The Agriculturists <p>The official journal of the Krishi Foundation. Includes full text articles.</p> The Krishi Foundation en-US The Agriculturists 1729-5211 Genetic Variability and Inter-relationship between Yield and Yield Components in Jhum Rice (Oryza sativa L.) Genotypes of Khagrachhari District in Bangladesh <p>The present investigation consists of 47 rice genotypes and the experiment was conducted during Aus season, 2016 in Randomized Block Design with three replications. The data were recorded for 13 quantitative characters to study genetic variability, heritability, genetic advance, correlation coefficient analysis and path analysis. Analysis of variance among 47 genotypes showed a significant difference for all characters studied. The highest genotypic coefficient of variation (GCV) and phenotypic coefficient of variation (PCV) were observed for grain yield followed by the number of effective tillers, the number of filled grains per panicle and 1000 grain weight indicating that these characters could be used in selection for the crop improvement program. High estimates of heritability was observed for grain yield, grain length, plant height, number of filled grain per panicle, 1000 grain weight and days to 50% flowering. High genetic advance was observed for the number of filled grains per panicle and plant height, indicating predominance of additive gene effects and possibilities of effective selection for the improvement of these traits. Grain yield showed positive association with number of effective tiller and number of filled grain per panicle at genotypic in conjunction with phenotypic level. Days to maturity possessed the highest positive direct effect and significant indirect correlation with yield.</p> <p><em>The Agriculturists </em>2020; 18(1) 01-09</p> Mohammad Zahidul Islam Nadia Akter Md Ferdous Rezwan Khan Prince Nashirum Monir - Mohammad Khalequzzaman Copyright (c) 2020 The Agriculturists 2020-09-29 2020-09-29 18 1 1 9 10.3329/agric.v18i1.49453 Germination and Seedling Leaf Chlorophyll Content of Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) Grown under Industrial Wastewater Condition <p>The tobacco industry is one of the biggest industries in the world generates and disposes large quantities of wastewater in the environment which may be toxic to the plant, animal, public health as well as environment. Therefore, an experiment was conducted during November, 2019 at Crop Physiology and Ecology Laboratory, Hajee Mohammad Danesh Science and Technology University, Dinajpur, Bangladesh to observe the effects of tobacco industry wastewater on germination, early seedling growth and seedling leaf chlorophyll content of wheat (TriticumaestivumL.). Three wheat genotypes (BARI Gom 28, BARI Gom 29 and BAW 1177) and two growing conditions (normal tap water and tobacco industry wastewater) were assigned in a completely randomized design with three replications in germination test. Results showed that germination characteristics, seedling growth and chlorophyll content in leaf of seedling significantly influenced by wheat genotype, growing condition and their interaction. Irrigation with tobacco industry wastewater lowered the germination percentage, rate of germination, co-efficient of germination and vigor index. However, seedlings irrigated with tobacco industry wastewater produced longer shoot and root as compared to seedlings irrigated with tap water. Similarly, tobacco industry wastewater increased the shoot and root dry weight but reduced the chlorophyll content in leaf of seedling. Among the three wheat genotypes, BAW 1177 performed better under both tap water and wastewater conditions regarding germination, early growth and chlorophyll content in leaf of seedling.</p> <p><em>The Agriculturists </em>2020; 18(1) 10-17</p> SK Pramanik S Sikder Copyright (c) 2020 The Agriculturists 2020-09-29 2020-09-29 18 1 10 17 10.3329/agric.v18i1.49454 Inheritance of Yield Related Traits in a Half Diallel Crosses of Some Maize (Zea mays L.) Genotypes <p>Inheritance of grain yield, heterosis and combining ability were investigated in maize populations obtained from half-diallel crossing among six inbred parental lines. General (GCA) and specific (SCA) combining ability effects were significantly different among parental lines. The grain yield was under the partial gene effect. The parents P1, P3 and P5were considered suitable according to their yield contributing attributes couple with general combining ability effects. The midparentheterosis values ranged from -27.246 (P<sub>2</sub> xP<sub>5</sub>) to 15.209% (P<sub>1</sub> xP<sub>2</sub>) whereas the better parent heterosis values varied between 22.375(P<sub>2</sub>x P<sub>3</sub>) to 40.363% (P<sub>2</sub> x P<sub>5</sub>) only seven crosses had higher grain yields. Of those crosses, P<sub>1</sub>×P<sub>2</sub>, P<sub>2</sub>×P<sub>5</sub> and P<sub>1</sub>×P<sub>3</sub> were considered most promising hybrids yielding heterosis as 15.880%, 20.363% and 40.363 respectively over their parents.</p> <p><em>The Agriculturists </em>2020; 18(1) 18-25</p> FMA Haydar Copyright (c) 2020 The Agriculturists 2020-09-29 2020-09-29 18 1 18 25 10.3329/agric.v18i1.49455 Survey on Foot and Root Rot Disease of Betel Vine (Piper betle L.) under Prevailing Environmental Condition <p>A field survey was conducted to find out the incidence of foot and root rot of betel vine caused by Sclerotiumrolfsiiunder prevailing environmental condition in major betel vine growing areas of Bangladesh. The areas were Gouranadi, Kaligonj, Mirpur, Mohanpur and SitakundaUpazila under the district of Barisal, Jhenaidah, Kushtia, Rajshahi and Chittagong, respectively. The incidence of foot and root rot disease varied remarkably and ranged from 4.53 to 15.46% in different upzillas. The maximum incidence of 15.46% was recorded from Gouranadi where soil pH was 5.4, ambient temperature was around 32oC, relative humidity was 82% and light intensity was 53x100 lux. The lowest incidence of the disease was observed as 4.53% from Sitakunda where soil pH was 6.6, ambient temperature was 28oC, RH was 72% and light intensity was 74x100lux. The incidence of foot and root rot of betel vine was high in the areas where soil pH and light intensity were low and temperature and relative humidity were high.</p> <p><em>The Agriculturists </em>2020; 18(1) 26-30</p> Md Hafizur Rahman Md Rafiqul Islam FM Aminuzzaman Abdul Latif Habibur Rahman Copyright (c) 2020 The Agriculturists 2020-09-29 2020-09-29 18 1 26 30 10.3329/agric.v18i1.49456 Determination of Nutrient Accumulation Pattern of New Aromatic Rice (Oryza sativa L.) as Influenced by Different Applied Fertilizers and Plant Spacing <p>Field and laboratory experiments were conducted at the Bangabandhu Sheikh MujiburRahman Agricultural University, Gazipur, during boro season of 2015-2016 to determine the response of rice crop (BU Dhan 2) to different plant densities under different fertilizer levels. The variety was grown with three fertilizer levels viz. recommended (57-10-8-7-0.9 kg NPKSZn ha<sup>-1</sup>), 50% higher (114-20- 16-14-1.8 kg NPKSZn ha<sup>-1</sup>) and 50% lower (28.5-5-4-3.5-0.45 kg NPKSZn ha<sup>-1</sup>) than recommended level and three plant spacing (20 cm x 25 cm, 20 cm x 20 cm and 20 cm x 15 cm) representing wider, standard and closer plant densities. Nutrient uptake of the variety was higher at higher level of fertilizer and closer plant spacing. The highest grain yield 5.18 t ha-1 of the variety was associated with the highest nutrient uptake under higher dose of fertilizer at closer plant spacing. This treatment combination also showed the highest nitrogen (86.53 kg ha<sup>-1</sup>), phosphorus (9.85 kg ha<sup>-1</sup>), potassium (103.9 kg ha<sup>-1</sup>), sulphur (12.27 kg ha<sup>-1</sup>) and zinc uptake (265.76 g ha<sup>-1</sup>) of the variety, although nutrient use efficiency was higher at lower fertilizer level under wider plant density.</p> <p><em>The Agriculturists </em>2020; 18(1) 31-41</p> AKM Alauddin Chowdhury Md Nurul Huda Al Mamun Md Khairul Islam Md Mohashin Farazi Copyright (c) 2020 The Agriculturists 2020-09-29 2020-09-29 18 1 31 41 10.3329/agric.v18i1.49457 Amelioration of Adverse Effect of Drought on Rice (Oryza sativa L.) Variety BRRI Dhan28 through Application of Poultry Litter Based Compost <p>An experiment was carried out at the research field of Crop Physiology and Ecology Department, Hajee Mohammad Danesh Science and Technology University, Dinajpur during January 2017 to May 2017 to evaluate the effects of poultry litter based composts on morpho-physiological, yield and yield contributing characters of BRRI dhan28, a mega rice variety of Boro season in Bangladesh, under different water stress conditions. The plants were grown in pots, and the experiment was laid out in a factorial complete randomized design (CRD) with three replications. Factor A included three levels of fertilizer and compost amendments i.e. control (recommended inorganic fertilizer), compost (10 t ha<sup>-1</sup>) + inorganic fertilizer, compost (20 t ha<sup>-1</sup>) + without inorganic fertilizers, and factor B comprised of three water levels (continuous flooding, 100% field capacity and 75% field capacity). Different parameters such as plant height, tiller number, leaf number, leaf area, chlorophyll content, proline content and yield contributing characters were measured during the experiment. Most of the measured parameters were significantly influenced by irrigation levels with different fertilizer and compost amendments. The highest plant height and leaf number per hill were found in the treatment of compost (10 t ha<sup>-1</sup>) + inorganic fertilizer with 100% field capacity, though the maximum tiller number were produced by the interaction of control with flooding irrigation. The total chlorophyll was observed more in flag leaf by the interaction of control with 100% field capacity. The Proline content was observed more in flag leaf by the interaction of control with 75% field capacity. Relative water content was found more with the interaction of compost (10 t ha<sup>-1</sup>) + inorganic fertilizer with 75% field capacity. The highest effective tiller number hill<sup>-1</sup> was found from control (19.33) at harvest. It was also observed that irrigation with 75% field capacity produced the lowest effective tiller (15.89) hill<sup>-1</sup> at harvest. The longest panicle length (23.12 cm) was observed with the combined effect of compost (10 t ha<sup>-1</sup>) +inorganic with 75% field capacity. Thousand grain weight was found highest (18.83 g) in the interaction of compost (20 t ha<sup>-1</sup> + without inorganic) with 75% field capacity. The interaction of compost (20 t ha<sup>-1</sup> + without inorganic) and flooding irrigation gave the highest grain yield (33.17 g pot<sup>-1</sup>), which was statistically similar to the treatment of compost (10 t ha<sup>-1</sup> + inorganic) with flooding irrigation. The highest harvest index was found from compost (20 t ha<sup>-1</sup> + without inorganic) with flooding irrigation.</p> <p><em>The Agriculturists </em>2020; 18(1) 42-55</p> AKMMB Chowdhury MA Hossain J Alam MA Hasan MZ Islam Copyright (c) 2020 The Agriculturists 2020-09-29 2020-09-29 18 1 42 55 10.3329/agric.v18i1.49458 Physio-morphological Study of Betel Vine (Piper betle L.) Cultivars Available in Bangladesh <p>The experiment was conducted during March, 2016 to March, 2017 in a barojof experimental farm of Sher-e-Bangla Agricultural University, Dhaka. Thirteen betel vine cultivars designated as PB 001 through PB 013 were collected from different locations of Bangladesh and found remarkable variations in vegetative growth, morphological features, yield and yield attributes. The betel vine cultivars varied in vine elongation (37.46 – 50.34 cm per month), increase in internode length (6.75 – 10.08 cm per month) and vine girth (0.445 - 0.747 cm per year). The leaf length (17.13-27.35 cm), leaf breadth (8.33 - 16.20 cm), petiole length (4.83 -11.45 cm) and petiole breadth (0.47 - 0.28 cm) remarkably varied among the cultivars. Fresh weight of 100-petiole, 100-leaves, and dry matter content were 50.07 - 165.74 g, 289.38 - 565.25 g and 12.57 - 14.49%, respectively in different cultivars. Leaf number per meter vine (9.46 - 15.38) and leaf number per plant per year (50.16 - 78.44) were also varied among the cultivars. The highest annual per hectare yield was obtained from BARI Pan-1 (23.82 t) and PB 006 (23.46 t). Variations were also existed among the cultivars in vine colour, leaf colour, leaf shape, leaf tip, leaf softness and pungency of leaf of cultivars. No pungency of leaf was found in cultivars PB 006 (Misti pan). So, PB 006 (Misti pan) was seemed to be a better cultivar/ germplasm in respect of yield and quality of betel leaf.</p> <p><em>The Agriculturists </em>2020; 18(1) 56-65</p> Md Hafizur Rahman Md Rafiqul Islam FM Aminuzzaman Abdul Latif Habibur Rahman Copyright (c) 2020 The Agriculturists 2020-09-29 2020-09-29 18 1 56 65 10.3329/agric.v18i1.49459 Impact of Labor Migration on Rural Livelihood in Pakundia Upazila under Kishoregonj District of Bangladesh <p>The focal objective guided the present study was to investigate the impact of labor migration on rural livelihood. Pakundiaupazila under Kishoregonj district was purposively selected as the locale of the study. Three villages viz. Narandi, Hossendi and Patuabhanga were randomly selected. A sample consisting of 80 respondents, having at least one migrant agricultural labor was selected following stratified proportionate random sampling technique. Quantitative data were collected by the researchers using a structured interview schedule through face to face interview method. Qualitative data were collected through group discussion and direct observation methods. Statistics like range, mean, percentile and rank order were employed throughout the study. Majority (54.5%) of the household owners fell under old age group; 53.2 percent belonged to the group of primary level of education; 56.3 percent had medium family; 78.8 percent families were nuclear; more than half (51.0%) of them belonged to medium income category; greater part (55.2%) of them had medium contact with the sources of information; 50.1 percent of the respondents had low organizational participation; and 50.0 percent of them showed high cosmopoliteness. Majority of migrant workers (46.7%) migrated in Middle East and Dhaka city (25.3). Major causes of labor migration were higher income possibilities, job security, social status, major types of migration were rural-urban, migration to other country and seasonal migration. Vital negative impacts of labor migration on agriculture were: decreased family labor; dependency on remittance; and increased vulnerability difficult situation. Vibrant positive impacts of labor migration were observed on financial capital (increased remittance flow and total household income) followed by physical (enriched household gadgets and real properties possession), human (improved skills in agricultural practices and enhanced competency in managing farm production) and social capitals (enhanced social relation and developed social network)while negative impact was observed on natural capital (decreased agricultural land status and natural vegetation). Hiring labor, change in cropping pattern and agricultural transformation were the major ways of coping up with labor shortage in agricultural production.</p> <p><em>The Agriculturists </em>2020; 18(1) 66-80</p> Md Safiul Islam Afrad Anwara Begum Md Enamul Haque Noor Shaila Sarmin Copyright (c) 2020 The Agriculturists 2020-09-29 2020-09-29 18 1 66 80 10.3329/agric.v18i1.49460 Adoption of Spices Cultivation Technology by the Growers in Shibganj Upazila under Bogura District of Bangladesh <p>Traditionally, spices are important components used for preparation of everyday menu, especially for Bangladeshi. In this connection, Spices Research Center under Bangladesh Agricultural Research Institute (BARI) has been releasing new spices varieties but there is dearth of research on the adoption of these newly released spices varieties. Therefore, the present study aimed at to examine the extent of adoption of spices cultivation technology by the growers in Shibganjupazila under Bogura district. Data were collected from 90 household heads selected following proportionate random using a structured interview schedule. Major cultivating spices varieties which are noticed in the study area are BARI piaz1, BARI ada2, BARI holud5. Under the three major spices variety, 43.3 percent area was covered by small scale spices cultivation, 42.2 percent by medium scale and 14.5 percent was covered by large scale area of spices cultivation. Findings revealed that huge majority (80.0%) of the respondents had medium adoption of BARI piaz1 whereas almost all (93.3%) of them had medium adoption of BARI ada2. On the other hand, more than half (53.3%) of the respondents had low adoption of BARI holud5 whereas 40.0 percent of them had medium and 6.7 percent had high adoption of the same. Vital perceived benefits that attracted the respondents in spices cultivation were higher price, yield and quality of the technologies than those of previous. BARI holud5 was found more profitable (BCR 1.7) than BARI piaz1 (BCR 1.3) and BARI ada2 (BCR 1.3). Respondent farmers’ education, farm size, innovativeness, extension contact, knowledge on spices cultivation and annual family income showed significant and positive relationship with their adoption of spices technology.</p> <p><em>The Agriculturists </em>2020; 18(1) 81-93</p> MSI Afrad MR Akter ME Haque M Zakaria Copyright (c) 2020 The Agriculturists 2020-09-29 2020-09-29 18 1 81 93 10.3329/agric.v18i1.49461 Feasibility of Introducing Four Crops Based Cropping Patterns in Kushtia Area of Bangladesh <p>The trial was conducted at Multi Location Testing (MLT) site under On-Farm Research Division, BARI, Kushtia during the last week of February, 2015 to second week of February, 2017 at farmers’ field condition to find out the productivity and profitability of three alternate cropping patterns, i.e. ACP1=Mustard (var: BARI Sarisha-15) - Mungbean (var: BARI Mung-6) - T. Aus rice (var: BRRI dhan48) - T. Aman rice (var: Binadhan-7), ACP2=Lentil (var: BARI Masur-6) - Mungbean (var: BARI Mung-6) - T. Aus rice (var: BRRI dhan48) - T. Aman rice (var:Binadhan-7), ACP3=Wheat (var: BARI Gom-28) - Mungbean (var: BARI Mung-6) - T. Aus rice (var: BRRI dhan48) - T. Aman rice (var:Binadhan-7) against the existing cropping pattern, i.e. ECP= Lentil (var: BARI Mashur-6) – Sesame (BARI Teel-3) - T. Aman (var: Binadhan-7). Findings revealed that the required mean crop durations ranged 340-356 days for one cycle in a year in four crops based cropping patterns against 293 days in existing cropping pattern. Total seed/grain yields in terms of REY of ACP1, ACP2, and ACP3 were 14.85, 16.06 and 14.92 t ha<sup>-1</sup> year<sup>-1</sup>, respectively which were 44%, 56% and 45%, respectively higher than that of existing pattern (10.30 t ha<sup>-1</sup> year<sup>-1</sup>). Mean production efficiency (32.53-40.43 kg ha<sup>-1</sup>day<sup>-1</sup>), land use efficiency (93.15-97.53%) and mean gross margin ( Tk. 109393 - Tk. 127834 ha<sup>-1</sup>) of all alternate cropping patterns were higher than that of existing cropping pattern (PE: 23.63 kg ha-1day-1, LUE: 80.28% and gross margin Tk. 94929 ha<sup>-1</sup>). As a result, all alternate cropping patterns were agronomically feasible and economically profitable. Among the alternate cropping patterns, ACP2=Lentil (var: BARI Masur-6) - Mungbean (var: BARI Mung-6) - T. Aus rice (var: BRRI dhan48) - T. Aman rice (var: Binadhan-7) performed the best. Therefore, farmers in Kushtia area of Bangladesh might follow the alternate cropping patterns in high and medium high land for higher crop productivity and profitability over existing cropping pattern.</p> <p><em>The Agriculturists </em>2020; 18(1) 94-102</p> MS Rahman MT Islam MS Ali Copyright (c) 2020 The Agriculturists 2020-09-29 2020-09-29 18 1 94 102 10.3329/agric.v18i1.49462 Isolation, Structural and Functional Characterization of Jackfruit (Artocarpus heterophyllus Lam) Seed Proteins <p>With increasing health awareness, the demand for concentrated proteins from plant sources has been rising for direct consumption or to use as an ingredient in food formulation. The characteristic information of any component is prerequisite for its efficient usage in food preparation. This study was undertaken to isolate the protein from jackfruit seeds and characterizing the physicochemical and functional properties of the isolated protein. The protein fraction from jackfruit seed flour was isolated using pH treatments and centrifugation process. The isolated protein was converted into powder form by a vacuum drying and grinding method. Total protein content in the isolate was determined by the Kjeldahl method. The functional properties such as solubility and gelling capacity and secondary structural elements of jackfruit seed protein isolate (JSPI) were studied. The crude JSPI contained 76.89% protein with 58.44% solubility in aquatic solvent. The conformational study by Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) indicated that the β -sheet is the dominant secondary structure of JSPI that contained 50.28% β -sheet, 21.71% α -helix, 8.86% β -turn, and 19.15% unordered structure. The least gelation concentration of JSPI dissolved in 1.0 M NaCl solution was 12%. The pH of the solvent significantly affected the emulsifying and foaming properties (p&lt;0.05). Based on the observed structural and functional features, JSPI has prospects to be used as a supplementary ingredient in future food formulations.</p> <p><em>The Agriculturists </em>2020; 18(1) 103-115</p> Fatema Akter M Amdadul Haque M Abdul Baqui Copyright (c) 2020 The Agriculturists 2020-09-29 2020-09-29 18 1 103 115 10.3329/agric.v18i1.49463 Variability and Character Association Study in Morphological Traits of Tossa Jute (Corchorus olitorius L.) <p>Tossa jute (CorchorusolitoriusL.) is the most important commercial crop of Bangladesh. Fifty-six genotypes of F2 generation were raised at Breeding Research Farm, Hajee Mohammad Danesh Science and Technology University, Dinajpur from April 2018 to August 2019 from the parental lines O-9897, O-795, JRO-524, Acc. 2381, Acc. 3423, Acc. 3438, Acc. 3533 and Acc. 3860. The parameters, plant height (m), base diameter (mm), green bark thickness (mm), green bark weight without leaves (g), stick weight (g), fiber strength (MPa), days to flowering, days to maturity and fiber weight/stick varied significantly among the genotypes. Significant productivity was found from Acc. 3860. Green bark weight without leaves exhibited highest genotypic and phenotypic co-efficient of variation followed by fiber weight and stick weight. The highest genetic advance as percentage of mean (44.38%) was estimated against green bark weight without leaves suggest it as a prime character that enhanced fiber and stick yields. The Acc. 3860 resulted high production of fiber in hybrids. Considering the studied characters, the F2-generation of Acc. 3860 is comparatively batter than others. The research findings suggested that the F2-generation of Accession Acc. 3860 may produce desired segregates and therefore demands farther research in different environmental conditions and field trail.</p> <p><em>The Agriculturists </em>2020; 18(1) 116-128</p> Anusree Ghosh Bhabendra Kumar Biswas - Md Arifuzzaman Copyright (c) 2020 The Agriculturists 2020-09-29 2020-09-29 18 1 116 128 10.3329/agric.v18i1.49464 Millet-Jute-T. Aman Cropping Pattern for Increasing System Productivity in the Active Brahmaputra-Jamuna Floodplain Chars <p>Increasing system productivity in a planned way is an important base for attaining food security, where bringing marginal land like Charland under intensive crop cultivation is highly desirable. The field trial was conducted in the Charland of the Jamuna River under Saghataupazilla of Gaibandha during 2017- 18 &amp; 2018-19 to increase the productivity and profitability through the development of three crops-based improved cropping patterns instead of the local practice (double-crop). Three crops based improved cropping pattern namely Millet (BARI Kaon-2)-Jute (O-9897)-T. Aman (Gainja) was compared with the existing cropping pattern of Millet (Local)-Fallow-T. Aman (Gainja). The experiment was laid out in six dispersed replications maintaining RCB design. The introduced improved cropping pattern produced the higher system productivity based on rice equivalent yield, REY (12.95 t ha<sup>-1</sup>), than the existing cropping pattern (4.20 t ha<sup>-1</sup>), which is three times higher than the existing pattern. Total field duration and turnaround time were 323 and 42 days, respectively in improved pattern and 215 and 150 days, respectively in the existing pattern, which revealed that 108 days more could be made productive through the introduction of improved cropping pattern. The alternate pattern increased production efficiency and land-use efficiency by 35% and 30%, respectively than that of the existing cropping system. The gross margin was also three times higher in the improved cropping pattern (1, 41,600 Tk ha<sup>-1</sup> yr<sup>-1</sup>) compared to the farmers’ existing cropping pattern (38,350 Tk ha<sup>-1</sup> yr<sup>-1</sup>). The marginal benefit-cost ratio (MBCR) was calculated 2.44 in an improved cropping pattern over the existing cropping pattern. The inclusion of an extra one crop (Jute) in the existing cropping pattern and replacement of the local millet variety by high yielding variety (BARI Kaon-2) could play a significant role to increase the system productivity as well as profitability in the Charland of Saghata, Gaibandha.</p> <p><em>The Agriculturists </em>2020; 18(1) 129-136</p> AA Mahmud M Jahangir Alam MA Islam MSH Molla MA Ali Copyright (c) 2020 The Agriculturists 2020-09-29 2020-09-29 18 1 129 136 10.3329/agric.v18i1.49465 Assessing the Participation of Indigenous Santals People in Chapainawabganj District of Bangladesh in Income Generating Activities <p>The study was conducted to determine the participation of indigenous people in different income generating activities (IGAs) and identify their problems. The study focused especially the Santal (an indigenous community of Bangladesh) peoples living in Chapainawabganj district. A pre-structured questionnaire was used to collect data through face to face interview from randomly selected sample size of 120 respondents. The Santals did not have recognizable access to education and income generating activities (IGAs). The main findings indicate that, most of the respondents were in between 29-50 years of age. About 60% of the respondents were illiterate with 80% belonged to medium sized family which consist of 4 to 6 members. Agriculture is the main occupation among of the respondents. Among them, only 3.33% people are involved with Government services. Most of the people are found without own land although they continue their livelihood mostly by crop production, livestock rearing, fish culture and day laboring. They take lease of cultivable land from others. The respondents had an average annual family income of about 71429BDT whereas about 80% of the respondents were under low income category. Lack of money was found the most important problem in the study area according to Focus Group Discussion (FGD). IGAs improved the overall livelihood status of the Santals in the study area.</p> <p><em>The Agriculturists </em>2020; 18(1) 137-143</p> Mithun Kumar Ghosh Afroza Awal Shoily Md Shafiqul Islam Umma Musarrat Misu Mst Afroza Khatun Copyright (c) 2020 The Agriculturists 2020-09-29 2020-09-29 18 1 137 143 10.3329/agric.v18i1.49466 Reactive Nitrogen in Crop, Fishery and Livestock Sectors of Bangladesh <p>Agriculture in Bangladesh is characterized by crop, fishery and livestock sectors. Urea-N is used in all three sectors. Crop sector plays a dominant role in urea consumption to supply of food for ever burgeoning population. Application of inorganic N fertilizer definitely increased agricultural productivity. This however playing a significant role in altering global nutrient budget, water quality, greenhouse gas emission, and ultimately affecting the global climate. Though cropping intensity and use of N fertilizer have increased, yield plateauing is a concern for food security. Recovery efficiency of N rarely exceeds 30% in both crop and fish culture, while remaining reactive N is a global concern. Different industries have emerged in the last decade producing huge amounts of effluents discharging to the environment without treatment which appeared as a potential threat in damaging and disintegrating the environment. Resultant negative effect from application of large amount of organic and inorganic fertilizers and feeds in fishponds is a matter of boundless anxiety as it might act as a source of reactive N. Livestock sector comprising poultry and dairy produce huge amount of manure annually which is equivalent to 0.30 million tons of N and because of poor manure management reactive N is spreading in the environment. Reluctant attitudes on these crucial issues might bring a disaster through stopping natural ecosystem functions of the environment from where ‘U’ turn will rather be impossible. Adoption of resource conservation strategies, judicial and optimum use of N fertilizers in all agricultural sectors, improved management of livestock manure and industrial effluents are strongly recommended for environmental sustainability.</p> <p><em>The Agriculturists </em>2020; 18(1) 144-163</p> Md Mizanur Rahman Jatish Chandra Biswas Copyright (c) 2020 The Agriculturists 2020-09-29 2020-09-29 18 1 144 163 10.3329/agric.v18i1.49467