Asian Journal of Medical and Biological Research Asian Journal of Medical and Biological Research is a peer reviewed open access international journal. It publishes original scientific papers and short communications. Review articles of current interest and high standard may be considered. en-US <p>Authors who publish with this journal agree to the following terms / The author(s) affirm(s) that:</p><ol><li>The manuscript submitted is based on authors own research and is original work.</li><li>Authors certify that we all participated in the research work and preparation of the manuscript in a substantive way.</li><li>Authors also declare that they have read and approved the manuscript.</li><li>Authors further declare that the manuscript has not been published in part or full and is not being submitted or considered for publication in part or full elsewhere.</li><li>Any material included in the manuscript does not violate copyright or other rights of anyone. </li><li>Authors  also affirm that the article contains no vilifying or unlawful statements and does not contain material or instructions that might cause harm or injury to the Editor-in-Chief/Editors of the Journal and the public.</li><li>Authors assure Asian J. Med. Biol. Res. and the Editor-in-Chief/Editors of the Journals, and hold them harmless from any loss, expense or damage occurred by a claim or suit by a third party for copyright violation, or any suit arising out of any violation of the foregoing</li><li>In consideration of authors manuscript submitted, authors hereby grant Asian J. Med. Biol. Res. unlimited, worldwide, permanent royalty-free, right to publish, use, dispense, license, transmit, display, exhibit, record, store, translate, digitize, broadcast, reproduce and archive, in any format or medium, whether now known or developed hereafter.</li><li>warranties as a result of publication of my/our article.  </li></ol><p>All materials related to manuscripts, accepted or rejected, including photographs, original figures etc., will be kept by Asian J. Med. Biol. Res. for one year following the editor’s decision. These materials will then be destroyed.</p> (Dr. S. M. Lutful Kabir) (Md Fahmid Uddin Khondoker) Mon, 12 Nov 2018 09:42:27 +0000 OJS 60 A review paper on the hazardous effect of plastic debris on marine biodiversity with some possible remedies <p>The consequences of plastic debris in the marine environment were reviewed, and possible solutions were presented. The extent of marine plastic debris-related problems surpasses many other marine problems, as plastics may be transported globally and no unaffected areas seem to exist. Many animal species are in risk, most commonly studied are the effects on marine mammals and seabirds. Marine plastic debris creates new concerns such as entanglement, ghost fishing, and impaction of digestive tracts in animals. It also increases the severity of already existing concerns such as transport, exposure and uptake of organic pollution, with reduced fitness and impaired reproduction and increased mortality rates as consequences. To alleviate the problems, reducing the extent of marine plastic pollution is critical. Possible methods were identified as collecting and incentivizing recycling of marine plastic debris; redirecting production from petroleum plastics to biodegradable varieties; increase public awareness to reduce marine littering; stricter enforcement of current legislation as well as implementation of stricter legislation and harsher penalties for breaking it.</p><p>Asian J. Med. Biol. Res. September <em>2018, 4(3): 233-241</em></p> Md Abul Hasnat, Mohammad Atikur Rahman ##submission.copyrightStatement## Mon, 12 Nov 2018 09:40:54 +0000 Demographical characteristics, nutritional habits and knowledge evaluation of obese patients in Afyon, Turkey <p>The purpose of this study was to assess the obesity in correlation with the demographic characteristics, nutritional habits and knowledge among adult obese patients. We used a data collection method carried out with 500 obese adult volunteer patients Afyonkarahisar State Hospital between March and August 2011. Nutritional habits and knowledge score was measured by analysis of 22 question responses and demographic characteristics were sought by questionnaires. Most of obese patients were married (94%), female (85.4%), housewives (75.6%) and settled in province (73.2%). Moreover almost all stated to have breakfast everyday (91.4%) and to prefer vegetables (48.8%) for main meals. Increased emotional eating (71%), from birth and childhood start of weight gain (66.8%), familial story of overweight (79.6%) and no balanced (86.6%) and regular (92.8%) diet consumption were observed among obese patients. Their general knowledge in terms of nutrition was not impressive. Also, they were mostly observed to be interested in health and nutrition related issues (68.4%), nor take physical exercise (87.8%), and were accustomed to eating rapidly (55.2%). Our data also confirmed that lower education level was significantly associated with obesity. Obesity is observed to be significantly associated with some the nutritional habits, nutrition knowledge and demographic characteristics of the patients. The diet quality and physical activity must be promoted with health education programs for all segments of the population with a special focus on woman. Understanding of the complex interplay of several factors may help to increase public awareness and to establish obesity prevention strategies.</p><p>Asian J. Med. Biol. Res. September <em>2018, 4(3): 242-250</em></p> Şebnem Pamuk, Özlem Koktay Büyükçavuşoğlu, İbrahim Kılıç, Yeliz Yıldırım ##submission.copyrightStatement## Mon, 12 Nov 2018 09:41:01 +0000 Preparation of wastelage with poultry droppings and rice straw (Oryza sativa L.) as a cattle feed <p>The use of poultry droppings as a feed ingredient may not only reduce waste and environmental pollution but also provide inexpensive feed components for ruminants. An experiment was conducted to prepare wastelage in the field laboratory of Animal Science Department, Bangladesh Agricultural University, Mymensingh. Rice straw (<em>Oryza sativa L.</em>) was mixed with 0%, 10%, 20% and 30% caged layer excreta (CLE) and 5% molasses in each treatment on dry matter (DM) basis and ensiled in air tight container under room temperature. After 60 days, ensiled mixture was opened. All the wastelage had desirable smell, light brownish color, soft texture and no fungal growth was found. Results revealed that P<sup>H</sup>, DM, crude protein (CP), crude fiber (CF), ash, in vitro organic matter digestibility and metabolizable energy were significantly (p&lt;0.05) influenced by different levels of CLE. The highest CP (5.97g/100g DM) was observed in wastelage with 30% CLE (p&lt;0.05) followed by 20% and 10% CLE. The P<sup>H</sup> level, DM, Ash and CF contents were decreased linearly (p&lt;0.05) from 4.8 to 4.11, 78.00 to 55.63, 25.08 to 17.70 and 22.57 to 14.95%, respectively as the level of CLE increased from 0 to 30%. In all treatments, EE content was not significantly influenced by the different level of CLE. The in vitro organic matter digestibility (IVOMD) and metabolizable energy (ME) also increased significantly (p&lt;0.05) with the increased level of CLE and maximum value (57.51%, and 8.12 MJ/Kg DM, respectively) was obtained in wastelage with 10% CLE, which is statistically identical with 20% CLE. Therefore, it could be speculated that ensiling rice straw with up to 20% CLE improved the feeding value of wastelage.</p><p>Asian J. Med. Biol. Res. September <em>2018, 4(3): 251-258</em></p> Obydul Islam, Somaya Akter, Md Ahidul Islam, Dewan Kamruzzaman Jamee, Rokibul Islam Khan ##submission.copyrightStatement## Mon, 12 Nov 2018 09:41:10 +0000 Study on relationship between obesity and menstrual disorders <p>Menstrual disorder is a common fact includes menstrual irregularity, amenorrhea, dysmenorrhea, menorrhagia, oligomenorrhea, polymenorrhea and other related symptoms. Realizing the fact, the present investigation was carried out to determine the prevalence of menstrual disorders among female overweight and obese students and their association with different life style factors. A descriptive cross-sectional study was carried out among 70 overweight students from Patuakhali science and Technology University, Bangladesh through self-administered structural questionnaires. The data were collected on hemoglobin level (g/dl); menstrual pattern viz. menstrual cycle length, duration and flow; lifestyle factors including junk food consumption and dietary pattern. The statistical test was carried out using SPSS V16. The hemoglobin level test ensured that 20% students were non-anemic, 44.3% were mild anemic and 35.7 % were moderate anemic and the mean hemoglobin level was 10.12g/dL. The most commonly observed menstrual disorders among students were dysmenorrhea (47.1%), irregular menstruation (11.4%), menorrhagia (1.4%) and oligomenorrhea (11%). It was observed that 1.4% had scanty flow, 65.7% had normal flow whereas 32.9% had heavy flow of blood. However, the mean flow was 31.6ml. The habit of junk food consumption was found in 88.6% of the respondents and 24.3% of the students practice dieting. Additionally, the respondents who didn’t consume junk foods had regular cycle length although about 88.6% students had regular menstruation cycle and 78.2% had normal duration of flow. Most of the respondents were in moderate dietary diversity score (10.5%) because they maintain a diet chart. The hemoglobin levels ensured that 80% students were found clinically anemic. Thus the study concluded that obesity made the students susceptible to anemia.</p><p>Asian J. Med. Biol. Res. September <em>2018, 4(3): 259-266</em></p> Liton Chandra Sen, Israt Jahan Annee, Naharina Akter, Fawzia Fatha, Sujan Kanti Mali, Sourav Debnath ##submission.copyrightStatement## Mon, 12 Nov 2018 09:41:18 +0000 Bacteriological quality of dry powder milk available in local markets of Bangladesh <p>Milk and milk powders are very rich in several nutrients and relished by everybody throughout the world. The present study was undertaken with the aim of investigating the bacteriological quality of locally available dry powder milk in Bangladesh. A total number of eight powder milk samples were collected from Gazipur city and its surrounding areas during the period from January 2017 to February 2017. The analysis comprised of enumeration of total viable bacterial count (TVBC), isolation of bacterial isolates and identification of pathogenic bacteria. Almost all the powder milk samples showed the total aerobic heterotrophic bacterial (TAHB) level above the standard acceptable range (&gt;10<sup>4</sup> CFU/g). Both gram positive and gram negative pathogenic bacteria viz. <em>Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus epidermidis, Bacillus, pseudomonas </em>sp<em>. </em>and <em>Enterobacter </em>sp<em>. </em>were isolated from studied samples through morphological and biochemical characteristics. <em>Pseudomonas </em>sp. were confirmed by API 20E. These results highlighted the necessity to maintain appropriate sanitary and hygienic measures at each critical point in order to safeguard consumers from food borne pathogens.</p><p>Asian J. Med. Biol. Res. September <em>2018, 4(3): 267-273</em></p> Nazia Afrin, Rasheda Yasmin Shilpi ##submission.copyrightStatement## Mon, 12 Nov 2018 09:41:29 +0000 Prevalence of gestational diabetes and associated risk factors <p>This study was conducted to know prevalence of gestational diabetes and associated factors. A cross sectional data was collected from the pregnant mothers from a hospital of Barisal city, Bangladesh. It was revealed that 5% of the interviewed mothers suffer from diabetes. Among 100 participants, 58% were in 20-30 years age group and 68% patients married within 21-25 years old. Near about half (51%) of mothers had more than 60 Kg body weight. Maximum (48%) patients passed their secondary education and 78% were jobless. More than half (56%) of the patient’s family monthly earned 10000-20000 BD Tk. Among the mothers, 15% had the family history of diabetes. Correlation matrix revealed that, body weight, and blood pressure were positively associated with sugar level. Gestational age (P=0.04261) and diastolic blood pressure (P=0.018764) were significantly associated with the RBS of pregnant mothers. More study should be conducted to explore the accurate prevalence and practices of diabetic patients in the study area.</p><p>Asian J. Med. Biol. Res. September <em>2018, 4(3): 274-278</em></p> Jayati Debnath, Sumon Talukder, Md Shajadul Islam, Md Shafiqul Islam Khan, Sadman Sakib Sabuj, Dilruba Easmin Jhorna ##submission.copyrightStatement## Mon, 12 Nov 2018 09:41:37 +0000 Identification and antibiogram study of bacteria isolated from different street food <p>Food borne diseases are an increasingly recognized problem involving a wide spectrum of illnesses caused by bacterial contamination of food.Microorganism poses potential human health problems and is mainly transmitted through consumption of contaminated foods .Bangladesh is one of the densely populated country where majority of the people consume cheap foods prepared in unlicensed food selling points. The objective of the present study was to investigate the microbiological quality of different street food (Amra, Fusca, Chanachur and Guava) sold by various street vendor at Dinajpur, Bangladesh. A total of 20 samples were collected randomly from street vendors and tested for the presence of bacteria following standard microbiological method used for isolation, enumaration and identification of bacreria. Among the samples all had bacterial contamination. The total viable count (TVC) in diferrent street food samples was ranged from 8.0 × 10<sup>5</sup> CFU/g to 6.7x10<sup>7</sup> CFU/g. Among samples <em>Escherichia coli </em>7(35%), <em>Staphylococcus </em>spp. 6(30%), <em>Klebsiella </em>spp. 5(25%), <em>Salmonella </em>spp. 1(5%) and <em>Shigella </em>spp. 1 (5%) were isolated. <em>Escherichia coli </em>were found highest 3(50%) Amra samples and 2(40%) Guava samples, then another organisms <em>Staphylococcus </em>spp. was found highest 2(50%) Chanachur and 2(40%) Fusca samples and then <em>Klebsiella </em>spp. was found highest 2(40%) Fusca samples. Antibiotic sensitivity test showed that <em>Shigella </em>spp., <em>Staphylococcus </em>spp., <em>Klebsiella </em>spp., <em>Salmonella </em>spp. and <em>Escherichia coli </em>were sensitive to Ciprofloxacin and <em>Salmonella </em>spp. were resistance to Gentamycin. All isolates found resistant to Cefixime, Cefalexin, Erythromycin, Fusidic acid, Cefuroxime and Aztreonam. All of the sample harbor multidrug resistant food borne bacteria which might cause public health hazards if these antibiotic resistance transfer to human.</p><p>Asian J. Med. Biol. Res. September <em>2018, 4(3): 279-287</em></p> Mohamed Ahmed Khalif, Md Khaled Hossain, Nazmi Ara Rumi, Md Shajedur Rahman, Md Aoulad Hosen ##submission.copyrightStatement## Mon, 12 Nov 2018 09:41:44 +0000 Present status of aqua-medicines used in aquaculture at Jessore sadar upazila, Bangladesh <p>In order to know the present status of aqua-medicines used in aquaculture activities in Jessore district, Bangladesh a rigorous investigation was conducted with fish farmers and representative of pharmaceutical companies from January, 2016 to May 2016. An extensive assortment of aqua-medicines was comprehended throughout pond prepation and water excellence administration by the agrarians. Amongst them Zeo-Fesh, Zeo Prime, Ecolite, Megazeo plus, Geotox, Jv Zeolite, Acmes, Benthos, Pond life, were extensively used in field level. Disinfectants has precise significance; far and wide used by the agrarians and the furthermost prevalent disinfectants are Pathonil, Timen, Fmsen, Virex, Aquakleen etc., the reimbursements of disinfectants are to inhibit dissimilar categories of bacterial, fungal and viral diseases resembling gill rot, tail rot, dropsy etc. to uphold sanitized circumstance in pond apparatus and floorings and in some circumstances use to treat disease. Numerous aqua-medicines were established in the aqua-medicines retailers that were informed to be used as noxious gas reducer. The obtainable deadly gas reducer were gastrap, gas stop, gasonex plus, ammonil besides that, remunerations of using venomous gas reducer are to eliminate the lethal gas like NH<sub>3</sub>, H<sub>2</sub>S, CO<sub>2</sub> etc. since the bottommost of pond to diminish concentration of ammonia. For upgrading of dissolve oxygen level, Oxyflow, Oxymax, Bio Care, Bio-Ox, Oxy-Gold, Oxy-A, Oxylife were extensively used in the study area. A number of aqua medicines were found in the aqua-medicine enterprise used as growth promoter in addition to upsurge yield performance like, Megavit Aqua, Aqua Boots, Aquamin, Acimix etc. were extensively used in study area. Countless pharmaceutical companies have been chronicled to marketplace these aquaculture healthcare products. Furthermost of the products have been promoted from diverse republics like USA, Thailand, Malaysia, Belgium, and China and values were inconstant, but appeared to be reasonable to agrarians. The contemporaneous investigation pointed out numerous restraints concomitant with the use of such aqua-medicines, comprising nonexistence of methodological acquaintance of agrarians about use of aqua-medicines.</p><p>Asian J. Med. Biol. Res. September <em>2018, 4(3): 288-297</em></p> Ripon Kumar Adhikary, Mizanur Rahman, Abdulla Al Asif ##submission.copyrightStatement## Mon, 12 Nov 2018 09:41:53 +0000 Effect of nutrients enriched feed premix on the growth performance of major carps Rohu, Catla and Mrigal in a polyculture system <p>To evaluate the effect of nutrients enriched feed premix on the growth performance of major carps Rohu (<em>Labeo rohita</em>), Catla (<em>Catla catla</em>) and Mrigal (<em>Cirrhinus mrigala</em>) in a polyculture system, the present experiment was carried out in six earthen ponds located at Khulna University of Bangladesh for a period of 90 days. Two treatments each with three replications were stocked with 40% Rohu, 30% Catla and 30% Mrigal with a total stocking density of 10000/ha. T-2 was treated with feed premix at the rate of 4g/1 kg feed while T-1 was not treated with any feed premix. Both treatments were applied normal feed twice a day at the rate of 2% to 4% of the body weight of the fingerlings. The net fish production was found to be 2238.06 kg/ha and 3607.33 kg/ha in T-1 and T-2 respectively. The results showed that fish production was significantly higher in T-2 than T-1 (P&lt;0.05). T-2 showed 0.60 times greater fish production than that of T-1.</p><p>Asian J. Med. Biol. Res. September <em>2018, 4(3): 298-306</em></p> Md Faridur Rahman, Shamima Sultana, Manash Kabiraj, Md Alimullah ##submission.copyrightStatement## Mon, 12 Nov 2018 09:42:03 +0000 Socio-economic status and feeding practices among the mothers of under-five children in an urban slum of Bangladesh: a cross-sectional study <p>Poor socio-economic conditions and inappropriate feeding practices in slum dwelling mothers can have adverse consequences for the health and nutritional status of their under-five children. The present study was to assess the feeding practices and socio-economic status mothers of under-five children. A cross-sectional study was conducted from January 2015 to December 2015 in four urban slums of Bangladesh. Two hundred and fifty five mother-child pairs were selected by non-random convenience sampling and were interviewed using a pre-tested questionnaire. Anthropometric measurements were taken from under-five children aged 6-59 months. In the present study, boys (54.0%) were predominant over girls (46.0%). The prevalence of initiation of breastfeeding after delivery, prelacteal feeds, exclusive breastfeeding and bottle-feeding were 34.5%, 43.5%, 39.6% and 30.6%, respectively. Out of 255 children studied, more than half (57.6%) of the children received complementary feeds at the appropriate time whereas 45.9% children received with appropriate consistency. Meal frequency was 40.4% and minimum dietary diversity was given to only 39.6% of the children. Minimum dietary diversity means feeding the child food from at least four food groups. Feeding practices improve as mother‟s education levels and household income status increases while maximum slum dwelling mothers are illiterate and primary level completed and household income status are not static. Data showed that overall 14.0% of under-five children were suffering from malnutrition. In terms of severity, 11.3% were moderately malnourished-MAM and 2.7% were severely malnourished-SAM. Various inappropriate feeding practices are more prevalent among urban slum mothers. From this study, it was evident that mothers of low socio-economic group have poor knowledge regarding the feeding practices of their under-five children. There is an urgent need to bridge the “knowledge gap” and “practice gap” of mother‟s from urban slum and lower socio economic strata of the community by further strengthening the on-going breastfeeding programme, breastfeeding knowledge and practice of mothers in urban slum areas.</p><p>Asian J. Med. Biol. Res. September <em>2018, 4(3): 307-314</em></p> AFM Sujauddoula Al Amin, Sumon Chandra Debnath, Asadullahil Galib, Md Abdur Rouf, Md Ekramul Haque, Md Fazlay Rabby, Taslima Zannat, Zahidur Rahim ##submission.copyrightStatement## Mon, 12 Nov 2018 09:42:09 +0000 Bio-economic analysis of ESBN fishery of Kumira, the coastal area of Chittagong, Bangladesh <p>The present investigation was conducted from May to December 2005 at Kumira, the representative area of Chittagong coast for bio-socioeconomic analysis of ESBN fishery. In catch composition of Kumira, it was observed that finfish occupied 77.03 %, shrimp 19.82 % and crab 3.15 % and the average catch per boat per day were found 16.6 kg in Kumira. The highest total catch per boat per day (50 kg) was found in October at Kumira. The lowest catch was found (2 kg) in August at Kumira. The average total catch per landing center per month was found 14805 kg at Kumira. The average catch per fishermen per day was found 3.39 kg at Kumira and the average cost per boat per month was about 7,813 Tk in the study area. Average sale per month was found over 18,713 Tk in Kumira. During the month July and August most of the fishermen were engaged in Hilsa fishing with the Hilsa gill net resulting the total catch was with ESBN lowest in those months.</p><p>Asian J. Med. Biol. Res. September <em>2018, 4(3): 315-322</em></p> Md Atiqul Islam Mondal, MA Kader, Md Rashed Un Nabi, Abdullah Al Mamun Siddiqui, Md Masum Billah, Abdulla Al Asif ##submission.copyrightStatement## Mon, 12 Nov 2018 09:42:20 +0000