance.</p> <p>Bangladesh J. Agril. Res. 44(3): 493-499, September 2019</p> 2019-10-10T06:13:54+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Genotype and environment interaction of sweetpotato varieties 2020-01-25T13:19:24+00:00 S Sultana HC Mohanta Z Alam S Naznin S Begum <p>The article presents results of additive main effect and multiplicative interaction (AMMI) and genotype (G) main effect and genotype by environment (GE) interaction (G × GE) biplot analysis of a multi environmental trial (MET) data of 15 sweetpotato varieties released from Bangladesh Agricultural Research Institute conducted during 2015–2018. The objective of this study was to determine the effects of genotype, environment and their interaction on tuber yield and to identify stable sweetpotato genotypes over the years. The experimental layout was a randomized complete block design with three replications at Gazipur location. Combined analysis of variance (ANOVA) indicated that the main effects due to genotypes, environments and genotype by environment interaction were highly significant. The contribution of genotypes, environments and genotype by environment interaction to the total variation in tuber yield was about 60.16, 10.72 and 12.82%, respectively. The first two principal components obtained by singular value decomposition of the centred data of yield accounted for 100% of the total variability caused by G × GE. Out of these variations, PC1 and PC2 accounted for 71.5% and 28.5% of variability, respectively. The study results identified BARI Mistialu- 5, BARI Mistialu- 14 and BARI Mistialu- 15 as the closest to the “ideal” genotype in terms of yield potential and stability. Varieties ‘BARI Mistialu- 8, BARI Mistialu- 11 and BARI Mistialu- 12’ were also selected as superior genotypes. BARI Mistialu- 3 and BARI Mistialu- 13 was comparatively low yielder but was stable over the environment. Among them BARI Mistialu-12, BARI Mistialu-14 and BARI Mistialu-15 are rich in nutrient content while BARI Mistialu-8 and BARI Mistialu-11 are the best with dry matter content and organoleptic taste. Environments representing in 1<sup>st</sup> and 3<sup>rd</sup> year with comparatively short vectors had a low discriminating power and environment in 2<sup>nd</sup> year was characterized by a high discriminating power.</p> <p>Bangladesh J. Agril. Res. 44(3): 501-512, September 2019</p> 2019-10-10T06:14:06+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Egg deposition and weight loss of seeds by pulse beetle, Callosobruchus chinensis L. on different genotypes of pulses 2020-01-25T13:19:21+00:00 S Ahmed A Haque H Mahmud KM Khalequzzaman <p>Lentil Lens culinarisMedik., mungbeanVignaradiata L. R. Wilczek, chickpea Cicer arietinum L. and blackgramVigna mungo L. Hepper of different genotypes were tested against pulse beetle, Callosobruchuschinensis L. in the laboratory of the Department of Entomology, Bangladesh Agricultural University (BAU), Mymensingh to evaluate the number of eggs deposition and percent weight loss of seeds. Maximum number of eggs (73.1) was oviposited on chickpea and minimum (19.5) was found on blackgram. The highest (19.9%) weight loss in seed was noted in chickpea and the lowest (7.6%) was recorded in blackgram. On the basis of weight loss of seed, blackgram and mungbean exhibited as tolerant genotype, lentil with moderately susceptible and chickpea as susceptible. Genotypes ML-22 of lentil, MC-21 of mungbean, Hyprosola of chickpea and MAK–1-79 of blackgram were found tolerant as compared to other tested genotypes considering the reduced number of egg deposition and lowest loss of seed weight. Evidently, the percent weight loss was marked as positive correlation with number of eggs deposition in all the genotypes and the regression line resulted in increasing the number of eggs laid with the increase in percent weight loss.</p> <p>Bangladesh J. Agril. Res. 44(3): 513-524, September 2019</p> 2019-10-10T06:14:17+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Effect of integrated nutrient management on the yield, yield attributes and protein content of lentil 2020-01-25T13:19:19+00:00 S Aktar MA Quddus MA Hossain S Parvin MN Sultana <p>A field experiment was conducted at the Pulse Research Sub-station of Bangladesh Agricultural Research Institute (BARI), Gazipur during rabi season of 2015-16 and 2016-17 to evaluate the effectiveness of organic and inorganic sources of nutrients in terms of growth and yield maximization of lentil. The experiment was laid out in a randomized complete block design (RCBD) having six treatments with three replications. The treatments were T<sub>1</sub>= Recommended dose (N20P15K30S10Zn3B1.5 kg ha<sup>-1</sup>), T<sub>2</sub>= IPNS (Inorganic) +2.5 t ha<sup>-1</sup>cowdung, T<sub>3</sub>= IPNS (Inorganic) +5 t ha<sup>-1</sup>cowdung, T<sub>4</sub>= IPNS (Inorganic) +1.5 t ha<sup>-1</sup> poultry manure, T<sub>5</sub>= IPNS (Inorganic)+3 t ha<sup>-1</sup> poultry manure and T<sub>6</sub>= Control. The results reveal that the integrated nutrient management had significant effects on the plant height, number of branches per plant, number of pods per plant, number of seeds per pod, 1000-seed weight, and seed yield of lentil. The maximum seed yield (1216 kg ha<sup>-1</sup>) as well as protein content (26.1%) were recorded with T<sub>4</sub> treatment. The results advocate that satisfying the recommended dose through application of poultry manure @ 1.5 t ha<sup>-1</sup> with IPNS inorganic fertlizer could be suggested for achieving yield miximization of lentil in chhiata soil series of Gazipur.</p> <p>Bangladesh J. Agril. Res. 44(3): 525-536, September 2019</p> 2019-10-10T06:14:30+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Performance of lentil-mungbean-T.aus rice-T.aman rice against existing cropping pattern lentil-jute-T.aman rice in Faridpur region 2020-01-25T13:19:16+00:00 S Ahmed AFMR Quddus M Mohiuddin MR Islam MA Hossain <p>A trial was conducted in the farmers’ field at Farming Systems Research and Development (FSRD) site, Hatgobindapur, Faridpur during 2014-15 and 2015-16 to develop an alternate cropping pattern over existing cropping pattern for increasing cropping intensity, total productivity as well as farmers’ income. The alternate cropping pattern Lentil (var. BARI Masur-7)- Mungbean (var. BARI Mung- 6)- T. Aus rice (var. BRRI dhan48)- T.Aman rice (var. BRRI dhan62) was tested against the existing cropping pattern Lentil (var. Local)- Jute (var. JRO 524)- T.Aman rice (var. BRRI dhan33). All the four crops in the AP were grown successfully within stipulated time frame following recommended practices. Crop duration and turn around time in alternate cropping pattern were 340 days and 25 days while that in existing cropping pattern were 313 days and 52 days, respectively. Cropping intensity increased from 300% (in existing pattern) to 400% in the alternate cropping pattern. Two years results showed that, average yield of T.Aus rice, T.Aman rice, Lentil and Mungbean in the alternate cropping pattern were 3.75, 4.17, 1.31 and 0.80 t ha<sup>-1</sup>, respectively. The rice equivalent yield and production efficiency was increased by 18 and 35%, respectively over existing pattern. The gross margin of the whole alternate cropping pattern was Tk.106304 ha<sup>-1</sup>whereas Tk. 75480 ha<sup>-1</sup>from existing cropping pattern. The alternate pattern provided 41% higher gross margin over existing cropping pattern. The MBCR was 4.86 over existing cropping pattern.</p> <p>Bangladesh J. Agril. Res. 44(3): 537-552, September 2019</p> 2019-10-10T06:14:41+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Combination of biological control agents and garlic (allium sativum) extract in reducing damping-off disease of tomato 2020-01-25T13:19:14+00:00 VO Dania JA Omidiora <p>Damping-off <em>(Pythium aphanidermatum) </em>is a soil-borne disease which accounts for seedling mortality and significant yield losses in tomato production. Laboratory and screenhouse experiments were conducted in 2017, with a repeated field trial in 2018 to evaluate the efficacy of combining three biological control agents (BCAs), <em>Trichodermaviride</em>, <em>T. harzianum</em>and <em>Bacillus subtilis </em>with <em>Allium sativum</em>extract for the integrated management of the disease in tomato crop. Treatments were laid out in a completely randomized design and randomized complete block design in the screenhouse and field experiments, respectively with eighteen treatments and three replications. The BCAs and extract were formulated and applied using seed treatment and soil sprinkling methods. Treatment combinations of BCAs with <em>A. sativum</em>were more effective in the reduction of mycelial growth of the pathogen with inhibitory values that ranged between 77.6-91.2% than single inoculation. Seed treatment before planting was more effective than soil sprinkle method, reducing pre-emergence and damping-off incidence to between 6.8-18.3% and 9.7-26.3% under screenhouse and field conditions, respectively than the sprinkling method. Soil sprinkle with <em>T. harzianum</em>in combination with <em>A. sativum</em>extract had the highest cumulative tomato fruit yield of 902 kg/ha<sup>-1</sup>under field conditions. This study showed that combined application of BCAs and <em>A. sativum</em>extract reduced damping-off disease and thereby improved the fruit yield of tomato.</p> <p>Bangladesh J. Agril. Res. 44(3): 553-567, September 2019</p> 2019-10-10T06:14:56+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Incidence of rhizome rot of ginger in some selected areas of Bangladesh and the causal pathogens associated with the disease 2020-01-25T13:19:11+00:00 MM Islam F Khatun MI Faruk MM Rahman MA Hossain <p>Ginger (<em>Zingiberofficinale</em>L.) belongs to family Zingiberaceae is an important oriental spice crop. Ginger is high value crop which grows well in warm and humid climate and is cultivated from sea level to an altitude of 1500 meters above sea level (Kandinnan, <em>et al. </em>1996). It has special significance for tropical countries where it is produced and consumed in large quantities (Islam, 2017; BARI, 2012, 2013 and 2014). The aromatic rhizomes are used as spice and medicine. Major producers of ginger in the world are India, Jamaica, Sierra Leone, Nigeria, China, Japan, Taiwan and Australia (Rana and Sharma, 1998). Ginger is much more used in Bangladesh as a spice and is cultivated more or less all over the country. In the country produced only 74380 metric tons of ginger from 9120 ha of land and the yield per hectare was 8.15 kg (BBS, 2011). But average yield is low as compared to other ginger growing countries of the world. The production is not enough to fulfill the annual requirement of the country. So every year a good amount of ginger is imported in exchange of foreign currency. Like many countries diseases are the major limiting factors for ginger cultivation in Bangladesh. Among the diseases, rhizome rot is the most devastating one caused by <em>Pythium aphanidermatum</em>, <em>Fusariumoxysporum</em>, <em>Sclerotiumrolfsii</em>and <em>Ralstoniasolanacearum</em>throughout the world (Chauhan and Patel, 1990; Dohroo<em>et al. </em>1987 and Iyer, 1987). The pathogens involved decide the nature of the damage and symptom expression .The major pathogens involved with rhizome rot are viz., species of <em>Pythium </em>causing soft rot, <em>Fusarium</em>spp. causing yellows or wilt and <em>Ralstoniasolanacearum</em>causing bacterial wilt (Elliot, 2003). Basal rot caused by <em>Sclerotiumrolfsii</em>which appears later in the season in some cases. All these pathogens are known to form complexes with nematodes leading to synergistic effect on the severity of the disease. They predispose the crops to secondary pathogens (Sarma, 1994).Loss due to rhizome rot is estimated in many countries and the main pathogens associated with rhizome rot are the fungi such as <em>Pythium </em>spp. and <em>Fusarium</em>spp, bacteria like <em>Ralstoniasolanacearum</em>and nematode (Elliot, 2003). It may cause losses to the extent of 50% or more due to soft rot ((Islam, 2017; BARI, 2012, 2013 and 2014; Joshi and Sharma, 1982) and sometimes total failure of the crops in the tropical regions of India (Fageria<em>et al</em>, 2006); 70% rhizomeproduction is reduced due to the infection caused by <em>Pythium </em>spp. and <em>Fusarium</em>spp. in Nepal (Anon., 2012) and 5-30% losses occurred in Fiji and Australia by <em>Pythium myriotylum</em>(Stirling<em>et al</em>., 2009). Soil, water and infected planting materials are the main source of perpetuation of these pathogens (Dohroo, 2005). <em>Pythium </em>spp. is able to persist in soil over decay by means of encysted zoospores, oospores and sporangia. <em>Pythium </em>spp also can survive in air dry muck soil for up to 12 years (Hoppe, 1966). <em>Pythium </em>spread via infested rhizomes (Trujillo, 1964) and as oospores surviving in debris in the soil (Dohroo, 2005). Infection started from contaminated planting materials, saprophytically living fungus in the soil or on trash of previous ginger crops. The soft rot pathogen generally have quite a wide host range and can survive on other host plants so this makes it difficult to control in the field. In the past <em>Pythium aphanidermatum</em>was known as the sole causal agent of rhizome rot of ginger and was successfully controlled by the technology developed by Plant Pathology Division, BARI. But during the last few years that technology was not working well and it was noticed that some other fungal and bacterial association were involved with such rot. As the crop is cash crop so it is prime need to identify the causal agents of rhizome rot through intensive survey which will help to modify the existing technology for managing the disease in future. The present research work was undertaken to determine the incidence of rhizome rot of ginger and its causal agents.Bangladesh J. Agril. Res. 44(3): 569-576, September 2019</p> 2019-10-10T06:15:21+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement##