Annals of Bangladesh Agriculture <p>Published by <a href="">Bangabandhu Sheikh Mujibur Rahman Agricultural University</a><strong>. </strong>Full-text articles available.</p> <p><a href="" rel="license"><img style="border-width: 0;" src="" alt="Creative Commons Licence"></a><br>Articles in the Annals of Bangladesh Agriculture are licensed under a <a href="" rel="license">Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License</a> (CC BY-NC 4.0). This license permits <strong>Share</strong>— copy and redistribute the material in any medium or format, <strong>adapt</strong> — remix, transform, and build upon the material as long as it is not for commercial purposes.</p> Bangabandhu Sheikh Mujibur Rahman Agricultural University (BSMRAU), Salna, Gazipur, Bangladesh en-US Annals of Bangladesh Agriculture 1025-482X Prevalence and Factors Affecting the Parasitic Infections in Calves at Selected Areas of Bangladesh <p>Gastrointestinal parasitic infections are considered as one of the major impediments in profitable livestock farming in subtropical and tropical countries. The present study was carried out to investigate the prevalence of gastrointestinal (GI) parasites and to determine the effects of different factors in the occurrences of GI parasitic infections in calves. A cross-sectional study, including 413 fecal samples from calves, was conducted in Pabna, Sirajgonj and Gazipur districts of Bangladesh. The samples were examined using standard coprological techniques like sedimentation and floatation techniques, and lugol’s iodine and modified Ziehl-Neelson staining. The overall prevalence of gastrointestinal parasitism was 45.3% and commonly identified parasites were <em>Toxocara </em>spp. (20.3%), <em>Strongyloides </em>spp. (3.9%), <em>Fasciola </em>sp. (1.0%), <em>Moniezia </em>spp. (1.5%), <em>Giardia </em>sp. (10.4%) and <em>Cryptosporidium </em>spp. (7.0%). Among the factors, the age, sex and health status had significant effects on the GI parasitic infections in calves. Therefore, special care such as routine fecal examination for parasitism and proper deworming program should be taken to maintain good health and husbandry of calves for profitable livestock production.</p> <p>Ann. Bangladesh Agric. (2019) 23(2) : 1-13</p> MR Karim SMMR Sumon SH Soad SHMF Siddiki AR Dey MA Ehsan ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2019-12-02 2019-12-02 23 2 1 13 10.3329/aba.v23i2.50051 Detection and Contouring of BAU-Kul using Image Processing Techniques <p>Automated grading and sorting of fruits during harvesting period are needed for securing better market prices. In order to introduce such automation facilities in Bangladesh, edging and contouring information of the locally grown fruits is important. This study reports the first endeavor towards the use of image processing techniques for a popular jujube variety (BAU-Kul) in Bangladesh. Image processing techniques were used for segmentation, and contouring on the basis of color <em>Thresholding</em>, edge detection and contour detection in <em>Python-OpenCV </em>software. Six random samples of BAU-Kul fruit were used for the research. Perimeter lengths obtained from the image analysis of the six samples ranged from 17.9 cm to 20.20 cm with an average of 19.29 (±1.02) cm. The measured lengths on the other hand, varied from 16.2 cm to 19.1 cm with an average of 17.75 (±1.3) cm. Consequently, the average error in calculation was limited to only 7.98%. This indicates the fact that images captured through mobile devices can be used for detection and contouring of BAU-Kul samples with fairly high accuracy (92.02%). These information provides a foreground basis of automation for the grading and sorting systems of BAU-Kul fruits in Bangladesh.</p> <p>Ann. Bangladesh Agric. (2019) 23(2) : 15-25</p> MM Rahman MMH Oliver ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2019-12-02 2019-12-02 23 2 15 25 10.3329/aba.v23i2.50052 Aggregate Stability in Soils of Twelve Argo-ecological Zones of Bangladesh Based on Organic Carbon and Basic Cations <p>Soil aggregate is one of the vital indicators of soil health that depends on organic carbon (OC), texture and basic cations. A total of 206 soil samples were collected from 12 agro-ecological zones (AEZs) of Bangladesh to study the effects of organic carbon (OC), basic cations (Ca, Mg, K and Na) and different sized soil particles on soil aggregate stability. Soil samples were analyzed for bulk density, pH, OC, texture, basic cations and water stable soil aggregates (WSA) following standard protocols. Data revealed that OC positively increased WSA, while monovalent basic cations Na<sup>+</sup> and K<sup>+</sup> showed negative effects. Water stable soil aggregates and C stock of 0.25 mm sized soil fraction were found higher than that of larger sized soil fractions of 0.5, 1.0 and 2.0 mm. The roles of divalent basic cations Ca<sup>2+</sup> and Mg<sup>2+</sup> on WSA were found to be indistinct and need to be studied further.</p> <p>Ann. Bangladesh Agric. (2019) 23(2) : 27-36</p> S Arofi MM Rahman HK Shiragi MA Alam MM Islam JC Biswas ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2019-12-02 2019-12-02 23 2 27 36 10.3329/aba.v23i2.50053 Morphological Characterization and Evaluation of Nineteen Gladiolus Germplasm <p>Nineteen gladiolus germplasms were characterized and evaluated in the Research Field of the Department of Horticulture, Bangabandhu Sheikh Mujibur Rahman Agricultural University, Gazipur, during November 2017 to May 2018 for identifying suitable line(s) to release as a variety for commercial cultivation. The accession G8 produced the highest number of shoots (3.3) and effective shoots (3.0) per hill. The accessions that produced flower stalk within 75 days of planting included BARI gladiolus- 3 (G<sub>1</sub>, 58.7 days), G<sub>2</sub> (62.3 days), G<sub>3</sub> (65.7 days), BARI gladiolus- 5 (G<sub>4</sub>, 61.3 days), G<sub>5</sub> (55.7 days), BARI gladiolus- 6 (G<sub>7</sub>, 71.3 days), G<sub>10</sub> (74.0 days), G<sub>14</sub> (73.3 days), G<sub>15</sub> (75.0 days) and G<sub>19</sub> (67.3 days). The highest rachis length was recorded in BARI gladiolus- 3 (53.7 cm) which was statistically similar with the rachis length of G<sub>6</sub> (46.0 cm), G<sub>10</sub> (46.3 cm), G<sub>11</sub> (47.0 cm) and BARI gladiolus- 1 (G<sub>12</sub>, 46.3 cm) but significantly differed with other accessions. Most of the accessions in general, produced more than 10 florets per spike. Vase life of the accessions varied and G<sub>11</sub> had the highest vase life of 9-11 days and this was close to 9-10 days in G<sub>9</sub> and 8-9 days in BARI gladiolus- 3 (G<sub>1</sub>), G<sub>8</sub>, G<sub>10</sub>, G<sub>17</sub>, G<sub>18</sub> and G<sub>19</sub>. The highest number of corm per hill was recorded in G<sub>8</sub> (10.3) followed by G<sub>5</sub> (8.7), G<sub>16</sub> (8.3), G<sub>17</sub> (7.7) and BARI gladiolus- 3 (6.7). Number of cormels per hill ranged from 9.0-941.7 with an average of 237.0. Based on various plant, flower colour, corm and cormel production characters, the gladiolus accessions G<sub>3</sub>, G<sub>5</sub>, G<sub>8</sub>, G<sub>9</sub>, G<sub>10</sub>, G<sub>11</sub>, G<sub>14</sub>, G<sub>16</sub>, G<sub>17</sub>, G<sub>18</sub> and G<sub>19</sub> may be considered for further study.</p> <p>Ann. Bangladesh Agric. (2019) 23(2) : 37-48</p> MA Hoque S Mahmud ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2019-12-02 2019-12-02 23 2 37 48 10.3329/aba.v23i2.50054 Pathology of Fowl Typhoid and Molecular Detection of its Pathogen <p><em>Salmonellae </em>are important group of pathogens responsible for human and animal diseases. The present study was undertaken with the aim to study pathology of fowl typhoid caused by <em>Salmonella entarica </em>subsp. <em>enteric </em>serovar Gallinarum and to identify <em>Salmonella </em>serovars by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) based molecular method isolated from commercial layer, broiler and sonali chickens of Gazipur district, Bangladesh. A total of 150 cloacal, intestinal and liver swab samples were collected in sterie nutrient and tetrathionate broth from apparently healthy, sick and dead chicken the necropsy. Organ samples were collected in 10% buffered neutral formalin. The collected tissues were fixed, processed, sectioned, stained with hematoxylin and eosin (H&amp;E) and examined at low and high power microscopic fields. Grossly, the liver appeared larger and hemorrhagic with focal necrosis. Catarrhal inflammation on intestinal mucosa was seen. The ova were deformed, discolored and cystic. Microscopically, focal necroses with the infiltration of mononuclear cells were seen with congestion of the central vein. Spleen showed severe depletion of lymphoid cells in white pulp along with reticuloendothelial cell hyperplasia. The section of ovary showed deformed ova with hemorrhages. Samples were subjected to various cultural, biochemical, and molecular examinations and the prevalence was identified 28% cases. Isolated bacteria appeared gram (-)ve, and arranged in short chain. PCR was performed targeting <em>inv</em>A gene of <em>Salmonella </em>Gallinarum and amplified 184-bp fragment of the isolates confirmed specific infectivity.</p> <p>Ann. Bangladesh Agric. (2019) 23(2) : 49-60</p> J Hosen MM Rahman J Alam ZC Das MAHNA Khan MG Haider ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2019-12-02 2019-12-02 23 2 49 60 10.3329/aba.v23i2.50057 Quest for Suitable Storage Condition for Sustainable Processing Quality of Potato Tubers <p>Processing quality of potato tubers depend on the physico-chemical properties which changes within the time in long-term storage period. The present study was conducted to find out a suitable storage condition that could be able to maintain the processing quality of potatoes. Three potato varieties namely Asterix (BARI Alu-25), Courage (BARI Alu-29) and Lady Rosetta (BARI Alu-28) and three different storage conditions <em>viz. </em>Bamboo chamber (BC), earthen chamber with evaporative cooler (EC) and refrigerator (RF) were used in this study. Data were recorded monthly-basis on the physico-chemical processing qualities of the potato tubers. Potato tubers stored in RF was able to maintain higher dry matter content and lower weight loss, shrinkage and energy content than BC and EC. Though the physical qualities of the refrigerated tubers were well-maintained, but produced considerably higher amount of mean reducing sugars (2.69 mg/g FW) which was 11.6 and 17.9% higher than the mean of BC (2.41 mg/g FW) and EC (2.28 mg/g FW), respectively; and higher mean sucrose contents (2.46 mg/g FW) which was 6.5 and 18.8% higher than the mean of BC (2.31 mg/g FW) and EC (2.07 mg/g FW), respectively. EC maintained significantly lower amount of mean glucose (0.17 mg/g FW), fructose (1.96 mg/g FW) and total soluble sugar (4.20 mg/g FW) contents than BC and RF. Compared to pre-storage, mean reducing sugar content was increased by 1.5, 1.7 and 2.0 times in EC, BC and RF, respectively until 90 days of storage and the increase in mean sucrose content was 1.7-, 2.1- and 2.3-fold in EC, BC and RF, respectively. Among the varieties, Courage and Lady Rosetta were suitable for long-term storage for processing than Asterix. Chips produced from the potatoes stored in the EC acquired significantly higher scores for sensory attributes than that of BC and RF. Results clearly depicted that potatoes stored in EC were more suitable for processing due to moderate retention of dry matter content (22.13%) and lower accumulation of different sugars and were able to retain processing quality up to 90 days of storage than that of BC and RF.</p> <p>Ann. Bangladesh Agric. (2019) 23(2) : 61-78</p> D Parvin JU Ahmed MM Hossain M Mohi-Ud-Din ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2019-12-02 2019-12-02 23 2 61 78 10.3329/aba.v23i2.50055 Performance of Aroid under Jackfruit-Based Agroforestry System in Terrace Ecosystem of Bangladesh <p>The terrace ecosystem is considered as hotspot of jackfruit tree (<em>Artocarpus heterophyllus </em>Lam) in Bangladesh having potential for understory cropping. However, most of the jackfruit orchards are often found utilized or underutilized. A field experiment was conducted under the jackfruit orchard to study the performance of aroids (<em>Colocasia esculenta </em>L.) from April to October, 2017 in Belabo upazila of Narsingdi district. Four distances (1, 2, 3 and 4 m) from the base of jackfruit tree were considered for aroid planting to evaluate its performance as agroforestry crop in comparison to sole aroid. Land use and economic performances of agroforestry and sole systems were also evaluated. The results indicated that the production of jackfruit increased by 62.73%, while the yield of aroid reduced by 33.48% in agroforestry systems as compared to the yields of sole (non-agroforestry) systems. In agroforestry system, the photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) was severely reduced by 85-77% on aroid crop that caused yield reduction. It was also observed that soil temperature was lower in agroforestry system as compared to sole cropping of aroid, while soil moisture showed inverse trend in sole jackfruit. Economic analysis in terms of benefit cost ratio (BCR) was 2.60 in agroforestry, while the BCR of sole aroid was only 1.83. The land equivalent ratio (LER) was 2.31 in agroforestry system. The present results indicate that aroid cultivation in jackfruit-based agroforestry system under terrace ecosystem can ensure overall higher production and improve economic return.</p> <p>Ann. Bangladesh Agric. (2019) 23(2) : 79-87</p> ZA Riyadh MA Rahman MG Miah SR Saha MA Hoque S Saha MM Rahman ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2019-12-02 2019-12-02 23 2 79 87 10.3329/aba.v23i2.50056 Influence of Harvesting Date on Chemical Maturity for Processing Quality of Potatoes <p>The present study was conducted to find out a suitable harvesting date of processing potato varieties (Asterix, Courage and Lady Rosetta) from three different harvest dates [80, 90, and 100 days after planting (DAP) harvest] by chemical maturity monitoring. Eighty DAP harvest resulted the lowest mean total soluble sugar (TSS) (3.77 mg/g FW), reducing sugar (RS) (1.57 mg/g FW), sucrose (2.40 mg g<sup>-1</sup> FW), fructose (0.77 mg/g FW) and polyphenol (238.94 μg/g FW) contents in all the varieties and at the same DAP harvest, dry matter (DM) content (21.71%) and chip color index (CCI) (0.67) remained at the lowest. Tubers harvested at 80 DAP produced good quality and acceptable colored processed products as it meets up the required processing quality, but lesser DM content might increase the cost of the product. Optimum DM content (24.07%) with moderate level of different sugar contents and acceptable CCI (1.13 to 1.85, &lt;2.00) was found at 90 DAP harvest. Therefore, 90 DAP harvest could be considered as suitable harvesting date for processing by compromising some quality parameters (TSS, RS, sucrose, fructose and polyphenol contents). Among the varieties, Lady Rosetta and Courage were preferable for producing quality potato products. Highly significant and positive correlation existed between CCI and different chemical parameters. A strong correlation coefficient (r = 0.822<sup>**</sup>) and good fit (R<sup>2</sup> = 0.6755) of the regression equation (CCI = 0.9341RS – 0.4969) between CCI and RS indicated that RS content played the vital role in the browning of the processed potato products.</p> <p>Ann. Bangladesh Agric. (2019) 23(2) : 89-103</p> M Sharkar JU Ahmed MA Hoque M Mohi-Ud-Din ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2019-12-02 2019-12-02 23 2 89 103 10.3329/aba.v23i2.50058 Phenotypic Characterization of Zinc and Iron Rich Cytoplasmic Male Sterile Lines of Rice <p>A total of 23 cytoplasmic male sterile (A) lines with their corresponding maintainer (B) lines of rice were used for the experiment. The experiment was carried out in completely randomized block design with two replications in the experimental field of the Department of Genetics and Plant Breeding, Bangabandhu Sheikh Mujibur Rahman Agricultural University (BSMRAU), Gazipur during Aman season 2017. A total of 13 characters were studied. BRRI 1A, IR 62 A and IR 68888 A had shown both the earliness and dwarfness character. The higher yield per plant was obtained from Gan 46 A, Straw A, Sugundhi dhan 2A, IR 68888 A and BRRI 1A. Zinc and Iron content of phenotypically best performed rice genotypes were determined in brown condition by using X-Ray Fluorescence technique (XRF). Small differences between Genotypic and Phenotypic coefficient of variation were recorded for all the characters studied which indicated less influence of environment in expression of the characters. Correlation study revealed that selection based on weight of filled grain per panicle, thousand grain weight and number of grains per panicle would be effective for increasing grain yield per plant. Path co-efficient study showed that direct selection based on weight of filled grain per panicle and number of effective tiller per plant would be indicator for yield improvement. Considering yield and studied characters IR 58 A, IR 62 A, IR 68888 A, Gan 46 A and BRRI 1A could be used as cytoplasmic male sterile line which is enriched with zinc and iron.</p> <p>Ann. Bangladesh Agric. (2019) 23(2) : 105-114</p> S Mashiat NA Ivy MG Rasul MM Haque MS Raihan ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2019-12-02 2019-12-02 23 2 105 114 10.3329/aba.v23i2.50059 Agriculture in the Fourth Industrial Revolution <p>Agriculture and industry are tied up and both are complementary to each other. The fourth industrial revolution is an advanced digital technology, it focuses an opportunity that could change the environment in the way human think and work. The farms and factories must implement smart technology to move very fast and it should be an innovative applications to embrace the fourth industrial revolution robustly for Bangladesh. The fourth industrial revolution concept combines artificial intelligence and big data that have achieved significant attention and popularity in precision farming like in monitoring, diagnosing insect pests, measuring soil moisture, diagnosing harvest time and monitoring crop health status and reducing complicated monitoring by human. Industry that extend precision agriculture using artificial intelligence with robotic technology in fourth industrial revolution and its application is embedding into smart observation that retrieve real-time information from field level data with minor human interference. The fourth industrial revolution builds a smart farming technology which brings advanced and sustainable changes for both production and agroprocessing. The fourth industrial revolution extends farms production and also increase their value. This paper reviewed the past effects of industrial revolution, discussed expanded benefit into smart farming and predicted impacts of fourth industrial revolution in Bangladesh agriculture.</p> <p>Ann. Bangladesh Agric. (2019) 23(2) : 115-122</p> T Ane S Yasmin ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2019-12-02 2019-12-02 23 2 115 122 10.3329/aba.v23i2.50060