Asian Journal of Medical and Biological Research <p><a href="">Asian Journal of Medical and Biological Research</a> is an open access, peer-reviewed, international journal. This journal publishes high-quality original scientific papers and short communications. Review articles of current interest and high standard may be considered.</p> <p>AJMBR is now accepting online submissions through <a href="">eJManager</a> (Online Manuscript Submission, Review and Tracking System).</p> <p><strong>Indexing &amp; Abstracting:</strong> BanglaJOL; CAB Abstracts (CABI); Crossref; Electronic Journals Library; Genamics JournalSeek; Global Health (CABI); Google Scholar; WorldCat</p> en-US <p>Authors who publish with this journal agree to the following terms / The author(s) affirm(s) that:</p> <ol> <li class="show">The manuscript submitted is based on authors own research and is original work.</li> <li class="show">Authors certify that we all participated in the research work and preparation of the manuscript in a substantive way.</li> <li class="show">Authors also declare that they have read and approved the manuscript.</li> <li class="show">Authors further declare that the manuscript has not been published in part or full and is not being submitted or considered for publication in part or full elsewhere.</li> <li class="show">Any material included in the manuscript does not violate copyright or other rights of anyone.&nbsp;</li> <li class="show">Authors &nbsp;also affirm that the article contains no vilifying or unlawful statements and does not contain material or instructions that might cause harm or injury to the Editor-in-Chief/Editors of the Journal and the public.</li> <li class="show">Authors assure Asian J. Med. Biol. Res. and the Editor-in-Chief/Editors of the Journals, and hold them harmless from any loss, expense or damage occurred by a claim or suit by a third party for copyright violation, or any suit arising out of any violation of the foregoing warranties as a result of publication of my/our article.&nbsp;</li> <li class="show">In consideration of authors manuscript submitted, authors hereby grant Asian J. Med. Biol. Res. unlimited, worldwide, permanent royalty-free, right to publish, use, dispense, license, transmit, display, exhibit, record, store, translate, digitize, broadcast, reproduce and archive, in any format or medium, whether now known or developed hereafter.</li> </ol> <p>All materials related to manuscripts, accepted or rejected, including photographs, original figures etc., will be kept by Asian J. Med. Biol. Res. for one year following the editor’s decision. These materials will then be destroyed.</p> (S. M. Lutful Kabir, Ph.D.) (Md. Fahmid Uddin Khondoker) Sun, 26 Jun 2022 11:01:23 +0000 OJS 60 Determination of TCID50 of O, A, Asia-1 serotypes foot-and-mouth disease virus to the production of trivalent vaccine in bioreactor <p>This research work was designed to ensure the production of quality Foot and Mouth Disease (FMD) vaccine. For ensuring the standard quality of vaccine, it is important to propagate the FMD Virus (FMDV) into the cell line. Tissue Culture Infective Dose50 (TCID50) assay was used to determine the biological titer of FMD virus serotypes. Baby Hamster Kidney-21 (BHK-21) Monolayer cell and BHK-21 Clone 13 Suspension cell were used to determine the TCID50 of FMDV. The result for calculating TCID50 under Monolayer cell showed that the highest biological titer of O, A, Asia-1 serotype were 10-9.83/ml, 10-9.36/ml and 10-9.70/ml respectively. On the other hand, the result for calculating TCID50under BHK-21 Clone 13 suspension cell of O, A, Asia-1 serotypes were10-6.66\ml,10-6.50\ml and 10-6.50/ml respectively. BHK-21 cell line, either the monolayer or the suspension cell culture system were used in FMD vaccine production to ensure the potency and the quality of the vaccine to be produced.BHK-21 monolayer cell sub-cultured by applying roller cell culture cultivation system and BHK-21 clone 13 suspension cell sub-cultured by using suspension cell culture cultivation system. Suspension culture of BHK-21 cells allows large-scale virus propagation and cost-efficient vaccine production by using Bioreactor with capacity of 50 liters maintaining biosafety and biosecurity.</p> <p>Asian J. Med. Biol. Res. 2022, 8 (2), 63-68</p> Safeth Arju, Samsun Nahar, Most Rawshan Ara, Md Safiul Ahad Sardar, Md Enamul Haque, Md Farhad Hossain, Parinita Basak, Mohammad Zakir Hossain Copyright (c) 2022 Safeth Arju, Samsun Nahar, Most Rawshan Ara, Md Safiul Ahad Sardar, Md Enamul Haque, Md Farhad Hossain, Parinita Basak, Mohammad Zakir Hossain Sun, 26 Jun 2022 00:00:00 +0000 Medicinal plants available in local markets contaminated with human pathogenic bacteria - Bacillus cereus and Pseudomonas gessardii <p>Medicinal plants are known to be a potential source of therapeutic aids. Different uses of medicinal plants have attained a powerful role in health system throughout the world. To study the microbial risk factor associated with medicinal plants, medicinal plant and part of plant samples (10 from each location) were collected from three different local markets (Nabinagar, Amin Bazar, and Savar) of Savar area, Dhaka, Bangladesh. A total number of fifty five (55) bacterial isolates have been isolated through their growth on Nutrient Agar media. Out of 55 isolates 31 isolates (56%) were identified as Bacillus cereus and 7 isolates (13%) were identified as Pseudomonas sp. through different morphological and biochemical tests. The CFU value of different samples revealed that all the values were higher than the accepted value (recommended by WHO, 2007) of 105 CFU/g except Phyllanthus emblica. The PCR and 16S rRNA sequencing confirmed the identification similarity values among two isolates of B. cereus and Pseudomonas gessardii. Both B. cereus and Pseudomonas gessardii showed sensitivity to the antibiotics Kanamycin, Gentamycin, Tigecycline, Ciprofloxacin and Amikacin where resistance to the antibiotics Amoxycilin, Aztreonam, Penicillin-G, Cefixime, Cefotaxime, Cefepime, Ceftriaxone, Meropenem, Cotrimoxazole and Ceftazidime. Therefore, quality assessment of herbal medicines should be ensured to make them safer for human consumption.</p> <p>Asian J. Med. Biol. Res. 2022, 8 (2), 69-78</p> S M Rokon-Ud-Doula, Nazia Afrin, Md Maniruzzaman Sikder, Rasheda Yasmin Shilpi Copyright (c) 2022 S M Rokon-Ud-Doula, Nazia Afrin, Md Maniruzzaman Sikder, Rasheda Yasmin Shilpi Sun, 26 Jun 2022 00:00:00 +0000 A case-control study along with an epidemiological approach to CNTNAP2 polymorphism among Bangladeshi ASD children <p>ASD (Autism Spectrum Disorder) is a neuropsychiatric disorder with a hereditary component, and its prevalence in South Asia was assessed 1, out of every 93 children. Moreover, recent studies suggested that the etiology of autism is thought to be linked to anomalies in the synapse, where mutation or deletion of synaptic gene CNTNAP2 is responsible. Therefore, this research was aimed to find out specific signs and symptoms of ASD individuals as well as the distribution pattern of the CNTNAP2 allelic variant (rs7794745) as a genetic risk factor in the Bangladeshi population. A case-control study including an epidemiological survey to investigate the association and pathophysiology of CNTNAP2 (rs7794745) with ASD for the Bangladeshi population has been studied, where PCR-RFLP analysis and Sanger sequencing were used for 180 individuals (90 ASD samples and 90 healthy controls). Our retrieved data speculated a diverse clinical profile of ASD, in comparison to the control group (n=110); where 80.9% (p ≤0.001) of ASD patients (n =100) had severe social interaction difficulties, 50% (p ≤0.001) had language impairments, and 40.9% (p ≤0.001) had behavioral abnormalities. Furthermore, findings from Pearson’s chi-square test (p = 0.001) as well as logistic regression analysis of co-dominant (p = 0.0083), and recessive model (p = 0.0075) confirmed significant association between rs7794745 and in our studied sample. This research demonstrates the genetic variation of CNTNAP2 found in our studied population could open a new clue to identifying a reliable biomarker for early diagnosis of ASD though it is recommended that more study is needed with a larger group population.</p> <p>Asian J. Med. Biol. Res. 2022, 8 (2), 79-93</p> Hafsa Siddiqua, Yasmin Akter, Md Arju Mia, Mst Sharika Ahmed, Mahmood Ahmed Chowdhury, Lolo Wal Marzan Copyright (c) 2022 Hafsa Siddiqua, Yasmin Akter, Md Arju Mia, Mst Sharika Ahmed, Mahmood Ahmed Chowdhury, Lolo Wal Marzan Sun, 26 Jun 2022 00:00:00 +0000 Effect of hot water leaf and bark extract of Swietenia mahagoni against the Culex quinquefasciatus and Aedes aegypti larvae <p>Mosquito larvae control is essential to prevent mosquito borne diseases such as dengue, Zika, filariasis and chikungunya. Plant extract has the larvicidal properties with less toxicity to other living creatures and no resistance compared to synthetic chemical pesticides. Effect of hot water leaf and bark extract of a forest tree species (Swietenia mahagoni) against the 3rd instar larvae of Culex quinquefasciatus and Aedes aegypti was studied in vitro using five different concentrations (1-5%) of hot water leaf and bark extracts of Swietenia mahagoni. It was observed that, 5% concentrated hot water leaf extract was the most toxic killing 70% larvae of Culex quiquefasciatus and 50% larvae of Aedesa egypti after 24 hours exposure. Similarly, 5% hot water bark extracts killed 65% and 55% of Culex quiquefasciatus and Aedes aegypti larvae respectively. The minimum LC50, LC90 and LC95 values of hot water leaf extract of Swietenia mahagoni against Culex quinquefasciatus Say and Aedes aegypti (L.) with 95% confidence limits were 2.662, 6.968, 8.70 and 2.128, 4.964, 6.054 respectively after 72 hours of exposure. In hot water bark extract of Swietenia mahagoni against Culex quinquefasciatus Say and Aedes aegypti (L.) with 95% confidence limits after 72 hours of exposure minimum LC50, LC90 and LC95values were 1.780, 6.540, 9.458 and 1.370, 4.570, 6.430. The present investigation revealed the possible utilization of hot water leaf and bark extract of Swietenia mahagoni to control mosquito borne disease. Further study is needed to know the active ingredients of the leaf and bark extract of the experimented plant.</p> <p>Asian J. Med. Biol. Res. 2022, 8 (2), 94-102</p> Md Nazmul Hasan, Tahmina Akter, Md Junayed, Saadia Ahmad Copyright (c) 2022 Md Nazmul Hasan, Tahmina Akter, Md Junayed, Saadia Ahmad Sun, 26 Jun 2022 00:00:00 +0000 Constraints to climate change adaptation and livelihood challenges: perspectives from the Sundarbans fishers' community in Bangladesh <p>Fishers' are first-line observers of changes in the Sundarbans region and are among the first to be affected by the changes that occurred. In the Sundarbans fishers' communities, transformations of society have always been a part of life. In contrast, environmental changes were always interim and reversible, allowing them to understand and identify with the Sundarbans ecosystems as food and life providers. In this study, fishers' observations on climate change impacts and their livelihoods were compiled and analysed using a structured questionnaire in accordance with the tenets of grounded theory. The observations of fishers from the region of the Sundarbans demonstrated a rise in the frequency of extreme weather events caused by rising temperatures and changes in the weather pattern. Physical components such as rainfall, coastal erosion, sea-level rise, siltation alterations in fish species distribution ranges, and migratory spawning behaviours were also affected by changes in the region's weather and climate. As salinity levels rose, the diversity and productivity of river ecosystems were affected, particularly in the most vulnerable areas. As a result, river freshwater flow decreased over time. A high rate of siltation in rivers and river mouths was considered another major concern that led to seasonal flooding due to its low freshwater upstream flow rate. The Sundarbans region provides a vast array of resources for diversifying fishers' livelihoods, but climate change is diminishing these alternatives due to more frequent catastrophic events. Specifically, climate change limits the resilience of fishers' communities, restricting opportunities for diversification or forcing them to leave their homes or villages. Climate change generated an environment that was generally unfavourable for all fishing communities. In order to survive in an unfavourable environment, the social well-being of fishers (mostly women and children) was negatively impacted by a variety of challenges, including disease, lack of potable water, malnutrition, sanitary difficulties, lack of electricity, lack of food and clothing, lack of proper medical care, and so on. To evaluate the effects of climate change on fisheries in the study area, the biodiversity, abundance, and production of most freshwater species are drastically reduced due to the destruction of spawning grounds, a transition in the spawning season, and the obstruction of fish migration. The findings of this study show that the climate and livelihood conditions of fishers in the Sundarbans region have changed significantly over the past few decades. Regardless of GOs and NGOs taking the required steps, proper implementation of interdisciplinary adaptive policy and regular monitoring in the Sundarbans fisher's community in Bangladesh could effectively reduce climate change impacts and improve livelihood conditions.</p> <p>Asian J. Med. Biol. Res. 2022, 8 (2), 103-114</p> Md Nagim Uddin, Tutul Kumar Saha, Myiesha Rayzil Hossain, SM Fakrul Islam, Zakir Hossain Copyright (c) 2022 Md Nagim Uddin, Tutul Kumar Saha, Myiesha Rayzil Hossain, SM Fakrul Islam and Zakir Hossain` Sun, 26 Jun 2022 00:00:00 +0000 Efficacy of dry and wet carp pituitary gland (CPG) in the induced breeding of Cyprinus carpio var. specularis (Lacepède, 1803) <p>Fish hatcheries are generally regarded as the first step in the process of aquaculture development in any given nation. Fish breeding plays an important part in the process of supplying fry and fingerling to the farmers. The current study was conducted to identify the effectiveness of using dry and wet carp pituitary gland (CPG) in the induced breeding of mirror carp (Cyprinus carpio var. specularis), at Banchte Sheka fish hatchery Arabpur, Jashore from November to December 2021. The 1st dose of hormone, both for male and female brood fishes were injected with dry &amp; wet PG at 0.8 mg PG/kg body weight. After 6 hours of the 1st dose, only female brood fishes were injected with the 2nd dose of hormone at 3 mg PG/kg body weight. After 6-7 hours of injection of 2nd dose, brood fishes became ready to spawn. The fertilized eggs were hatched after 42-48 hours. The ovulation rates were 100%. The fertilization rates were 88.3 % and 91.2% for wet and dry PG, respectively. The hatching rates were 84.2% and 87.5%, respectively. The survival rates were 79.5% and 83.3%, respectively. Therefore, dry CPG is highly recommended to hatchery owners considering the rate of fertilization, survival rate and availability. The information that has been offered here will be helpful to the owners of hatcheries when it comes to choosing the sort of pituitary gland to use in the breeding operation.</p> <p>Asian J. Med. Biol. Res. 2022, 8 (2), 115-122</p> BM Newaz Sharif, Antara Ghosh, Subrata Mondal, Mohammad Hasnal Alam, Md Ariful Islam, Md Shamsul Kabir, Md Manjurul Karim Copyright (c) 2022 BM Newaz Sharif, Antara Ghosh, Subrata Mondal, Mohammad Hasnal Alam, Md Ariful Islam, Md Shamsul Kabir, Md Manjurul Karim Sun, 26 Jun 2022 00:00:00 +0000 Medicinal plants used by the tribal communities of Thanchi Upazila in Bandarban Hill District, Bangladesh <p>Medicinal plants play in an important role in the primary health care system. The paper deals with the indigenous knowledge related to ethnomedicinal knowledge and plant parts application for curing various ailments by the ethnic community of Thanchi Upazila of Bandarban Hill District. Semi-structured questionnaires, interviews, group discussions, and specific plant sample collection were done from July 2019 to December 2021 to procure ethno-medicinal data from local herbalists and elderly villagers for this study and from the forest areas. A total of 129 plant species under 110 genera and 63 families have been documented, which have been traditionally used by the ethnic people for the treatment of different ailments. Traditional knowledge and information about medicinal plants such as local names, scientific names, families, habits, habitats, plant-parts used, names of ailments, modes of use, etc. were recorded, validated, and documented. Plant families namely, Asteraceae and Euphorbiaceae were represented by the highest (8) number of species, followed by Fabaceae, Verbenaceae, Apocynaceae, Araceae, Caesalpiniaceae, Lamiaceae, Rubiaceae and Zingiberaceae. The most widely used medicinal plants included Anacardium occidentale, Bombax ceiba, Calotropis gigantea, Terminalia chebula, Aegle mermelos, Ageratum conyzoides, Andrographis paniculata, Aristolochia indica, Blumea balsamifera, Bryophyllum pinnatum, Celosia cristata, Centella asiatica, Melastoma malabathricum, Mimosa pudica, Musa paradisiaca, Oroxylum indicum, Plumbago indica and Vitex negundo. Herbs (36%) were found to be the most used plant, followed by shrubs (33%), trees (17%), climbers (9%) and fern (5%). Most medicinal plants were used for the treatment of fever, skin diseases, cough problems, menstrual problems, body pain, indigestion, headaches, stomachaches, constipation, swelling problems, wounds and others. Among the plant parts, mostly leaves were used (43%), followed by roots (21%), whole plants (10%), stems (6%) along with fruit, rhizome, flower, bark, seed and latex for the treatment of diseases. The most common formulations prescribed to treat various diseases were juices. The findings will be useful for future research in the Bandarban Hill District.</p> <p>Asian J. Med. Biol. Res. 2022, 8 (2), 123-140</p> Md Sah Alam, M Mahfuzur Rahman, Mohammed Kamal Hossain, Tusher Kumer Ray Copyright (c) 2022 Md Sah Alam, M Mahfuzur Rahman, Mohammed Kamal Hossain, Tusher Kumer Ray Sun, 26 Jun 2022 00:00:00 +0000