The Agriculturists 2019-08-16T16:41:59+00:00 Mr. Abu Noman Faruq Ahmmed Open Journal Systems The official journal of the Krishi Foundation. Includes full text articles. Variability, Heritability and Diversity Analysis for Some Morphological Traits in Basmati Rice (Oryza sativa L.) Genotypes 2019-08-16T16:41:59+00:00 Nadia Akter Mohammad Zahidul Islam Tonmoy Chakrabarty Mohammad Khalequzzaman 2018-12-22T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Antifungal Efficacy of Plant Oils Containing Thymol and Carvacrol in Controlling Botrytis cinerea, the Causal Agent of Grape (Vitis vinifera) GrayMould 2019-08-16T16:41:51+00:00 Zaker M Zaker L <p>The efficacy of a large number of plant extracts and essential oils in controlling plant diseases has been proven worldwide. <em>Botrytis cinerea </em>has attacked a wide host range causing severe loss in the field and at storage. In this study the antifungal efficacy of essential oils of three medicinal plants namely wild marjoram (<em>Zataria multifolia</em>), wild savory (perennial) (<em>Satureja mutica</em>) and savory (annual) (<em>Satureja hortensis</em>) possessing these compounds at three concentrations: 50, 100 and 200 ppm were evaluated in controlling the mycelial growth, spore germination and germ tube elongation of <em>B. cinerea</em>. All treatments except savory (annual) essential oil at 50 ppm showed significant differences with the control in inhibiting the mycelial growth as well as spore germination and germ tube elongation of <em>B. cinerea </em>(p=0.01). It was also noted that wild marjoram at 100 ppm and wild savory (perennial) essential oils at 200 ppm could completely (100%) inhibit the growth of the fungus. Essential oils from wild marjoram and wild savory had higher antifungal activity than annual savory. Their suitable formulations could be prepared and used as safe alternatives for controlling moulds of horticultural products during storage.</p> <p><em>The Agriculturists </em><em>2018; 16(2) 15-24</em></p> 2018-12-22T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Effect ofMulches and Phosphorus on Growth and Yield of Squash (Cucurbita pepo) 2019-08-16T16:41:43+00:00 F Akhter T Mostarin MN Islam S Akhter <p>This study was conducted at the Horticultural Farm of Sher-e-Bangla Agricultural University, Dhaka during October, 2015 to January, 2016 to determine the effects of mulches and phosphorus on the growth and yield of squash (<em>Cucurbita pepo</em>). The experiment consisted of two factors. Factor A: different mulches and Factor B: phosphorus (3 levels). The experiment was laid out in a Randomized Complete Block Design with three replications. Mulches and phosphorus showed significant effects on most of the parameters. In case of mulches, highest individual fruit weight (328.0 g) and fruit yield (37.0 tha<sup>-1</sup>) was recorded from black polythene, whereas the lowest fruit weight (280.8 g) and fruit yield (21.5 tha<sup>-1</sup>) was recorded from control. In case of phosphorus, highest individual fruit weight (300.4 g) and fruit yield (31.3 tha<sup>-1</sup>) was recorded from 90 kg P<sub>2</sub>O<sub>5</sub>/ha,whereas the lowest fruit weight (290.4 g) and fruit yield (26.2 tha<sup>-1</sup>) was recorded from control. For combination, highest individual fruit weight (338.2 g) and fruit yield (39.9 t ha-1) were recorded from black polythene with 90 kg P<sub>2</sub>O<sub>5</sub>/ha while the lowest individual fruit weight (272.2 g) and fruit yield (19.7 t ha<sup>-1</sup>) were recorded from control treatment. Black polythene mulch with 90 kg P2O5/ha was found suitable for squash cultivation under the condition of the study.</p> <p><em>The Agriculturists </em><em>2018; 16(2) 25-34</em></p> 2018-12-22T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Modeling of Moisture Adsorption Isotherm of Selected Commercial flours of Bangladesh 2019-08-16T16:41:36+00:00 Md Wadud Ahmed Mohammad Gulzarul Aziz Md Nazrul Islam <p>The moisture adsorption behavior is a fundamental knowledge in the processing and storage of food materials. In this paper, the experimental adsorption behavior of wheat, rice and corn flours were compared with five widely recommended adsorption models (BET, GAB, Oswin, Smith and Halsey) in the literature. From the sorption data, monolayer moisture content of wheat, rice and corn flours were estimated as per BET and GAB models. For all flours, GAB model gave higher monolayer moisture content compare to the BET model. Linear regression analysis was done to determine the model constants where all models were compared using regression coefficient and standard error of the estimate. It was observed that there is no single model that could describe accurately the sorption isotherm over the whole range of water activity (a<sub>w</sub>) and for all types of flours. BET model was found as the best model for the prediction of equilibrium moisture content (EMC) of the most stable region (i.e. EMC corresponding to aw range below 0.52) but it was not suitable at a<sub>w</sub> above 0.52. The GAB model was found to be the most suitable to predict the EMC for wide range of water activity (0.11 to 0.93).</p> <p><em>The Agriculturists </em><em>2018; 16(2) 35-42</em></p> 2018-12-22T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Nutrients Content in Some Vegetables Grown in South-Central Coastal Regions of Bangladesh 2019-08-16T16:41:28+00:00 AKM Faruk E Azam Md Taifur Rahman Muhammad Maniruzzaman Abdullah Al Zabir Md Nizam Uddin <p>Soil salinity is one of the most important abiotic stresses for crop production. A study was conducted to analyze the relationship between salinity level and nutrient contents in some popular vegetables grown in some selected tidal areas of Barguna and Patuakhali districts of Bangladesh. Samples of six different vegetables such as bottle gourd leaf (<em>Lagenaria siceraria</em>), sweet gourd leaf (<em>Cucurbita maxima</em>), radish leaf (<em>Raphanus sativus</em>), bean (<em>Lablab niger</em>), red amaranth (<em>Amaranthus gangeticus</em>) and spinach (<em>Spinacia oleracea</em>) were collected along with soils from different locations of the study areas and were analyzed for phosphorus (P), potassium (K), calcium (Ca), magnesium (Mg), sulphur (S) contents. Soil pH and electrical conductivity (EC) were determined. In saline areas, comparatively lower amounts of P, K, Ca, Mg and S were detected in most of the collected vegetables than those of non-saline areas. Conversely, bottle gourd leaf, radish leaf and bean accumulated comparatively higher amount of Ca at higher salinity levels. The uptake of P by bottle gourd leaf and radish leaf, Mg by bottle gourd leaf and red amaranth was also higher in the saline soil. The inconsistent uptake of Ca, Mg and P were found in some vegetables due to the differences of fertilizer application and intercultural operation. The vegetables could tolerate moderate soil salinity (soil EC up to7.9 dSm<sup>-1</sup>) and might be recommended to grow in the tidal saline areas of Barguna and Patuakhali districts of Bangladesh.</p> <p><em>The Agriculturists </em><em>2018; 16(2) 43-57</em></p> 2018-12-22T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Effects of Plant Growth Regulator on Yield and Economic Benefit of Sweet Pepper (Capsicum annum L.) 2019-08-16T16:41:20+00:00 S Akhter T Mostarin K Khatun F Akhter A Parvin <p>The experiment was conducted in the Horticultural Farm of Sher-e-Bangla Agricultural University, Dhaka, Bangladesh. Plant growth regulators were applied which had significant effect on yield of sweet pepper <strong>(</strong>Capsicum <em>annum L.</em>). The experiment consisted of two factors. Factor A: Plant growth regulators (four levels) as G0: Control, G<sub>1</sub>: Gibberellic Acid (GA<sub>3</sub>) @ 30 ppm, G<sub>2</sub>: 4-Chloro Phenoxy Acetic Acid (4-CPA) @ 45 ppm and G<sub>3</sub>: 4-Chloro Phenoxy Acetic Acid (4-CPA) @ 45 ppm + Gibberellic Acid (GA<sub>3</sub>) @ 30 ppm and Factor B: Number of spray (three levels) as N<sub>0</sub>: Control (no spray), N<sub>1</sub>: two spray, N<sub>2</sub>: three spray. In case of plant growth regulators, the highest yield (27.77 t/ha) was found from G<sub>3</sub> treatment, whereas the lowest (18.87 t/ha) was from G<sub>0</sub> treatment. For number of spray the maximum yield (26.0 t/ha) was recorded from N<sub>2</sub> treatment, while the minimum yield (19.87 t/ha) was from N0 treatment. The results indicated that the highest yield (31.8 t/ha) was observed from G<sub>3</sub>N<sub>2</sub> treatment combination, while the lowest yield (17.5 t/ha) was from G<sub>0</sub>N<sub>0</sub> treatment combination. Due to combined effect, the highest yield (31.8 t/ha) with net income (Tk/ha 1416558) and BCR (2.46) was observed from G<sub>3</sub>N<sub>2</sub> treatment combination, while the lowest yield (17.5 t/ha) with net income (Tk/ha 433045) and BCR (1.49) from G<sub>0</sub>N<sub>0</sub> treatment combination. Thus, three times spray with (4- Chloro Phenoxy Acetic Acid + Gibberellic Acid) may be recommended for achieving the higher growth, yield and economic benefit of sweet pepper.</p> <p><em>The Agriculturists </em><em>2018; 16(2) 58-64</em></p> 2018-12-22T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Yield Performance and Blast Susceptibility of SomeWheat (Triticum aestivum) Varieties in Jashore 2019-08-16T16:41:12+00:00 R Islam Abdullah Al Mamun M Jahangir Alam MB Anwar MA Hakim <p>A trial was conducted during 2015-16 to 2017-18 at the Regional Agricultural Research Station (RARS) of Bangladesh Agricultural Research Institute (BARI), Jashore to select some tolerant varieties against wheat blast. Fourteen varieties including eight old varieties (Sonalika, Kanchan, Sourav, Gourab, Shatabdi, Sufi, Bijoy, Prodip) and six newly released varieties (BARI Gom 25, BARI Gom 26, BARI Gom 27, BARI Gom 28, BARI Gom 29 and BARI Gom 30) were evaluated. The experiments were non-replicated and were planted in two sowing dates, at optimum (mid November) and late (mid December) conditions. Three irrigations were applied, at crown root initiation (CRI), heading and grain filling stages. Plants of border rows were inoculated by <em>Magnaporthe oryzae triticum </em>(MoT) spores (104 conidia ml<sup>-1</sup>) for infection once per week from three weeks after sowing until primary infection was observed. The significantly higher grain yield was observed in 2016-17 (3505 kg ha<sup>-1</sup>) which was similar to 2017-18 (3448 kg ha<sup>-1</sup>) and the lowest was in 2015-16 (1680 kg ha<sup>-1</sup>). The higher grain yield was obtained due to the higher grains spike-1 (45 no.) and 1000 grain weight (36.6 g) and lower blast disease incidence (% blast index 18.1%). In all three years, there was heavy infection of wheat blast in late sowing condition (% blast index 40.7) compared to the optimum sowing condition (% blast index 1.4), resulting in very poor crop yield (1696 kg ha<sup>-1</sup>). Among the varieties, the variety Gourab produced the highest yield (3395 kg ha<sup>-1</sup>) which was similar to the newly released variety BARI Gom 28 (3196 kg ha<sup>-1</sup>) and BARI Gom 30 (3134 kg ha<sup>-1</sup>). In case of blast disease severity, old varieties were less infested with some exception in Sonalika and Kanchan. On the other hand, BARI Gom 25 and BARI Gom 26 were more susceptible (% blast index 35.3-36.5) to wheat blast compared to BARI Gom 28 and BARI Gom 30 (% blast index 20.2-22.5).</p> <p><em>The Agriculturists </em><em>2018; 16(2) 65-74</em></p> 2018-12-22T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Efficacy of Trichoderma against Colletotrichum capsici Causing Fruit Rot Due to Anthracnose of Chili (Capsicum annum L.) 2019-08-16T16:41:05+00:00 MA Rahman TH Ansari MF Alam JR Moni M Ahmed <p>Five <em>Trichoderma</em> species/strains, <em>Trichoderma virens </em>IMI-392430, <em>T. pseudokoningii </em>IMI-392431, <em>T. harzianum </em>IMI-392432, <em>T. harzianum</em> IMI-392433 and <em>T. harzianum</em> IMI-392434 were tested against anthracnose and fruit rot of chilli. Effect of <em>Trichoderma</em> species in suppressing anthracnose and fruit rot as well as the growth and yield of chilli were evaluated. Seven treatments consisting of five <em>Trichoderma </em>strain<em>s</em>, one <em>Colletotrichum capsici </em>and control were used as seed treatments. Chilli seeds were treated with spore suspension or secondary metabolites of each <em>Trichoderma </em>species/strain and <em>C. capsici </em>separately<em>. </em>Mixture of suspension of each <em>Trichoderma </em>species/strain with <em>C. capsici </em>was also used as spore suspension or secondary metabolites. Percent fruit infection in the control treatment was found almost similar to the treatment that contained <em>T. viridae</em> and <em>T. pseudokoningii </em>spore suspension or secondary metabolites. <em>T. harzianum </em>strains alone suppressed fruit infection (%) significantly. Further all the <em>Trichoderma </em>species/strains reduced the fruit infection (%) than the diseased control even when seeds were treated with <em>Trichoderma</em> separately mixing with <em>C. capsici</em>. Spore suspension of <em>T. harzianum</em> IMI-392433 was found much more effective against <em>C. capsici </em>which suppressed 95.8% and 79.6 % fruit infection respectively under natural (without <em>C. capsici</em>) and high inoculum pressure of <em>C. capsici</em>. All the tested <em>Trichoderma</em> species/strains showed higher plant growth and increased fruit yield irrespective of rest of the treatments. It was found that <em>Trichoderma </em>strains control chilli fruit rot significantly but high inoculum pressure of <em>C. capsici </em>reduced fruit yield drastically. Among the treatments, spore suspension of <em>T. harzianum</em> IMI-392433 increased the fruit yield 83.6% and 76.5% per plant compared to spore suspension of <em>C. capsici </em>and control treatments, respectively. These results implied that <em>T. harzianum </em>IMI-392433 can effectively control fruit rot of chili caused by <em>C. capsici</em> through host resistance and antifungal metabolite activity. The fruit yield was increased due to the influence of <em>T. harzianum</em> IMI-392433 on vigorous physiological growth of plants as well as efficacy against the disease.</p> <p><em>The Agriculturists </em>2018; 16(2) 75-87</p> 2018-12-22T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Productivity and Profitability of Four Crops Based Cropping Pattern in Cumilla Region of Bangladesh 2019-08-16T16:40:57+00:00 MH Hossain SK Bhowal MM Bashir ASMMR Khan <p>Field experiment was conducted at the farmers' field of Amratoli, Barura multi location testing site of Cumilla during 2014-15 and 2015-16 to increase cropping intensity and productivity by inclusion of T. Aus in existing cropping pattern. Thus experiment variables were F: Existing cropping pattern (Potato -Boro-Fallow-T. Aman) and FA: Alternate cropping pattern (Potato- Boro- T. Aus- T.Aman). Research result indicated that rice equivalent yield (REY) in alternate cropping pattern was 43.46 t ha<sup>-1</sup>, which is 25.90% higher over existing pattern (34.52 t ha<sup>-1</sup>). Higher gross return (Tk. 651900 ha<sup>-1</sup>), gross margin (Tk. 416520 ha<sup>-1</sup>) and higher marginal benefit cost ratio (2.77) obtained from alternate cropping pattern messaged that this pattern may be recommended to other extrapolation areas of Cumilla region.</p> <p><em>The Agriculturists </em>2018; 16(2) 88-92</p> 2018-12-22T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Impact of Rice Husk Biochar on Growth, Water Relations and Yield of Maize (Zea mays L.) under Drought Condition 2019-08-16T16:40:50+00:00 MA Shashi MA Mannan MM Islam MM Rahman <p>The present experiment was conducted to study the impact of rice husk biochar on growth, water relations and yield of maize (BARI Hybrid Bhutta- 9) under drought (60 and 40% of FC) conditions. Four doses of rice husk biochar @ 0, 5, 10 and 20 t/ha were applied as an amendment in soil before sowing of seeds. Results revealed that drought stress reduced plant height, relative water content and grain yield of maize. But rice husk biochar at different doses improved the above mentioned characters under drought conditions. Under 60% of FC, the highest plan height, leaf water content and yield were 196.67 cm, 79.86% and 89.75 g/plant, respectively when biochar was applied @ 20 t/ha but it was 173.33 cm, 78.32% and 84.57 g/plant, respectively under 40% of FC when biochar was applied at the same dose. It may be concluded that, rice husk biochar @ 20 t/ha showed the best result to promote growth, water relation traits and yield of maize under drought condition.</p> <p><em>The Agriculturists </em><em>2018; 16(2) 93-101</em></p> 2018-12-22T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## A Socio-economic Analysis of Private Plant Nursery Business in Bangladesh 2019-08-16T16:40:42+00:00 Al Mamun Arifur Rahman Nabihatul Afrooz <p>This study was conducted to examine the socio-economic condition, profitability, and marketing channel of small-scale private plant nurseries in Bangladesh. The study is based on survey data collected from 105 respondents from the Dhaka metropolitan area, Savar Upazila and two Upazilas of Gazipur District during January-March 2018 using a structured questionnaire. The study reveals that about 74 percent of private plant nursery established on government land in Dhaka metropolitan area, whereas in Gazipur and Savar areas the nurseries are mostly on the rented property which is 68 percent and 56 percent respectively. The average land size of the nursery is 9.06 decimal in Dhaka metropolitan area, 182.06 decimal in Gazipur and 121.18 decimal in Savar area. The average length of the business is 12 years where more than 80 percent of the firms are run by sole ownership. The average annual income using per decimal land from the plant nursery business is Tk.76,411 in Dhaka, Tk.7,066 in Gazipur and Tk.10,085 in Savar. The benefit-cost ratio is 1.53, 1.51 and 1.52 per decimal for Dhaka, Gazipur and Savar areas, respectively. Usually, two intermediaries such as wholesalers and retailers are involved in the plant nursery business. Although plant nursery business is a profitable enterprise, however, the owners are facing numerous problems which need to be improved in order to the smooth expansion of the nursery business in Bangladesh.</p> <p><em>The Agriculturists </em><em>2018; 16(2) 102-114</em></p> 2018-12-22T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Determination of Crop Co-efficient Values for Jute (Corchorus olitorius L.) 2019-08-16T16:40:35+00:00 AJ Milla AR Akanda SK Biswas MA Uddin <p>Site specific calibration of crop coefficient (K<sub>c</sub>) values is essential for irrigation scheduling of any crop. In order to determine the values of K<sub>c</sub> for jute, an experiment was conducted at the Irrigation and Water Management Division of Bangladesh Agricultural Research Institute (BARI), Gazipur. An improved jute variety BJRI Tosa-2 (O-9897) was used in this experiment. The study examined growth and yield of the jute in terms of four irrigation treatments distributed over 7-28 days intervals. The treatments were so designed that drainage was allowed between the consecutive irrigations. Irrigation at 14days interval produced the highest dry fiber yield (3.93 t/ha) and was considered to be suitable for estimating seasonal crop evapotranspiration and K<sub>c</sub> values. The seasonal crop ET was 549.13 mm under this treatment. The K<sub>c</sub> values of jute at initial, development, mid-season and late season stages were found to be 0.72, 1.39, 1.26 and 0.46, respectively. As there is no FAO-recommended Kc value for this crop, this locally calibrated values can be used for similar climatic conditions of Bangladesh and elsewhere. Therefore, based on Kc value, it can be recommended that jute can be irrigated by equal amount of water needed for crop evapotranspiration (ETc) for different growth stages (141.05, 142.57, 167.34, and 84.30 mm) to get maximum dry fiber yield.</p> <p><em>The Agriculturists </em><em>2018; 16(2) 115-122</em></p> 2018-12-22T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Water Pollution in Chandpai Range of the Sundarbans Mangrove Forest of Bangladesh 2019-08-16T16:40:27+00:00 AKM Faruk E Azam Md Anisuzzaman Muhammad Maniruzzaman Md Nizam Uddin Abdullah Al Zabir <p>The present study was conducted to assess the water quality at Chandpai range in Bagerhat district of the Sundarbans Mangrove Forest of Bangladesh. Seven water samples were collected during July to December 2014. The water were analyzed for pH, EC, P, K, S, Ca, Mg, Cu, Mn, Zn, Fe and B. The EC values of rivers and canals water were found higher than that of the ponds. River waters of Chandpai range were detected as neutral to slightly alkaline. Waters from Karamjalkhal (Lake), Pasur river, Nandabala canal and Ismails Chila were found strongly saline (EC, 8-12 dSm<sup>-1</sup>), Bholakhal (lake) was moderately saline (EC, 4-8 dSm<sup>-1</sup>) and Boiddomari and Dashervarani ponds were poorly saline (EC&lt;4 dSm<sup>-1</sup>) in nature. The concentrations of K, Ca, Mg, S, Zn and B were found higher and P, Cu and Mn were lower at higher EC levels. The concentrations of K, S, Cu and B in most of the rivers exceeded the permissible level for aquaculture.</p> <p><em>The Agriculturists </em><em>2018; 16(2) 123-130</em></p> 2018-12-22T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Utilization of Jackfruit (Artocarpus heterophyllus) Seed’s Flour in Food Processing: A Review 2019-08-16T16:40:19+00:00 Bonany Akter M Amdadul Haque <p><strong></strong></p> <p>Although jackfruit (<em>Artocarpus heterophyllus</em>) seeds have significant food value, these are underutilized by both human and animals due to lack of information about nutrient contents and its effective use in food formulations. This review article aimed to highlight the information regarding physicochemical properties, nutrient contents and prospective use of jackfruit seeds flour in food formulations. Various research results on preparation of food products like bread, cake and noodles by supplementing jackfruit seeds flour are reported herein. Seeds flour contains high amount of starch, protein, fiber, ash and essential minerals such as calcium, phosphorus and iron. Functional properties – water/oil absorption capacity, solubility, swelling power, bulk density, gelatinization, foaming capacity, emulsification- of seeds flour are summarized. Facts from nutritional, functional and sensory assessments suggest that jackfruit seeds flour can be used in various processed products. It can also be used as an alternate source for starch.</p> <p><em>The Agriculturists </em><em>2018; 16(2) 131-142</em></p> <p></p> <p>&nbsp;</p> 2018-12-22T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement##