Asian Journal of Medical and Biological Research Asian Journal of Medical and Biological Research is a peer reviewed open access international journal. It publishes original scientific papers and short communications. Review articles of current interest and high standard may be considered. 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These materials will then be destroyed.</p> Antibiotic sensitivity and resistant pattern of bacteria isolated from table eggs of commercial layers considering food safety issue <p>The present study was carried out during the period of June 2016 to June 2017 to evaluate the antibiotic sensitivity and resistant pattern of bacteria isolated from table eggs of commercial layers considering food safety issue. A total of 200 egg samples (100 for egg shell surface and 100 for egg content) were collected from different retail markets of Dhaka city in sterile polythene bags in a view to prevent extraneous contamination and transported to the laboratory immediate after collection using icebox. The samples were inoculated onto nutrient broth and nutrient agar plates aerobically at 37°Cfor isolation. The isolated organisms were identified based on staining, motility, colony morphology and biochemical tests. The isolated bacteria were also subjected to characterize their antibiotic sensitivity. About 74% egg samples (148 out of 200 samples) were positive for microbial contamination. Among them 100 (100 %) samples had their shells contaminated with microbes of different genera; however, only 48 (48%) growths were observed from the egg contents. The major contaminants are <em>Escherichia coli </em>(34.64%), Coagulase positive <em>Staphylococcus </em>(24.29%), <em>Salmonella </em>spp. (20.71%) followed by Coagulase negative <em>Staphylococcus </em>(10%), <em>Pseudomonas </em>spp. (6.43%) and <em>Bacillus </em>spp. (3.93%). The isolated bacteria <em>E. coli</em>, Coagulase positive <em>Staphylococcus</em>, <em>Salmonella </em>spp. and <em>Pseudomonas </em>spp. showed their greatest sensitivity against ciprofloxacin, ceftriaxone and azithromycin whereas resistant against tetracycline, amoxicillin and ampicillin. There is potential for these antibiotic-resistant bacteria to be transferred to humans through contaminated eggs and are of public health concern from food safety point of view.</p> <p>Asian J. Med. Biol. Res. December <em>2018, 4(4): 323-329</em></p> Mahfuzul Islam Mirza Synthia Sabrin Md Hazzaz Bin Kabir Md Aftabuzzaman ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-12-30 2018-12-30 4 4 323 329 10.3329/ajmbr.v4i4.40103 Prevalence of etiologic agents causing invasive bacterial disease and evaluation of their antibiotic susceptibility pattern <p>Invasive bacterial diseases (IBD) cause significant morbidity and mortality which leads to enormous health suffering and economic frustration in Bangladesh especially in people with resource poor region. The prevalence of IBD may vary even in different regions in a country. To understand the prevalence of etiologic agents causing IBD and determining their response to commonly used standard antibiotics we conducted a retrospective cross sectional study in rural town of Bangladesh on patient attended for blood culture with IBD sign-symptoms in well reputed microbiology lab. We considered IBD patients (118) of all age groups (0-85 years) both gender (male 54% and female 46%). 25% (30) blood culture of all IBD patients found bacterial growth positive including contaminant Staphylococcus sp. (10). The isolated IBD etiologic agents are S. aureus (10), Salmonella sp. (5), Salmonella Paratyphi (1), E. coli (2), Shigella sp. (1), Pseudomonas sp. (1). We could have retrieved antibiotic susceptibility testing data of five isolates including S. aureus (1), Salmonella sp. (2), Salmonella Paratyphi (1), Pseudomonas sp. (1); which showed except Salmonella sp. all isolates are sensitive to tested commonly used standard antibiotics. Two non typhoidal Salmonella sp. showed intermediate sensitivity to ciprofloxacin (5 ìg) which indicate reconsideration of choosing non typhoidal Salomonella sp. infection with ciprofloxacin (5 ìg). As it is a retrospective, not well organized cross sectional study; these findings may not represent the entire actual scenario of IBD in the region. As a consequence, a well organizing and adequately powered study must need to be conducted</p> <p>Asian J. Med. Biol. Res. December <em>2018, 4(4): 330-336</em></p> Md Mijanur Rahman Mohammad Sharif Uddin Salma Aktar Mohammad Shaokat Ali Partha Paul Md Mahmudul Hasan Shah Md Ataur Rahman ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-12-30 2018-12-30 4 4 330 336 10.3329/ajmbr.v4i4.40104 A retrospective study investigating the effects of outpatient physiotherapy on lower back pain in Bangladesh <p>Low Back Pain (LBP) is a widespread global health problem. Almost 80% of people suffer from this condition at some point in their life. Management of LBP is a challenge for health care professionals. Out of all management strategies Physiotherapy is commonly and widely used around the globe for treating patients with LBP.A large number of people seek physiotherapy intervention for their LBP in Bangladesh however, studies regarding their treatment outcomes following physiotherapy are not available. This study was a retrospective, descriptive study of patients’ with Chronic Low Back Pain (CLBP) attending physiotherapy. The objective of this study was to investigate the level of pain and functional limitation following physiotherapy intervention. Information regarding 1,000 patients with LBP was retrieved from patient records in the Physiotherapy department at the Centre for the Rehabilitation of the Paralysed (CRP). Outcomes investigating pain and function were recorded and analysed. 63% of all participants were female. Pain was significantly reduced among patients with CLBP after receiving physiotherapy. Extension and flexion of the lumbar spine were lost in about 80% and 56% of patients respectively. Movements of the lumbar spine were improved after physiotherapy. Nearly 50% of patients reported improvements of more than 75% after receiving physiotherapy for LBP. Patients with CLBP had different characteristics. In this study it was not possible to record all necessary information. In general most of the patients’ outcomes were improved after receiving physiotherapy intervention.</p> <p>Asian J. Med. Biol. Res. December <em>2018, 4(4): 337-342</em></p> Muhammad Shahidul Islam Firoz Ahmed Mamin ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-12-30 2018-12-30 4 4 337 342 10.3329/ajmbr.v4i4.40105 Occurrence of enteric parasites and their risk factors among the female inhabitants of lower socioeconomic groups in Dhaka city <p>The present study was conducted to investigate the intestinal parasites. A total of 900 female inhabitants of lower socioeconomic groups in Dhaka city were examined during Sep 2013 to Aug 2015, prevalence of gastrointestinal parasitic infestation was 66.22% and 26 parasite species were identified, of which ten species were protozoans, six cestodes, four trematodes and six nematodes. Prevalence of nematoda was the highest (57.55%), then cestode (38.67%), protozoa (19.22%) and lowest was found in trematode (4.11%). <em>Entamoeba histolytica </em>(10.44%) indicates severe faecal contamination among protozoan parasites, while in cestodes <em>Hymenolepis nana </em>(22.78%), in trematodes <em>Fasciolopsis buski </em>(2.11%) and in nematodes <em>Ascaris lumbricoides </em>(38%) were highly prevalent. In twelve study areas, the highest prevalence was found in Kamrangichar (87.5%) and children of age group 1-15 years (75.65%) were mostly affected by intestinal parasite.</p> <p>Asian J. Med. Biol. Res. December <em>2018, 4(4): 343-</em><em>350</em></p> Mt Tahmina Karim Hamida Khanum Sharmin Musa ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-12-30 2018-12-30 4 4 343 350 10.3329/ajmbr.v4i4.40106 Incidence of clinical diseases and disorders in goats at Bangladesh Livestock Research Institute <p>The current study was performed to determine the incidence and trends of clinical diseases and disorders in Black Bengal and Jamnapari goats in order to design a set of strategies to be applied for the prevention and control of these problems in this farm. A total of 739 Black Bengal and 285 Jamnapari goats at BLRI goat research farm, Savar, Dhaka, Bangladesh were included under this study. The study was performed out during the period from January 2012 to December 2014. Diagnoses and records of clinical diseases and disorders were based on pertinent clinical history, clinical findings and laboratory tests. The major clinical diseases and disorders were determined pneumonia (37.44%), diarrhoea (21.22%), lameness (3.01%), mange (2.99%), malnutrition (2.82%), contagious ecthyma (1.93%) and fever (1.85%). In case of seasons, the highest incidence was found during rainy season (2.26%) followed by winter (5.85%) and summer (4.25%); whereas in respect of age groups, the highest incidence was found in growing goat (26.14%) followed by adults (12.15%) and kids (10.93%). So, we may conclude that although some diseases and disorders occurred in the BLRI sheep research farm, the incidence were not high. In addition, on the basis of these findings measures should be taken for further prevention of such diseases and manifestations.</p> <p>Asian J. Med. Biol. Res. December <em>2018, 4(4): 351-361</em></p> Md Nuruzzaman Munsi Md Ershaduzzaman Sonia Akther Md Mamunur Rahman Md Habibur Rahman Mohammad Mojibur Rahman ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-12-30 2018-12-30 4 4 351 361 10.3329/ajmbr.v4i4.40107 Study and quantitative analysis of wild vegetable floral diversity available in Barisal district, Bangladesh <p>In Barisal district of Bangladesh, a market survey was carried out to document the local wild vegetables floral diversity consumed by rural people and also inhabitants of metropolitan city, compare the botanical and agronomical characteristics. A total of 100 wild vegetable species belonging to 46 families have been documented from Barisal district. Among 100 wild vegetables 65% species are ethnomedicinally important and 52% are available in the all the year round. Among the species 75% hurb, 19% climber, 4% shrub and 2% trees. Leaf is most frequently used plant parts consumed and fallow land is the important source of these wild vegetables. Among 46 plant families Amaranthaceae and Araceae were recorded as most prominent. Market potentiality proportionally correlated with taste, ethnomedicinal value and use frequency but inversely correlated with distribution area, community status. Wild vegetable floral species having ethnomedicinal value, better in taste are rare and distributed into certain remote areas because frequent consumption result fast reduction from hand reach sources. Findings of this study could provide baseline data to conserve these wild vegetables, further agronomical investigation to domesticate them for sustainable use.</p> <p>Asian J. Med. Biol. Res. December <em>2018, 4(4): 362-371</em></p> Uzzal Hossain Ashikur Rahman ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-12-30 2018-12-30 4 4 362 371 10.3329/ajmbr.v4i4.40108 Retrospective study of parasitic diseases of cattle through laboratory analysis of clinical samples at Bangladesh Livestock Research Institute, Regional Station, Baghabari, Sirajganj, Bangladesh <p>a</p> Md Humayun Kabir Md Ershaduzzaman Mohammed Sirajul Islam Seikh Masudur Rahman Md Rezaul Karim Md Zakir Hasan Md Abu Haris Miah Md Yousuf Ali Shafaat Mahjabun Sumona Aktar Md Shahjahan ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-12-30 2018-12-30 4 4 372 377 10.3329/ajmbr.v4i4.40109 Status of anthelmintic resistance of gastrointestinal nematodes in organized sheep and goat farms <p>Anthelmintic resistance has become a global problem that threatens livestock production worldwide. The present study was investigated the status of anthelmintic resistance in gastrointestinal (GI) nematodes of small ruminants in two organized sheep and goat farms in two different areas of Bangladesh by fecal egg count reduction test (FECRT) for albendazole, levamisole and ivermectin. In each farms, naturally infected animals were divided into four groups of 10 animals. Fecal samples from each group were collected on day 0 and day 14 of post treatment to measure the eggs per gram of feces (EPG). The fecal samples of each group before and after treatment were also considered for culture to identify resistant parasite. In case of organized sheep farm, the result of FECRT of albendazole was 90.17, 95% confidence with upper and lower limit was 97.82 and 55.68, respectively. The result of FECRT of levamisole and ivermectin was 98.25 and 96.77, 95% confidence with upper and lower limit was 99.79, 85.12 and 99.11, 88.31, respectively. In case of organized goat farm, the result of FECRT of albendazole was 100, 95% confidence with upper and lower limit was 0 and 0, respectively. The result of FECRT of levamisole and ivermectin was 97.99 and 100, 95% confidence with upper and lower limit was 99.59, 90.28 and 0, 0 respectively. The results revealed that gastrointestinal nematodes were found to be resistant to albendazole in organized sheep farm and suspected to be resistant to levamisole and ivermectin. In organized goat farms, the GI nematodes found to be susceptible to all anthelmintics used for this study. Coproculture revealed that <em>Haemonchus </em>spp. were resistant parasite in sheep farm. This seems to be the first documentation of anthelmintic resistance against GI nematodes in organized sheep and goat farms in Bangladesh. Appropriate measures need to be taken to overcome the situation.</p> <p>Asian J. Med. Biol. Res. December <em>2018, 4(4): 378-</em><em>382</em></p> Saiful Islam Anita Rani Dey Shirin Akter Hiranmoy Biswas Md Hasanuzzaman Talukder Mohammad Zahangir Alam ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-12-30 2018-12-30 4 4 378 382 10.3329/ajmbr.v4i4.40110 Measurement of circulating insulin-like peptide 3 and testosterone concentrations in pre-pubertal, tropical male goats <p>The present study attempted to: (1) simplify the existing enzyme immunoassay (EIA) for the measurement of insulin-like peptide 3 (INSL3) concentrations in goats (2) to measure circulating INSL3 and testosterone in pre-pubertal Jamnapari X local crossbred goats (3) to examine the relationships among INSL3 concentration, testosterone concentration, scrotal circumference and body weight during the pre-pubertal age. Serial blood samples were collected from normal pre-pubertal male Jamnapari X local crossbred goats (n = 6) at the ages of 19 to 28 weeks. Serum INSL3 was measured using a recently reported EIA with modifications to the original procedure. The detection ranges of the INSL3 and testosterone assays were 0.08 to 80 ng/mL and 0.01 to 40 ng/mL, respectively. The intra-assay coefficient of variations were 3.79% for INSL3 (n = 6) and 3.72% (n = 6) for testosterone. Serum INSL3 concentrations ranged from 13.62 ± 3.25 to 22.45 ± 6.09 ng/mL (mean ± SEM) in pre-pubertal goats. Those concentrations increased (p &lt; 0.05) from 20 (13.62 ± 3.25 ng/mL) to 22 (22.45 ± 6.09 ng/mL) weeks of age. Testosterone concentrations ranged from 0.30 ± 0.07 to 1.22 ± 0.43 ng/mL in pre-pubertal goats. A significant drop was observed in testosterone concentrations at 23 weeks of age. INSL3 was correlated (r = 0.58; p &lt; 0.05) with scrotal circumference while no significant correlation was observed among other tested parameters. A rapid, sensitive EIA system was simplified to quantify INSL3 in goats, by simplifying the existing procedure. Different serum INSL3 and testosterone dynamics were found from 19 to 28 weeks of age of the goats. Compared with testosterone, INSL3 dynamics seemed to be more consistent with the age of pre-pubertal goats and showed a relationship with the testicular growth.</p> <p>Asian J. Med. Biol. Res. December <em>2018, 4(4): 383-388</em></p> Anuradha Wimalarathne Lakshitha Fonseka Indunil Pathirana Suranga Kodithuwakku Noritoshi Kawate ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-12-30 2018-12-30 4 4 383 388 10.3329/ajmbr.v4i4.40111 Effect of water parameters on temporal distribution and abundance of zooplankton at Kaptai lake reservoir, Rangamati, Bangladesh <p>Seasonal abundance of zooplankton in relation to different physico-chemical conditions of Kaptai lake has been studied. A total of four major groups of zooplankton were identified from study area of Kaptai lake during three seasons observation at pre-monsoon, monsoon and Post-monsoon. These four groups were categorized into rotifers, copepods, cladocerans and others (fish larvae, shrimp larvae, insects, mosquito larvae etc.). The mean abundance of group rotifers, copepods, cladoceras and others were 103, 84.67, 38.33 and 41.83 ind. L<sup>-1</sup> respectively. The highest group was rotifers in terms of abundance and composition where compositions were recorded 38 % at three season’s observation. The lowest group was cladoceras in term of abundance and composition where compositions were recorded 14 %. The air temperature, water temperature, transparency, water pH, DO, BOD5, PO<sub>4</sub>-P, NO<sub>2</sub>-N, SiO<sub>3</sub>-Si, TSS, TDS, Alkalinity ranged between 21 and 27.5<sup>0</sup>C, 23.5 and 31.5<sup>0</sup>C, 0.8 and 3 m, 7.1 and 7.5, 5.72 and 8.58 mg/l, 8.55 and 12.87 mg/l, 3.22 and 4.13 μg/l, 0.992 and 1.19 μg/l, 161.18 and 201.15 μg/l, 0.28 and 0.48 g/l, 0.18 and 0.68 g/l, 40 and 60 ppm, respectively. Margalef richness index (d), Pielou’s evenness index (J'), Shannon-Wiener diversity index (H'), Simpson dominance index (λ) are analyzed by Primer V6 software to quantify the collected species. Through same software SIMPER, Cluster analysis also done to compare similarity between season.</p> <p>Asian J. Med. Biol. Res. December <em>2018, 4(4): 389-399</em></p> Md Anowarul Haque Md Rashed Un Nabi Md Masum Billah Abdulla Al Asif Mohammed Rezowan Md Atiqul Islam Mondal Abdullah Al Mamun Siddiqui Syed Shoeb Mahmud Md Razon Khan ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-12-30 2018-12-30 4 4 389 399 10.3329/ajmbr.v4i4.40112 Knowledge, attitude and practice towards use of herbal aphrodisiac among unani & ayurvedic health care seekers in Dhaka city <p>Geographically Bangladesh is the treasure-house of medicinal plants especially herbal aphrodisiac medicines. The World Health Organization (WHO) reported that 70%–80% of the global population relies on herbs for primary health care. Sexual health is a state of complete physical, mental and social well-being in all aspects related to the reproductive system. The study aimed as assessing the use of herbal aphrodisiac among Unani &amp; Ayurvedic health care seekers in Dhaka city, knowledge, attitude and practice. The study design was a descriptive cross-sectional study. This study was conducted at Unani and Ayurvedic Medical College Hospital among 220 patients at Mirpur-13, Dhaka using a semi-structured interviewed questionnaire. The study result depicted that 47.7% respondents were in 21-30 years age group. The mean age was 31.22±8.265 years and the range was from 17-50 years. It was found that the prevalence of Premature Ejaculation (PE) and Erectile Dysfunction (ED) was 26.4% and 21.8% respectively. Low level of knowledge was found about different aspects of Unani and Ayurvedic System of Medicine. It was revealed that most of the respondents (95%) knew about the very effective aphrodisiac, their safety and cost issue. It was also revealed that most (79.1%) of the respondents strongly opined about less side-effect of herbal aphrodisiac. The study findings suggest that there is a significant association between age and knowledge about Govt. teaching hospital and between education and knowledge about cost of aphrodisiac in herbal medicine.</p> <p>Asian J. Med. Biol. Res. December <em>2018, 4(4): 400-405</em></p> Mohammed Saiful Islam Chowdhury Md Monir Ahammed Mohammad Abu Taher Md Anisur Rahman MSA Mansur Ahmed ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-12-30 2018-12-30 4 4 400 405 10.3329/ajmbr.v4i4.40113 Comparative histomorphological study of non affected and affected bile duct and gall bladder by fascioliasis in Black Bengal Goat <p>The purpose of this study was to comparative histomorphological investigation of the non affected and affected bile duct and gall bladder by fascioliasis in Black Bengal goat. The average weight of affected gall bladder was 26.10±0.70 gm which was significantly (p&lt;0.001) higher than non affected gall bladder (19.40±0.96 gm). The average length and girth of affected gall bladder were 10.30±0.37 cm and 8.24±0.30 cm, respectively which were also significantly (p&lt;0.001) higher than the length (6.10±0.30 cm) and Girth (5.85±0.25 cm) of non-affected gall bladder of Black Bengal Goat. The gross changes in acute form, thickening of the bile ducts and fibrosis in a portal area due to chronic fascioliasis was found in case of affected bile duct but were not found in case of non affected liver. A brownish exudates and a number of mature <em>Fasciola gigantica </em>were found in the lumen. The adult <em>Fasciola gigantica </em>was noticed in cross section in the lumen of the thickened bile ducts. Acute pathological lesions could only be produced by developing flukes prior to their entry to the bile ducts. Microscopically the epithelial layer of the bile ducts were seen to the partially disintegrated, but simultaneous proliferation of epithelial cells occurred. Thickening of the bile ducts was the result of connective tissue proliferation. Deposition of bile pigment in the tissue space and bile duct in some parts showed periductal cellular infiltrations, mainly neutrophiles, lymphocyte and eosinophiles. No calcification in the wall of the bile ducts in chronic Fascioliasis in goat could be seen in this study. The gall bladder was very dark usually contained blood clots, the consistency of bile was also very dense. Microcopically hyperplasia of the tubuloalveolar glands and numerous eggs were seen in the bile of infected goat which were absence in case of non infected goat.</p> <p>Asian J. Med. Biol. Res. December <em>2018, 4(4): 406-415</em></p> Md Reazul Islam Rashida Khaton Md Aktharul Alam Md Jalal Uddin Sarder Md Najmul Hassan Parvez ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-12-30 2018-12-30 4 4 406 415 10.3329/ajmbr.v4i4.40114 Isolation and molecular detection of respiratory bacterial agents from buffalo reared in some selected areas of Bangladesh <p>In buffalo respiratory bacterial infection is very common which occurs sporadically or enzootically all over Bangladesh causing high economic loss. The study was performed with a view to proper control of respiratory bacterial infection in Buffalo. A total of 40 samples were collected on the basis of clinical signs. The samples were then subjected to isolation, identification and characterization of the bacterial agents using cultural, biochemical and molecular techniques. Antibiogram profiles of the isolated agents were studied by disc diffusion method. <em>Pasteurella multocida</em>, <em>Staphylococcus aureus </em>and <em>E. coli </em>were successfully isolated and identified from the collected samples. The isolated <em>Pasteurella multocida </em>produced small, round, opaque colonies on blood agar; <em>Staphylococcus aureus </em>produced golden yellow colony in mannitol salt agar; <em>E. coli </em>produced black color colonies with metallic sheen on EMB agar. <em>Pasteurella multocida </em>showed Gram negative, bipolar rods. <em>Staphylococcus aureus </em>showed Gram positive, cocci shaped and <em>E. coli </em>showed Gram negative, small rod shaped. On the basis of cultural and biochemical characteristics, among 40 nasal samples 5 were found to be positive for <em>Pasteurella multocida</em>, 4 for <em>Staphylococcus aureus </em>and 3 for <em>E. coli</em>. <em>Pasteurella multocida </em>was further confirmed by PCR where isolates showed positive band at 620 bp. The antibiogram study concluded that amoxicillin, gentamicin, &amp; ciprofloxacin should be the first choice of treatment for respiratory bacterial infection caused by the isolated 3 bacteria.</p> <p>Asian J. Med. Biol. Res. December <em>2018, 4(4): 416-421</em></p> Taslima Akter Md Shahidur Rahman Khan Saifur Rahman Md Ariful Islam Md Shafiqul Islam ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-12-30 2018-12-30 4 4 416 421 10.3329/ajmbr.v4i4.40115 Ethnomedicinal survey of plants used by the folk medicinal practitioner (FMP) in the Jamalpur sadar Upazila, Jamalpur district, Bangladesh <p>The Folk medicinal practitioner (FMP) or Kabiraj plays a key role to provide health support mainly to village people. They are mainly dependent on the pants parts available around them and many modern medicines are being synthesized by extracting the active chemicals from plants. The main objective of this study is to document the plants used by the FMPs of two villages of Jamalpur sadar upazila. For this study, we conducted a survey based on semi structured method. We found they use mainly 31 plants belonging to 25 families. The part mostly used is leave (31.75%) and the least used is the flower (6.34%). It is found that almost 18 types of diseases are being cured by their formulation. This study also suggested that, the FMPs treat many common disorder like gastro intestinal disorder, Respiratory tract infection, diabetes, Skin disorder etc. and also various complicated disorder such as debility, anemia, neural disorder etc. This study may be helpful to create scientific view about the plants used by the FMPs of Jamalpur sadar upazila and these plants might be used to synthesize drug molecule of interest.</p> <p>Asian J. Med. Biol. Res. December <em>2018, 4(4): 422-426</em></p> Tanvir Ahamed Koushik Mondal Muhammad Ismail Khan Tahmina Nasrin Munni Tanziba Alam Rashedul Islam ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-12-30 2018-12-30 4 4 422 426 10.3329/ajmbr.v4i4.40116