Arts Faculty Journal 2012-12-13T08:12:48+00:00 Professor Dr. Sadrul Amin Open Journal Systems Published by the Arts Faculty, University of Dhaka. Full text articles available. Patriarchy and Women’s Subordination: A Theoretical Analysis 2012-12-13T08:12:48+00:00 Abeda Sultana <p>Patriarchy is the prime obstacle to women’s advancement and development. Despite differences in levels of domination the broad principles remain the same, i.e. men are in control. The nature of this control may differ. So it is necessary to understand the system, which keeps women dominated and subordinate, and to unravel its workings in order to work for women’s development in a systematic way. In the modern world where women go ahead by their merit, patriarchy there creates obstacles for women to go forward in society. Because patriarchal institutions and social relations are responsible for the inferior or secondary status of women. Patriarchal society gives absolute priority to men and to some extent limits women’s human rights also. Patriarchy refers to the male domination both in public and private spheres. In this way, feminists use the term ‘patriarchy’ to describe the power relationship between men and women as well as to find out the root cause of women’s subordination. This article, hence, is an attempt to analyse the concept of patriarchy and women’s subordination in a theoretical perspective.</p><p>DOI: <a href=""></a></p> <p>The Arts Faculty Journal Vol.4 July 2010-June 2011 pp.1-18</p> 2012-12-13T07:20:45+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Distributed Leadership in Secondary Schools: Possibilities and Impediments in Bangladesh 2012-12-13T08:12:48+00:00 Abu Nayeem Mohammad Salahuddin <p>Effective school leadership is a basic tenet for successful school since the outcome of a school depends on the quality of leadership. As a current popular form of leadership, distributed leadership focuses on the leadership of all team members in a school. Research shows that successful leadership depends on the context and time of a school. This paper tries to conceptualize distributed leadership in Bangladesh context during the time of their education restructuring. Though distributed leadership is seldom discussed and operated in developing countries, it advocates the implementation in those contexts due to the continuous success of it in the developed world. Hence, this conceptual paper discusses the possibilities and the potential problems in relation to implement this leadership form for the reforming education sector of Bangladesh. Prior to this, the theoretical background of distributed leadership has been considered in this article. To develop and deliver distributed leadership in Bangladesh, this paper suggests for initiating training programme for head teachers which should focus on long term positive change in education.</p> <p>DOI: <a href=""></a></p> <p>The Arts Faculty Journal Vol.4 July 2010-June 2011 pp.19-32</p> 2012-12-13T07:25:31+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## The U.S. Role and Policy in Central Asia: Energy and Beyond 2012-12-13T08:12:48+00:00 AKM Iftekharul Islam <p>A significant geopolitical consequence of the demise of the Soviet Union1 in the international arena is the rise of intense political and commercial competition for control of the vast energy resources of the newly independent and vulnerable states of the Caucasus and Central Asia. These energy resources and, in particular, the oil and natural gas deposits have now become the apple of discord in Central Asia introducing a new chapter in the Great Game of control over Eurasia (Hill 1997: 200). The region has great energy potential and is strategically important. The United States has varied and at times competing interests in Central Asia. In the past few years, real and present dangers to the U.S. national security especially Islamist terrorism and threats to the energy supply, have affected the U.S. policy in Central Asia. The region, which includes the five post-Soviet states of Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan, and Uzbekistan, as well as Afghanistan and the Caspian basin, plays an important part in the U.S. global strategy in view of its proximity to Russia, China, India, Pakistan, Iran, and other key regional actors. No less important are its ethno-religious composition and vast deposits of oil, gas, coal, and uranium. Literally, the U.S. interests in Central Asia can be summarized in three simple words: security, energy, and democracy. Moreover, a key U.S. national security concern is the diversification of energy sources and the Caspian region is a significant alternative source of fossil fuels. In this article a critical analysis will be attempted on the U.S. policy and role in central Asia.</p> <p>DOI: <a href=""></a></p> <p>The Arts Faculty Journal Vol.4 July 2010-June 2011 pp.33-51</p> 2012-12-13T07:29:35+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## The Quest for Teachers of the ‘Right Stamp’ as Prerequisite to Progress of Female Education in Eastern Bengal: The Partition Interlude 2012-12-13T08:12:48+00:00 Asha Islam Nayeem <p>When the nineteenth century came to its glorious end, in Bengal, the storm surrounding the question of women’s education had settled in favor of progress. Conditions for the spread of female education, however, were still precarious, to say the very least. The three chief deterrents to the spread of female education, as recorded in official documents, were: (a) the custom of early marriage, after which girls dropped out of school and more often than not lapsed into ignorance; (b) the system of purdah, the social custom which prevented grown up girls from venturing out of the house to attend school; and, (c) the lack of female teachers (Report on Public Instruction, 1899-1900).</p><p>DOI: <a href=""></a></p> <p>The Arts Faculty Journal Vol.4 July 2010-June 2011 pp.53-74</p> 2012-12-13T07:32:55+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Position of Women in Buddhism: Spiritual and Cultural Activities 2012-12-13T08:12:48+00:00 Belu Rani Barua <p>The Buddha is a great benefactor of humanity. After the attainment of the Enlightenment in Bodhgaya and preaching First Sermon in Sarnath, the Buddha founded the order of Monks (Bhikkhusangha). This order of Monks increased and within forty five years of Buddha’s ministry it had spread throughout ancient India. But groundless belief of Brahmins is that woman is inferior to man. The position which the woman lost under the dominance of the Brahmins of the day evidently showed little sympathy for her. In this article I will explore the position of women considering their spiritual and cultural activities.</p><p>DOI: <a href=""></a></p> <p>The Arts Faculty Journal Vol.4 July 2010-June 2011 pp.75-84</p> 2012-12-13T07:36:05+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Perpetrations of 1971 – An Analysis in Light of Hamoodur Rahman Commission Report 2012-12-13T08:12:48+00:00 Farhana Akter Shoovra <p>Hamoodur Rahman Commission is probably the only postwar inquiry commission authorized by the Pakistani government that inquired and submitted report on events that took place in 1971 (Helal, 54). It submitted two reports to the Pakistan government, one original in 1972 and one supplementary in 1974. For many years these reports were not published or disclosed by the authority and were subject to heavy speculations and assumptions both in Pakistan and Bangladesh. Finally they saw some light after about 25 odd years from the submission. The full disclosure and originality of the original and main report still bears a question mark (“we should never trust India’’). This has not been officially disclosed even after the announcement from Pakistani Government to declassify it partially. There have been efforts by different researchers to amalgamate various pieces of the repot into a concrete version. Then again there have been claims that the original report was either destroyed or manipulated by the authority at that time to hide their own misdeeds (“Hamoodur Rahman Commission”). The original report was also called ‘tentative’ by the Commission itself as it was subject to revision after accounting major stakeholders of the event who were in India as Prisoners of War (POW) at that time. For the purpose of this write-up we would therefore consult the supplementary report which has been formally declassified by the Pakistan government to its full extent in line with the original report’s outcome, Hamoodur Rahman Commission Supplementary Report- “HRCSR” introduction. The supplementary report that was submitted in October 1974 has been kept as a classified document by Pakistan government until December 2000 only to make it public as result of the Indian media’s leaking of the same.</p><p>DOI: <a href=""></a></p> <p>The Arts Faculty Journal Vol.4 July 2010-June 2011 pp.85-108</p> 2012-12-13T07:40:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Jatra and Kabuki : An Indepth Look 2012-12-13T08:12:48+00:00 Farhanaz Rabbani <p>As the world sails into the second decade of the new millennium, more and more people are beginning to realize the importance of folk art, their elegance and beauty. Contemporary art is a reflection of the seeds sown by folk art in different cultures hundreds of years ago. But apart from just being traditional, folk art has a significant socio-political dimension. In this paper, folk art stands as a representation of the mass public which expresses itself as popular culture. According to Ang, the ‘populist aesthetic’ is “based on an affirmation of the continuity of cultural forms and daily life, and on a deep- rooted desire for participation, and on emotional involvement” (274). This paper will focus on the distinctive nature and role of popular folk art- the Bangladeshi <em>Jatra </em>and the Japanese <em>Kabuki</em>, which originated from the populist aesthetic of two very different cultures. Although Bangladeshi and Japanese cultures are varied, they have some common grounds on which oral or “dialogue drama” flourished as <em>‘</em>performance’ among the underprivileged masses.</p> <p>DOI: <a href=""></a></p> <p>The Arts Faculty Journal Vol.4 July 2010-June 2011 pp.109-115</p> 2012-12-13T07:44:20+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Leibniz on Necessary and Contingent Truths 2012-12-13T08:12:48+00:00 Md Abdul Muhit <p>The distinction between necessary and contingent truths has so much important role in the explication of Leibniz’s philosophy of logic, metaphysics, and philosophy of science that the distinction spreads throughout most of his philosophical writings. My aim in this paper is to try to provide a clear and detailed account of some of the aspects of Leibniz’s distinction between necessary and contingent truths. This paper is divided into four parts. In the first part, an analysis of Leibniz’s general notion of “truth” (“the Principle of the Predicate-in-Notion”) is given. This will be followed by his distinction between necessary truths and contingent truths, which he also terms as “truths of reason” and “truths of fact” respectively. Thirdly, the implication of this distinction in Leibniz’s theory of human freedom will be addressed. I will end my discussion with an answer to the following questions: The distinction goes traditionally under Leibniz' name; but is it his own invention, or has he merely picked it up from one of his predecessors? And secondly, how far this distinction has an impact (if any) on the philosophies of his contemporaries, especially on Wolff, Hume and Kant?</p> <p>DOI: <a href=""></a></p> <p>The Arts Faculty Journal Vol.4 July 2010-June 2011 pp.117-135</p> 2012-12-13T07:46:56+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## The Cyprus Issue: Reflection on TRNC 2012-12-13T08:12:48+00:00 Md Ataur Rahman Biswas <p>Cyprus is a Eurasian island country located in the Eastern Mediterranean Sea, east of Greece, south of Turkey, west of Syria and Lebanon and north of Egypt. Cyprus is the third largest island in the Mediterranean Sea. The earliest known human activity on the island dates back to around the 10th millennium BC. At a strategic location in the Middle East, Cyprus has been occupied by several major powers, including the empires of the Hittites, Assyrians, Egyptians, Persians, Rashidun and Umayyad Arab caliphates, Lusignans, Venetians, and Ottomans. Settled by Mycenean Greeks in the 2nd millennium BCE, the island also experienced long periods of Greek rule under the Ptolemaic Egyptians and the Byzantines. In 333 BC, Alexander the Great conquered the island from the Persians. The Ottoman Empire conquered the island in 1571 and it remained under Ottoman control for over three centuries. It was placed under British administration in 1878 until it was granted independence in 1960, becoming a member of the Commonwealth the following year<strong>. </strong>In this paper an attempt is made to discuss the details about the Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus (TRNC) commonly called Northern Cyprus, which is a self-declared state that comprises the northeastern part of the island of Cyprus recognized only by Turkey and the problems associated with it.</p> <p>DOI: <a href=""></a></p> <p>The Arts Faculty Journal Vol.4 July 2010-June 2011 pp.137-146</p> 2012-12-13T07:50:24+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Vulnerability and Coping Strategies of Women in Disaster: A Study on Coastal Areas of Bangladesh 2012-12-13T08:12:48+00:00 Md Rabiul Islam <p>Natural disaster is a common phenomenon in Bangladesh. Almost every year Bangladesh suffers highly by different kinds of disasters like flood, tropical cyclones, tornados, tidal surges, droughts and large scale river erosion etc. Bangladesh is a low lying delta with very gentle slopes. It is located at the lowest end of the Ganges, Brahmaputra and Meghna Basin (Roy et al 2009). Bangladesh has special geographical feature. It has the Himalayan range to the north, the Bay of Bengal to the south with its funneling towards Meghna estuary and the vast stretch of Indian land to the west. These special geographical features have significant impact on the weather system of Bangladesh. Due to this weather system, Bangladesh is the worst victimized country of natural disasters which causes loss of lives and properties (Nizamuddin 2001). A large number of the total population of our country lives in the coastal areas. According to the population census 2001, the whole coastal area of the country has about 46 million people. The average size of the household is 7, the density of population is 743 per sq. km. Womenfolk are 49% of the coastal population, while 23% (8 million) are urban-dwellers, size of the labor force (15-59 years age group) is 18.6 million which are about 53% of the coastal population (BBS 2006).</p> <p>DOI: <a href=""></a></p> <p>The Arts Faculty Journal Vol.4 July 2010-June 2011 pp.147-169</p> 2012-12-13T07:53:52+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Designing Integrated Information Systems for Health, Nutrition and Population Sector Programs in Bangladesh: A Model Plan 2012-12-13T08:12:48+00:00 Md Saiful Alam <p>A workable information system is one of the essential programmatic needs for the Health, Nutrition and Population (HNP) sector programs in Bangladesh. At present, Ministry of Health and Family Welfare is maintaining hierarchical reporting system called Management Information System (MIS) for assessing, evaluating and monitoring its health, nutrition and population sector programs. It has undergone several changes and modifications over the last three decades since its inception in 1975. In response to the needs for evidence-based decision making and enabling the system to deliver timely reliable information to the planners, managers and professionals, government has taken significant initiatives for improvement of information systems at all levels of the sector. However, due to the bifurcated structure in the Ministry of Health and Family Welfare (MOHFW), adequate and timely monitoring of sector performance is not yet a reality and the culture of using information for decision-making has not yet taken roots. Duplication of services, delay in placing manpower, equipment etc. still reduce the possibility to make facilities fully functional. Insufficient coordination between various sub-sectors in health, population and nutrition resulted in duplication, wastage and missed opportunities both at the top as well as at the operational level. Though MOHFW has been in the process of developing a routine data system, the MIS has been severely criticized for its narrow coverage, faulty output, under utilization of data, etc. Similarly, no initiative has been taken to develop proper library and information systems let alone the integration of library system and MIS. Considering the socio-economic, technical, infrastructural, policy and administrative issues of the country, the design of an integrated information system is the main focus of the study.</p> <p>DOI: <a href=""></a></p> <p>The Arts Faculty Journal Vol.4 July 2010-June 2011 pp.171-184</p> 2012-12-13T07:59:27+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Nature of Evil in Macbeth 2012-12-13T08:12:48+00:00 Md Saiful Islam <p class="Default">“It is a statement of evil” (Knight 18).</p> <p class="Default">“The Whole play may be writ down as a wrestling of destruction with creation” (Knight 140).</p> <p class="Default">“It contains the decisive orientation of Shakespearean good and evil” (Traversi 86).</p> <p>The above statements serve to prove that <em>Macbeth </em>is Shakespeare’s most profound and mature vision of evil. In this play, Shakespeare presents the overspreading influence of evil over the guilty and ambitious minds which lead them to commit the most treacherous villainy that affect not only the man and the state, but the family and the physical universe as well. But this evil is not the one that finally triumphs, Shakespeare in this play also provides the essential morality and courage which in their progression defeat the evil and restore the natural order of things. This paper endeavors to present the various viewpoints from which this evil can be interpreted. It shows how Shakespeare has depicted the transformation of a good person to a ghastly figure. The effect of evil in Lady Macbeth is also analyzed. The paper also tries to examine whether this evil is purely psychological or has an exterior form.</p> <p>DOI: <a href=""></a></p> <p>The Arts Faculty Journal Vol.4 July 2010-June 2011 pp.185-194</p> 2012-12-13T08:03:03+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Islamic View of Women Leadership as Head of the State: A Critical Analysis 2012-12-13T08:12:48+00:00 Mohammad Elius <p>Since the beginning of the industrial revolution in the West, women have been given certain social, political and economic rights after decades of struggle which Islam had confirmed unequivocally fourteen hundred years ago. Islam has clarified the legal rights and obligations of both men and women in such a balanced way that women cannot complain about their weakness or inferiority and men cannot claim their superiority over women. But this position of women has been the subject to repeated controversy because of the misinterpretations of issues regarding women in our society. This paper deals with a very crucial point, women as head of the state in a Muslim/Islamic state in the light of the Holy Quran and the traditions of Prophet Muhammad (Peace be upon him). An attempt has been made to find out the real position of women vis-à-vis the concept of leadership in Islam as objectively as possible to reach a balanced view. Before initiating the discussion on the main topic, that is, the leadership by women, we will give a brief description of women’s position in society and their participation in public life.</p> <p>DOI: <a href=""></a></p> <p>The Arts Faculty Journal Vol.4 July 2010-June 2011 pp.195-205</p> 2012-12-13T08:06:26+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Technology and the Language Teacher 2012-12-13T08:12:48+00:00 Taslima Irine Ivy <p>Today is the world of Facebook, Twitter, MySpace, Google, Yahoo, I-pods, I- pads. Gadgets reign supreme even in a developing country like Bangladesh (e.g. cell phones) and so technology is fused in every part of our lives, in fact, “technology is no longer a tool to create an alternative environment- it is <strong>THE </strong>environment” (Gupta, 2010: 68). Academic institutions are, therefore, expected to prepare students for a technological era that awaits them. As an inevitable consequence, there is an expectation from administrators and students alike that a teacher will use technology to sophisticate teaching. As language teaching professionals our life is also intertwined with technology: for administrative purposes, materials development and storage, grading, professional communication, photocopies, scanning and so on. Technology, whether for the classroom or for official purpose, has to be implemented for its pedagogical value and relevance-not just to jump into the bandwagon. This article is a brief overview of technologies and tools considered necessary for the language teacher of today especially in the context of Bangladesh. It also tries to summarize dominant emerging trends in the field of technology enhanced language learning.</p> <p>DOI: <a href=""></a></p> <p>The Arts Faculty Journal Vol.4 July 2010-June 2011 pp.206-223</p> 2012-12-13T08:09:53+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement##