Asian-Australasian Journal of Bioscience and Biotechnology <p><a href="">Asian-Australasian Journal of Bioscience and Biotechnology</a> is a peer reviewed open access international journal. It publishes high-quality original scientific papers and short communications. Review articles of current interest and high standard may be considered.</p> <p>AAJBB is now accepting online submissions through <a href="">eJManager</a> (Online Manuscript Submission, Review and Tracking System). </p> <p><strong>Indexed in: </strong>Google Scholar;; ROAD Directory; Genamics JournalSeek; BanglaJOL; Crossref</p> Ebu Press Ltd en-US Asian-Australasian Journal of Bioscience and Biotechnology 2414-1283 Effects of different dietary energy and protein levels on the performance and carcass characteristics of native hilly chicken during growing phase in confinement <p>Two hundred and sixteen 10 weeks of age hilly chickens were used to determine the effects of dietary energy and protein level on growth performance, carcass characteristics and meat quality. The chicks were randomly allotted in to 3×3 factorial in a completely randomize design. Three levels of energy (2600, 2700 and 2800 ME kcal/kg) and three levels of dietary proteins (16, 17 and 18% CP) were offered ad <em>libitum </em>to the chicks from 10-16 weeks of age. There were no significant interaction effect between dietary protein and energy levels in the diets. At 10-16 weeks of age hilly chickens fed with the medium protein diet (17% CP) showed shortened feed intake (p&lt;0.001) but FCR found better in 16% CP diet. Dietary protein levels higher than 16% CP did not show any significant effect on growth performance. However hilly chicken fed with lower protein diet converted protein to body weight and body weight gain more efficiently than those fed higher protein diets. Dietary energy contents of 2600, 2700 and 2800 ME kcal/kg did not affect the growth performance of hilly chicken except ME, CP intake and protein conversion ratio. ME and CP intake was increased with increasing dietary ME and CP levels (p&lt;0.000). Protein utilization was better (p&lt;0.05) in higher (2800 ME kcal/kg) and medium (2700 ME kcal/kg) ME level diet. L*, a* and b* of breast meat was not affected by dietary ME and CP (p&gt;0.05). Dietary energy and protein level did not significantly (p&gt;0.05) affect the drip loss, cooking loss and pH of breast meat between the treatments. Based on the data of growth performance, carcass characteristics and meat quality, the optimal dietary ME requirement of hilly chicken from 10-16 weeks of age is 2800 ME kcal/kg and the CP requirement is 16%.</p> <p>Asian Australas. J. Biosci. Biotechnol. 2021, 6 (1), 1-9</p> Halima Khatun Shakila Faruqe Md Golam Mostafa Copyright (c) 2021 Halima Khatun, Shakila Faruqe, Md Golam Mostafa 2021-04-30 2021-04-30 6 1 1 9 10.3329/aajbb.v6i1.54875 Tradition of raw milk consumption and its health impact among people living in the coastal regions of Bangladesh <p>Milk is a nutrient-rich liquid food for human and animals. However, owing to its complex biochemical structure and high water activity, it serves as an outstanding microorganism growth medium under suitable conditions. People in Bangladesh's coastal areas have a lifestyle and tradition that includes drinking raw milk for nutrition or as an energy drink, which presents a health risk to them. The present cross-sectional study was carried out to determine the reasons for drinking raw milk in coastal areas, as well as the public health impact of doing so. A total of 100 respondents were interviewed and subsequently, milk samples were collected for quality testing through methylene blue reduction test (MBRT). Among 100 respondent 70 were consumers and 30 were farmers. Results showed that the samples of farmers were better than that of consumers. The majority of raw milk consumers were male who thought raw milk was more nutritious than heat-treated milk. Furthermore, the majority of them were professionally engaged in farming. Both consumers and farmers had less educational qualifications, managed their cattle in dirty environments, practiced extensive grazing system on communal grazing areas and around one fourth of them vaccinated their animals. Furthermore, the findings revealed that 40% of respondents were between the ages of 35 and 45, with 62% reporting no health complications as a result of drinking raw milk and the remainder reporting mainly gastrointestinal problems. According to the findings of this report, the quality of raw cow milk was poor; unhygienic practices and poor animal husbandry at farm level predisposed farmers, consumers and the public to risk of contracting milk-borne infections and associated bacterial resistances. It is recommended that veterinarians, extension officers and all stakeholders should play their roles in ensuring safe quality milk supply to consumers.</p> <p>Asian Australas. J. Biosci. Biotechnol. 2021, 6 (1), 10-18</p> SM Tanvir Reza Wahedul Karim Ansari Md Robiul Karim AKM Mostafa Anower Farzana Islam Rume Copyright (c) 2021 SM Tanvir Reza, Wahedul Karim Ansari, Md Robiul Karim, AKM Mostafa Anower, Farzana Islam Rume 2021-04-30 2021-04-30 6 1 10 18 10.3329/aajbb.v6i1.54876 Effect of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) on shelf life and bacterial population of raw milk <p>The present study was conducted to assess the feasibility of hydrogen peroxide (H<sub>2</sub>O<sub>2</sub>) for milk preservation and also to investigate the effects of H<sub>2</sub>O<sub>2</sub> on growth of bacteria population in milk. Milk samples were collected from Bangladesh Agricultural University dairy farm and preserved with 0.12% H<sub>2</sub>O<sub>2</sub> of 10% concentration on the basis of volume of milk and milk without H<sub>2</sub>O<sub>2</sub> addition treated as control sample. Parameters used to monitor the shelf life of milk were organoleptic and chemical tests. All milk samples were kept in glass container at room temperature (28-31°C) in the laboratory. Organoleptic parameters (color, flavor, texture, taste) and chemical tests (acidity %, COB test and pH) were done every one hour interval until spoilage. Standard Plate Count (SPC) of the samples was done two times, initially and after spoilage of milk. Acidity% increased gradually in all sample but this increase was rapid in control sample than H<sub>2</sub>O<sub>2</sub> treated sample. From COB test it was found that raw milk sample gave positive result at 10th hour but 0.12% H<sub>2</sub>O<sub>2</sub> treated sample (after 20 min of milking ) and 0.12% H<sub>2</sub>O<sub>2</sub> treated sample (after 3 hrs. of milking ) gave positive result 14 and 15th hour respectively. From the result it was observed that shelf life of milk with H<sub>2</sub>O<sub>2</sub> increased. From the SPC result it was found that the bacterial growth rate is very high in control milk sample compare to H<sub>2</sub>O<sub>2</sub> treated milk sample. Significant difference (p&lt;0.01 was found in case of bacterial growth rate of the milk samples. The results of this experiment indicated that H<sub>2</sub>O<sub>2</sub> be used as an effective preservative for prolonging milk preservation. So H<sub>2</sub>O<sub>2</sub> can be used as an effective milk preservative for prolonging milk storage in environmental condition.</p> <p>Asian Australas. J. Biosci. Biotechnol. 2021, 6 (1), 19-25</p> Jowel Rana Md Anwar Hossain Dipok Kumar Sarkar Md Ashraful Alom Shuvendu Sarkar Md Hafizur Rahman Mohammad Ashiqul Islam Md Nurul Islam Copyright (c) 2021 Jowel Rana, Md Anwar Hossain, Dipok Kumar Sarkar, Md Ashraful Alom, Shuvendu Sarkar, Md Hafizur Rahman, Mohammad Ashiqul Islam, Md Nurul Islam 2021-04-30 2021-04-30 6 1 19 25 10.3329/aajbb.v6i1.54877 Comparing the performances of multiple rainfall-runoff models of a karst watershed <p>Different modeling concepts, a simple (black-box) to a fully distributed modeling (white-box), were used to develop a rainfall-runoff model based on the watershed characteristics to estimate runoff at the watershed outlet. A conceptual (grey-box) model is usually a balance between the black-box and white-box model. In this study, three grey-box models were developed by varying model structures for a karst watershed. The performance of the grey-box models was evaluated and compared with a semi-distributed type (white-box) model that was developed using the Soil and Water Assessment Tool in a previous study. The evaluation was carried out using goodness-of-fit statistics and extreme flow analysis using WETSPRO (Water Engineering Time Series Processing tool). Nash-Sutcliffe efficiencies (NSE) of the grey-box models were from 0.39 to 0.77 in the calibration period and from 0.30 to 0.61 in the validation period. However, the white-box model performed better in terms of NSE but has a higher bias. The best grey-box model performed better in simulating extreme flow, whereas the white-box (SWAT) model adequately simulated daily flows.</p> <p>Asian Australas. J. Biosci. Biotechnol. 2021, 6 (1), 26-39</p> Md Moudud Hasan Md Shariot Ullah Ajoy Kumar Saha MG Mostofa Amin Copyright (c) 2021 Md Moudud Hasan, Md Shariot Ullah, Ajoy Kumar Saha, MG Mostofa Amin 2021-04-30 2021-04-30 6 1 26 39 10.3329/aajbb.v6i1.54878 Prevalence and antimicrobial susceptibility patterns of Vibrio cholerae in dairy excreta <p><em>Vibrio cholerae </em>is a major etiological agent of human diarrhoea and has become epidemic across the world in the recent past. A cross-sectional study was conducted to assess the prevalence of <em>V. cholerae </em>from dairy excreta along with antimicrobial resistant status of the isolates. A total 50 samples were collected from 50 different household manure pit located at Bangladesh Agriculture University (BAU) surrounding area, Mymensingh. Alkaline peptone water was used for enrichment of the samples followed by inoculation onto thiosulfate citrate bile salt sucrose (TCBS) agar media for the isolation of <em>Vibrio </em>spp., which were further confirmed via <em>Vibrio </em>genus specific molecular assay. Biochemical tests were performed to identify <em>V. cholerae </em>from the isolates of <em>Vibrio </em>spp. Out of 50 samples 17 (34%) were confirmed as <em>Vibrio </em>spp<em>. </em>as they produced characteristic yellow colonies on TCBS agar and had found to possess recombinase A gene that confirmed the identity of <em>Vibrio </em>spp. From this 17 <em>Vibrio </em>isolates, 6 (12% in total from 50 samples) were identified as <em>V. cholerae </em>based on different biochemical tests. All the isolates fermented glucose, maltose, sucrose and mannitol with the production of only acid. The isolates were positive in oxidase, gelatinase, methyl-red (MR) and indole test, but negative in case of voges-proskaure (VP) test. In antimicrobial susceptibility testing, <em>V. cholerae </em>isolates showed 100% sensitivity to gentamycin, chloramphenicol and tetracycline with moderate sensitivity to ciprofloxacin and co-trimoxazole. A high level of resistance was observed to ampicillin (100%) followed by moderate resistance to erythromycin and imipenem. In the present study about 33.33% (n = 2) of 6 isolated <em>V. cholerae </em>were found to be multidrug resistant (MDR) as they demonstrated resistant against 3 antimicrobial agents. The findings of this study substantiate the presence of MDR <em>V. cholerae </em>in the dairy excreta, which indicates the role of domestic animals to serve as a reservoir that might pose a health risk to human. Hygienic management of animal waste is needed to reduce the burden of human illness.</p> <p>Asian Australas. J. Biosci. Biotechnol. 2021, 6 (1), 40-49</p> Nilofa Eashmen Mohammad Arif Basana Sarker Mir Rowshan Akter SM Lutful Kabir Copyright (c) 2021 Nilofa Eashmen, Mohammad Arif, Basana Sarker, Mir Rowshan Akter, SM Lutful Kabir 2021-04-30 2021-04-30 6 1 40 49 10.3329/aajbb.v6i1.54879