Risk Factors and Etiologies of Ischemic Stroke in Young Adults: A Hospital-based Study in Bangladesh
Keywords:Young adult, Ischemic stroke, TOAST classification study, National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS), Modified Rankin Scale (mRS)
Background: Stroke is an important cause of disability among adults and is one of the leading causes of death worldwide. Strokes in young adults can have a significant impact on the affected individuals, their families and societies in general as the affected patients are in the economically productive period of their lives.This study was aimed to find out the demographic profile and explore the associated risk factors of the first-ever ischemic stroke of young adults.
Methods: This retrospective study reviewed the records of 64 patients, age 18-49 years, ischemic stroke patients consecutively admitted in the Neurology department, BIRDEM General Hospital during the period January 2016 to June 2017. Study variables included hematological and biochemistry investigations and radiological and imaging findings. Stroke sub-typing was done following to TOAST criteria. Data of follow-up data at 3 month were also included. Data were expressed as number (percent) and managed by SPSS for Windows Version 15.
Results: Of the 634 patients diagnosed as acute ischemic stroke 64 (9.90%) were in the 18-49 (yr) age range and the majority (55.4%) were male. Stroke was more common (47 out of 54) among the 31-49 years category as compare with the <30 years category. Stroke patients presented with diabetes mellitus(87.03%),arterial hypertension (44.4%), dyslipidemia (23.5%) and cigarette smoking (31.48%). Family history of stroke was present in 33.5% cases. Ten (6.51%) patients showed hypercoagualable state.Small vessel occlusion (SVO) found in 48.40% cases followed by large artery atherosclerosis (21.86%).Patients with SVO stroke presented with lacunar syndromes and lesions in Basal ganglia(12.1%),Thalamus(6.6%), Subcortical region (0.9%),Internal capsule (20.0%)and brain stem(11.3%). Thrombolysis was not done in any of patients. Most of the patients were on an anti-platelet treatment and majority (85.4%) receiving aspirin alone. Strokes left 48(75.5%)patients with moderate to moderately severe disability on discharge from the hospital.Mortality was lower (6.3%) and had good recovery 35 (54.6%).
Conclusion: Ischemic stroke in the young adults accounted for 9.90% of the hospital admission with stroke. Those suffered from ischemic stroke had presence of modifiable risk factors. Predominance of SVO among them not only indicated stroke etiology but also predicted good short term prognosis.
Birdem Med J 2018; 8(2): 138-144