Asian Journal of Medical and Biological Research 2023-01-15T06:43:22+00:00 S. M. Lutful Kabir, Ph.D. Open Journal Systems <p><a href="">Asian Journal of Medical and Biological Research</a> is an open access, peer-reviewed, international journal. This journal publishes high-quality original scientific papers and short communications. Review articles of current interest and high standard may be considered.</p> <p style="text-align: justify;">AJMBR is now accepting online submissions through <a href="">BanglaJOL’s online journal management system</a>. Authors should register by clicking on the “Register” link at the top of the page. If you have already registered, then just log in using your username and password. To submit a paper, click on the “New Submission” button to start the online procedure.</p> <p><strong>Indexing &amp; Abstracting: </strong>BanglaJOL; CAB Abstracts (CABI); Chemical Abstracts Service (CAS); Crossref; Electronic Journals Library; Global Health (CABI); Google Scholar; JournalSeek; WorldCat</p> Analysis of Cr (VI) accumulation from feed to broiler chicken by using spectroscopy 2022-11-15T17:31:49+00:00 Md Showkat Hossen Shamima Ahmed Mohammad Shaokat Ali <p>Broiler chicken is one of the major dietary protein sources in Bangladesh. This study is aimed to investigate the status of chromium (VI) content in broiler feeds and water, as well as the risk of chromium (VI) in broiler meat, liver, and brain. For this investigation, a total of five broiler-rearing farms were chosen, each with a different type of broiler feed. A total of fifteen broiler chickens along with the water and feed samples were collected from those broiler farms. The concentration of chromium (VI) in feed, water, broiler meat, liver, and brain samples was determined using an Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer (AAS). Two feed samples (Farm B and Farm D) were found to be chromium (VI) polluted (3.157±0.050 mg/Kg and 3.510±0.095 mg/Kg respectively), while water samples were found to be devoid of contamination. Only meat, liver, and brain samples from several farms were found to have chromium (VI). Brain samples exhibited the highest concentration of chromium (3.550±1.281 mg/Kg) compared to the liver (2.700±1.084 mg/Kg) and muscle meat (0.857±0.076 mg/Kg) samples. The amounts of chromium (VI) in the broiler brain and liver were found to be substantially higher than FAO and WHO acceptable standards. The rate of chromium (VI) concentration in meat samples was below the allowed level. It is proposed that precautions should be taken to detect chromium in chicken feed to assess health hazards and protect humans from food that could have serious negative consequences for their health.</p> <p>Asian J. Med. Biol. Res. 2022, 8 (4), 225-229</p> 2022-12-23T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Md Showkat Hossen, Shamima Ahmed, Mohammad Shaokat Ali Orthodontıc treatment and oral flora 2022-10-11T13:19:36+00:00 Aybuke Asena Atasever Isler <p>The general aim of orthodontic treatment is to provide ideal occlusion, facial aesthetics and stability in individuals, as well as to provide healthy periodontal structures. A good orthodontic treatment can be possible with healthy gingiva. Plaque accumulation may occur in the tooth areas around the equipment used in orthodontic appliances. The microbiological composition of dental plaque is related to dental and oral health. During the orthodontic treatment process, microbiological changes may occur in the flora. Therefore, before starting orthodontic treatment, the oral hygiene of the patient should be checked. It should be considered that the lack of oral hygiene may cause complications. In this review, information on the relationship between orthodontic treatment and oral flora is summarized.</p> <p>Asian J. Med. Biol. Res. 2022, 8 (4), 181-186</p> 2022-11-04T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Aybuke Asena Atasever Isler Larvicidal efficacy of selected medicinal plants against the filarial vector mosquito Culex quinquefasciatus Say (Diptera: Culicidae) 2022-10-17T17:35:06+00:00 Khondoker Md Zulfiker Rahman Mohammad Abdur Razzak <p>The present research was conducted to assess the mosquito larvicidal potential of selected medicinal plants using an effective but simple method. Aqueous extracts of roots of three selected medicinal plants viz. <em>Derris scandens</em>, <em>Rubia cordifolia</em> and <em>Saussurea lappa</em> were evaluated for their mosquito larvicidal potential against the 3<sup>rd</sup> instar larvae of <em>C. quinquefasciatus</em> Say (1823) under laboratory settings. Aqueous extracts of these plants at seven different concentrations (1, 25, 50, 100, 150, 200 and 300 ppm) exhibited considerable mortality of the 3<sup>rd</sup> instar larvae after 24 and 48 h exposure. Among the plants, <em>D. scandens</em> root extract exhibited the highest toxicity inducing 100% larval mortality after 24 h exposure at 250 ppm concentration, followed by the root extracts of <em>R. cordifolia</em> and <em>S. lappa</em> inducing 98.4% and 87.8% larval mortality, respectively. Overall, extracts of all the plants exhibited a strong positive correlation between the concentration of extracts and larval mortality (p˂0.001) with a correlation coefficient of more than 0.90. The LC<sub>50 </sub>and LC<sub>90</sub> values after 24 h contact demonstrated <em>D. scandens</em> as the most toxic with the lowest LC<sub>50</sub> and LC<sub>90 </sub>values (LC<sub>50</sub>=78.20 ppm, LC<sub>90</sub>=147.33 ppm) followed by <em>R. cordifolia </em>(LC<sub>50</sub>= 89.32 ppm, LC<sub>90</sub>=204.09 ppm) and <em>S. lappa</em> (LC<sub>50</sub>=112.29 ppm, LC<sub>90</sub>=248.72 ppm), respectively. Our results clearly indicated that all the plants' aqueous extracts showed considerable larvicidal potential against the 3<sup>rd</sup> instar larvae of <em>C. quinquefasciatus</em>. To conclude, the application of aqueous extracts from these plants to larval habitats may efficiently control <em>C. quinquefasciatus</em> mosquitoes, hence, can be recommended as a potential alternative to chemical insecticides against these vectors.</p> <p>Asian J. Med. Biol. Res. 2022, 8 (4), 187-193</p> 2022-11-09T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Khondoker Md Zulfiker Rahman, Mohammad Abdur Razzak Cut off from River, but rich in biodiversity: fish biodiversity and livelihood of fishermen in Jhapa baor, Jashore, Bangladesh 2022-11-01T13:09:03+00:00 Fahmida Sultana Rimi Subrata Mondal BM Newaz Sharif - Jamil Md Barkot Hasan <p>Oxbow lake is one of the significant freshwater fisheries assets in Bangladesh, which supports livelihood of fishermen community. This study was conducted to assess the fish biodiversity and socio-economic conditions of fishermen in Jhapa baor (oxbow lake) at Manirampur upazilla in Jashore district from July to September 2019. This investigation used primary data, collected through household interviews, key informant or cross-checked interviews, Focus Group Discussion (FGDs) as well as secondary data. Fish fauna were identified based on their morphometric and meristic characters. After identification, fish species were systematically classified. A total of 43 species belonged to 11 orders and 17 families were identified from the baor. A total of five types of nets, three types of fish traps and four types of wounding gears were found during the survey. Furthermore, results of this study didn't show improved socio-economic conditions of the baor fisheries dependent families. Their income was less than the national average. Almost 50% of the households had up to 4 family members. Most family had single earning member. Most didn't have land aside from residence and their houses were earthen made. Although most of them had access to safe drinking water, few had access to quality health services and sanitary latrine. Their education levels were low about 70% fishers had no or beneath primary level education. Although currently the majority of their children were school going (72%) and the percentage is increasing gradually. Almost 65% of fishing community was involved with credit organization. This study will provide the baseline information about biodiversity and livelihood status of fishermen in Jhapa baor.</p> <p>Asian J. Med. Biol. Res. 2022, 8 (4), 194-215</p> 2022-11-18T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Fahmida Sultana Rimi, Subrata Mondal, B.M. Newaz Sharif, - Jamil, Md. Barkot Hasan Culture and production of Lucilia sericata Meigen (1826) larvae for rearing stinging catfish Heteropneustes fossilis (Bloch, 1794) using poultry waste 2022-11-01T13:08:11+00:00 Abdus Satter Md Ahsan Bin Habib Hadi Hamli - Abdulla-Al-Asif - Jamil <p>The fly larvae (<em>Lucilia sericata</em>) are being used as an alternative protein source in any kind of animal feed as it reduces the cost of preparation of feed. This current study focused on the physico-chemical and proximate properties of raw poultry waste, while this study also revealed the production process of fly larvae and the proximate composition of it. The poultry waste was collected from Suvro poultry farm, Sutiakhali, Mymensingh, then the physic-chemical properties of the raw poultry waste were determined using different procedures. Three treatments were considered for production of fly larvae, T<sub>1</sub> (3 kg), T<sub>2</sub> (6 kg) and T<sub>3</sub> (9 kg) in a 15 kg capacity tray with three replications. After production, the proximate composition were also measured of fly larvae. Physico-chemical properties such as, color, odor, texture, temperature, pH, total solids (TSS+TDS), chemical oxygen demand, dissolved oxygen, alkalinity, available N, available P, and fiber in raw poultry waste were determined and presented. Proximate composition such as, moisture, total N, total P, available N, total Ca, ash and crude fiber were found in significant amount in the poultry waste. It was found that T<sub>3</sub> (1350±68g) produced highest volume of live maggot compared to the other treatments, but T<sub>2</sub> (17.50±1.10%) produced highest percentage volume. The proximate compositions of fly larvae were assessed and found 56.60±0.25% protein value in it, suggesting that fly larvae could be the protein replacer in fish feed. The result of this study revealed cheap protein source in aquaculture production, such as production and rearing of stinging catfish <em>Heteropneustes fossilis</em>, and the findings might be helpful for cost reduction in aquaculture operation.</p> <p>Asian J. Med. Biol. Res. 2022, 8 (4), 216-224</p> 2022-11-24T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Abdus Satter, Md Ahsan Bin Habib, Hadi Hamli, - Abdulla-Al-Asif, - Jamil Comparative studies on tolerance of two rice genotypes differing in their salinity tolerance 2022-11-24T11:25:28+00:00 Jotirmoy Chakrobortty Yeasmin Akter Md Anamul Hoque Md Abul Hashem <p>Salinity is a serious problem affecting one third of the irrigation land and limiting the yield potential of modern rice (<em>Oryza sativa</em> L.) varieties. To increase our understanding of salt tolerance mechanisms in rice for better production, knowledge of salinity effects on rice seedling growth and yield components is inevitable. Despite of large number of studies on salinity tolerance of rice, we have very limited knowledge on the overall effect of salinity on rice seedlings growth. The experiment was carried out to assess the responses of salinity on the growth, nutrient accumulation and yield of rice genotypes BRRI dhan29 (salt-sensitive) and BINA dhan-10 (salt-tolerant). The pot experiment was conveyed at the net house to evaluate the response of two rice genotypes at five levels of salt stresses (0, 25, 50, 75, 100 mM NaCl) at the vegetative stage. After harvesting of rice, electrical conductivity of soil was analyzed. Growth, yield components, grain and straw yields were evaluated. Binadhan-10 showed a higher salt tolerance in physiological parameters of rice than BRRI dhan29. A significant reduction of growth, yield components, grain and straw yields of both rice genotypes was found in response to salt stress. At different salt stress conditions nutrient uptake (NPS) and K<sup>+</sup>/Na<sup>+</sup> ratio was significantly decreased in both rice genotypes. Yet, K<sup>+</sup>/Na<sup>+</sup> ratio was more in salt-tolerant variety than salt-sensitive variety.</p> <p>Asian J. Med. Biol. Res. 2022, 8 (4), 230-239</p> 2022-12-23T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Jotirmoy Chakrobortty, Yeasmin Akter, Md Anamul Hoque, Md Abul Hashem Cost-benefit ratio analysis of freshwater aquaculture in selected area of Southern Bangladesh 2022-12-11T16:37:11+00:00 Baadruzzoha Sarker Mohammed Mahbub Iqbal Lirong Yu Abit <p>The agriculture industry is widely believed to be essential to the nation's long-term growth and prosperity. In many ways, including via enhanced food security, employment, and economic growth, the agricultural sector as a whole and fisheries in particular have made significant contributions to enhancing people's health and well-being. A variety of measures may be used to determine the financial health of the fish farms. The purpose of this study was to estimate the financial viability of fish pond farming and to ascertain its advantages and disadvantages. From the Taltoli upazila in the Barguna area, sixty pond fish breeders were randomly selected. These figures allow us to calculate the gross cost of producing pond fish per hectare to be 1378806 BDT, the gross return to be 2125023 BDT, and the net return to be 746217 BDT. The findings of this study proved that pond fish farming was a profitable endeavor in the region that was being studied. The Cobb-Douglas production function was further employed in order to better comprehend the part that each variable in the production of pond fish plays. The majority of the taken into account factors were demonstrated to have a considerable impact on fish productivity. The returns on pond fish production were positively and statistically significantly impacted by four of the six parameters studied. To improve the management and cultivation of pond fish farming, certain recommendations were made.</p> <p>Asian J. Med. Biol. Res. 2022, 8 (4), 240-250</p> 2022-12-23T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Baadruzzoha Sarker, Mohammed Mahbub Iqbal, Lirong Yu Abit Effectiveness of the ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 vaccination among COVID-19 patients: a retrospective cohort study 2022-10-14T15:43:47+00:00 Shuva Das Rezaul Karim Ripon Md Safaet Hossain Sujan Nadia Islam Tumpa Ayesha Ahmed Khan Akhi Dhar Rajat Sanker Roy Biswas Md Minhazul Hoque Sujan Rudra Mohosina Akter Mohammad Mohiuddin Hasan Kamrun N Koly <p>It is currently unknown how effective the COVID-19 vaccine is at preventing new severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infections among the general population. The study suggests that a safe and efficient vaccination against the COVID-19 could help manage this pandemic if widely distributed. The present study aimed to investigate the effectiveness of the ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 vaccine in between vaccinated and unvaccinated cohorts. A retrospective multicenter cohort study comprised 1244 COVID-19 positive patients enrolled in this study from three different hospitals among patients who had been appropriately vaccinated or not between April and June 2021. Data were collected by face-to-face survey, and clinical investigations were obtained by observation. Descriptive statistics and the Cox proportional hazard model of survival analysis were performed in the study. Among the participants, 69% of vaccinated cohorts did not require hospitalization, and 97% successfully recovered from the infection. In respect of age, compared with unvaccinated cohorts, the vaccine effectiveness varied from 81% to 92%. The ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 vaccine was more effective among those aged 60-69 years old and reduced 92% hazard of death than the unvaccinated group [HR ratio - 0.081(.036-.179), <em>P</em>=0.0001]. The study found the ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 vaccine is highly effective for receivers. The COVID-19 vaccination demonstrated a significant correlation with a reduced probability of disease severity, hospital admission rate, early recovery from illness, and mortality.</p> <p>Asian J. Med. Biol. Res. 2022, 8 (4), 251-263</p> 2022-12-28T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Shuva Das, Rezaul Karim Ripon, Md Safaet Hossain Sujan, Nadia Islam Tumpa, Ayesha Ahmed Khan, Akhi Dhar, Rajat Sanker Roy Biswas, Md Minhazul Hoque, Sujan Rudra, Mohosina Akter, Mohammad Mohiuddin Hasan, Kamrun N Koly Night time smoking among Bangladeshi adults: effect on sleep quality and musculoskeletal health 2022-10-14T15:42:52+00:00 AHM Khairul Imam Suman Khadija Begum Kaniz Rahman Saiful Bahar Khan AQM Mobin Fatema Tuj Johora Morshad Alam <p>Quality of sleep is linked to a number of illnesses, including cardiovascular problems, diabetes, mental and behavioral issues. The study determined the impact of night time smoking on sleep quality and musculoskeletal health. A cross -sectional study was conducted among desk-based officials of Dhaka city between June to September 2022 using convenient sampling technique. Sleep quality was measured by Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI). Data were collected through structured interview and analyzed by IBM SPSS 25 statistical package software. A total of 261 desk-based officials who do smoke were included in this study and among them, 132 (50.6%) were night time smokers. More than half of the study participants had poor sleep quality (58.6%). Night time smoking habit (OR= 2.59, 95% CI: 1.55 - 4.32) and doing a job in a private organization (OR=1.71, 95% CI: 1.02 - 2.85) were a significant predictor of poor sleep quality. On the other hand, various musculoskeletal health issues such as pain in the shoulder/ neck, pain in the back/ lower back, and pain in arms etc. were also scientifically associated with night time smoking habit (<em>P</em>&lt;0.05). Night smoking poses a significant health risk as it is associated with sleep disturbance and musculoskeletal health problems. Lifestyle modification of desk-based officials is urgent to reduce the health risk.</p> <p>Asian J. Med. Biol. Res. 2022, 8 (4), 264-269</p> 2022-12-28T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 AHM Khairul Imam Suman, Khadija Begum, Kaniz Rahman , Saiful Bahar Khan, AQM Mobin, Fatema Tuj Johora, Morshad Alam Prevalence of peste des petits ruminants and concurrent hematological, liver and kidney function test of Black Bengal goats reared in Jaintapur, Sylhet district in Bangladesh 2022-11-08T17:43:00+00:00 Md Saif Uddin Sajibul Hasan Mohammad Alam Miah <p>Hemato-biochemical parameters aid in the formulation of effective treatment and supportive therapy for infectious diseases of animals such as <em>peste des petits ruminants</em> (PPR). The present study investigated the prevalence of PPR in Black Bengal goats reared in Jaintapur, Sylhet and concurrent hematology, liver and kidney function tests of PPR infected goats. Information of PPR infected goats was recorded according to age and sex by asking questions to the owner or farmers. Blood samples from 10 PPR-infected Black Bengal goats and 10 normal healthy goats were collected and analyzed using routine blood and biochemical tests. PPR positive cases were found in 60 of 125 goats examined based on clinical signs. The highest prevalence (50%) was recorded in young goats (below 12 months) followed by goats of 12-24 months of age and older goats (above 25 months). Older goats were less susceptible to PPR infection. Male goats were less susceptible to PPR infection (31.66%) compared to female goats (68.33%). PPR is more likely in goats with lower body condition score (BCS). PPR-infected goats had macrocytic hypochromic anemia, as evidenced by significantly lower TEC, Hb, and PCV levels and higher MCV and MCH levels. The total leucocyte count (TLC) was significantly (P&lt;0.05) decreased, neutrophils numbers were significantly increased but lymphocyte numbers were decreased in PPR infected goats. ALT, AST and creatinine reflect the liver and kidney functions. PPR-infected goats had significantly higher (P&lt;0.05) AST, ALT and creatinine values than normal healthy goats. A high level of AST and ALT in PPR-infected goats might be due to liver damage. The high creatinine level indicates functional damage to the kidney. In conclusion, Prevalence of PPR in higher in Black Bengal goats reared in Jaintapur, Sylhet and PPR virus altered the hematological parameters and liver and kidney function test of the PPR infected goats.</p> <p>Asian J. Med. Biol. Res. 2022, 8 (4), 270-276</p> 2022-12-28T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Md Saif Uddin, Sajibul Hasan, Mohammad Alam Miah A survey on hygienic practices and immunization coverage among 12-59 months old children in urban slum, Barishal, Bangladesh 2022-11-06T05:09:02+00:00 Md Nazmul Hassan <p>Good hygiene and sanitation are essential for the prevention of infectious diseases. Immunization is one of the most important public health interventions to reduce both morbidity and mortality of infectious diseases. Thus, the survey study aimed to determine the status of hygienic practices and assess the immunization coverage among 12-59 months old children in urban slums. A cross-sectional study was conducted among 259 under five children's (12-59 months) in Barisal city, Bangladesh, from June to December 2019 using a structured questionnaire. Data was collected by interviewing the mothers from different slum areas. Chi-squared test and multiple logistic regression models were used to explore the association. Prevalence of good hygiene practices status was 65.3% and fully immunized was 71.4%. Joint family (AOR=0.54; 95% CI: 0.31-0.95; <em>P</em>&lt;0.05), monthly family income less than 10,000 BDT (AOR=0.52, 95%CI: 0.32-0.97; P<em>&lt;</em>0.05) were less likely to practice good hygiene. Water along or ash/soil with water (AOR=5.32; 95%CI: 2.91-9.73; <em>P</em>&lt;0.001), open toilet practices (AOR=81.1, 95%CI: 13.2-505.7; <em>P</em>&lt;0.001) and suspended toilet facilities (AOR=2.77, 95%CI: 1.57-13.44; <em>P</em>&lt;0.05) showed the likelihood to good hygiene practices. Illiterate mother (AOR=0.06; 95%CI: 0.09-0.79; <em>P</em>≤0.001), children living with joint family (AOR=0.08; 95%CI: 0.12-0.96; <em>P</em>≤.001) associated with lower immunization coverage. Immunization services center &lt;10-minute walking distance from their living place (AOR =1.71; 95%CI: 1.02-2.87; <em>P</em>&lt;0.05) associated with more immunization coverage status. The prevalence of hygiene practices status (65.3%) and immunization status (71.4%) in urban slums of Barishal city were reported less compared to the national level (86% immunization coverage). Some modifiable factors (water used within soap/soil, suspended toilet, the distance of immunization center, etc.) were significant with good hygiene practices and immunization coverage which are needed to improve for promoting good hygiene practices and reduce the infant mortality and morbidity rate.</p> <p>Asian J. Med. Biol. Res. 2022, 8 (4), 277-285</p> 2022-12-28T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Md Nazmul Hassan